Monday, March 7, 2011

Sallust, Catilinarian Conspiracy


Gaius Sallustius Crispus [Sallust]
86-35 BC
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Republican Era/Golden Age of Latin Literature)

  [1] Omnis homines, qui sese student praestare ceteris animalibus, summa ope niti decet, ne vitam silentio transeant veluti pecora, quae natura prona atque ventri oboedientia finxit.

[All of mankind, eager to excel the other species of living beings, thinks it a proper to rely on as many resources available, so that they don't pass their life in silence, like sheep that nature has established to bend down and do only the bidding of their stomach.]

Sed nostra omnis vis in animo et corpore sita est:

[But our abilities rest in our mind and body:]

animi imperio, corporis servitio magis utimur;

[We profit more from the control over our mind than the employment of our physical body.]

alterum nobis cum dis, alterum cum beluis commune est.

[We share the first with divine beings, and the second with wild beasts.]

Quo mihi rectius videtur ingeni quam virium opibus gloriam quaerere et, quoniam vita ipsa, qua fruimur, brevis est, memoriam nostri quam maxume longam efficere.

 [For this reason then, I think it more correct to seek high repute for my innate talent, rather than the resources of my physical strength, and since the very life we enjoy is short, we must make our memory of it has long as possible.]

Nam divitiarum et formae gloria fluxa atque fragilis est, virtus clara aeternaque habetur.
[You see, the glory wealth and beauty bring are nuanced and fragile, but the virtue is well-known and eternal.]

Sed diu magnum inter mortalis certamen fuit, vine corporis an virtute animi res militaris magis procederet.
[But for a long time, there was a great struggle among mortal men on the issue of whether skill in warfare would progress by the strength of one's body or by the quality of one's mind.]

Nam et, prius quam incipias, consulto et, ubi consulueris, mature facto opus est.
[You see, even before you begin to do something, this deed owes its origin to premeditation and precedent, that is, if you even thought about.]

Ita utrumque per se indigens alterum alterius auxilio eget.
[So, each of the two qualities, innately buried in one another, requires the aid of the other.]

[2] Igitur initio reges—nam in terris nomen imperi id primum fuit—divorsi pars ingenium, alii corpus exercebant:
[So, there were kings in the beginning--apparently, this was the first name for power on Earth--some of these exercised power using their mind, others their body.]

etiam tum vita hominum sine cupiditate agitabatur;
[Even back then, men's life was not troubled by cupidity;]

sua cuique satis placebant.
[Each men was satisfied by his own;]

Postea vero quam in Asia Cyrus, in Graecia Lacedaemonii et Athenienses coepere urbis atque nationes subigere, lubidinem dominandi causam belli habere, maxumam gloriam in maxumo imperio putare, tum demum periculo atque negotiis compertum est in bello plurumum ingenium posse.
[But after which Cyrus endeavored to conquer the cities and nations in Asia, and the Spartans and Athenians, those in Greece, we began to make the desire to dominate the cause of war, and to think that the greatest glory only rested in the greatest empire, and then finally to be able succeed despite dangers and conditions in battle using our finest minds.]

Quod si regum atque imperatorum animi virtus in pace ita ut in bello valeret, aequabilius atque constantius sese res humanae haberent neque aliud alio ferri neque mutari ac misceri omnia cerneres.
[But if the virtue of our kings and military leaders' minds could prevail in peace just as in warfare, humanity would be all the more fair and consistent, and you would neither discern one concept being dominated, transformed, and mixed completely with the other.]

Nam imperium facile iis artibus retinetur, quibus initio partum est.
[You see, power is easily controlled by this types of skills, from which this originally manifested.]

Verum ubi pro labore desidia, pro continentia et aequitate lubido atque superbia invasere, fortuna simul cum moribus inmutatur. 
[But when base desire prevails instead of hard work---wantonness and pride instead of moderation--at this point, one's fortunes, as well as his values, change.]

Ita imperium semper ad optumum quemque a minus bono transfertur.
[And in this way, power ever is commandeered from the lesser virtuous man, to the very best man.]

Quae homines arant, navigant, aedificant, virtuti omnia parent.
[Everything men plow, sail, and build: these things derive from our good qualities.]

Sed multi mortales, dediti ventri atque somno, indocti incultique vitam sicuti peregrinantes transiere;
[But many men, compelled by their hunger and ambition, live their lives without wisdom and cultivation, like pilgrims;]

quibus profecto contra naturam corpus voluptati, anima oneri fuit.
[straightaway, their body becomes a slave to pleasure, against human nature, and their spirit burdened.]

Eorum ego vitam mortemque iuxta aestumo, quoniam de utraque siletur.  
[For my part, I value the life and death of these people the same, since both involve silence.]

Verum enim vero is demum mihi vivere atque frui anima videtur, qui aliquo negotio intentus praeclari facinoris aut artis bonae famam quaerit. 
[You see, in truth, I think a man is really alive and in control of his spirit when he, intent on some matter or another, seeks the fame of a distinguished deed or a useful skill.]

[3] Sed in magna copia rerum aliud alii natura iter ostendit. 
[However, in great mass of events, one thing by nature reveals the path of the other.]

Pulchrum est bene facere rei publicae, etiam bene dicere haud absurdum est;
[It's a beautiful thing to do well by the republic; it's not a foolish thing to speak well of it too;]

vel pace vel bello clarum fieri licet; 
[It's a distinguishing feature whether in times of peace or war;]

 et qui fecere et qui facta aliorum scripsere, multi laudantur. 
[And many men are now praised for having acted, and for having written about the deeds of others.]

  Ac mihi quidem, tametsi haudquaquam par gloria sequitur scriptorem et actorem rerum, tamen in primis arduum videtur res gestas scribere: 
[And really, although in no way does the same amount glory befall a writer and the actor of history, still it seems to be of highest virtue to write passionately about deeds done:]

primum, quod facta dictis exaequanda sunt;
[The first task is to explain the deeds done in words;]

dehinc, quia plerique, quae delicta reprehenderis, malevolentia et invidia dicta putant, ubi de magna virtute atque gloria bonorum memores, quae sibi quisque facilia factu putat, aequo animo accipit, supra ea veluti ficta pro falsis ducit. 
[Afterwards, since many men think that words are ill-wishing and envious whenever you chastise evil deeds, when you recall the great virtue and glory of good men, which each men feels is more suitable to his nature, he welcomes with ease the very things mentioned above, even when they are simulated like lies.] 

Sed ego adulescentulus initio, sicuti plerique, studio ad rem publicam latus sum ibique mihi multa advorsa fuere. 
[But I was quite a young man in the beginning, just like many men, when I was taken with passion for the republic, and from there, many things have happened to me;]

 Nam pro pudore, pro abstinentia, pro virtute audacia, largitio, avaritia vigebant.
[You see, my boldness began to replace my sense of dignity, my luxury for my moderation, and my avarice for my virtue;]

Quae tametsi animus aspernabatur insolens malarum artium, tamen inter tanta vitia imbecilla aetas ambitione corrupta tenebatur;
[And these were the things that my mind, grown haughty from wicked arts, spurned, and still among such great vice, my life was seized and ruined by weak-minded ambition.]

ac me, cum ab reliquorum malis moribus dissentirem, nihilo minus honoris cupido eadem, qua ceteros, fama atque invidia vexabat.
[and even when I could diverge from the wicked practices of the others, still nevertheless, like the others, the same desire for honor, fame and jealousy began to hound me.]

[4] Igitur ubi animus ex multis miseriis atque periculis requievit 
[There, when my mind calmed itself from its many miseries and dangers,]

et mihi reliquam aetatem a re publica procul habendam decrevi,
[and I decided to live the rest of my life far away from the republic,]

 non fuit consilium socordia atque desidia bonum otium conterere neque vero agrum colundo aut venando servilibus officiis, intentum aetatem agere;
[it was not a decision rooted in laziness or inactivity meant to waste my precious time in leisure, not meant to farm my plantation or go hunting, but to lead a serious life in humble duties.]

sed, a quo incepto studioque me ambitio mala detinuerat, eodem regressus statui res gestas populi Romani carptim, ut quaeque memoria digna videbantur, perscribere, eo magis, quod mihi a spe, metu, partibus rei publicae animus liber erat.
[however, from whatever inspiration or passion my wicked ambition had taken root, from the same place have I, gradually, returned to study the accomplishments of the Roman people, and the result is that whatever memorials seemed to be worthy, my mind was free from the reach of the republic, from ambition, from fear, to write it fully down all the more.]

Igitur de Catilinae coniuratione, quam verissume potero, paucis absolvam; 
[Therefore, as much as I truly can, let me write a few words on Cataline's conspiracy;]

nam id facinus in primis ego memorabile existumo sceleris atque periculi novitate.
[you see, for my part, I think feel this plot by far the most memorable for its unique incorporation of wickedness and peril.]

De cuius hominis moribus pauca prius explananda sunt, quam initium narrandi faciam. 
[I must first describe this man's character in a brief description, so let me begin my narration.]

L. Catilina, nobili genere natus, fuit magna vi et animi et corporis, sed ingenio malo pravoque. 
[Lucius Cataline, although born from a noble bloodline, was man with great force of mind and body, but with a wicked and depraved personality.]

Huic ab adulescentia bella intestina, caedes, rapinae, discordia civilis grata fuere ibique iuventutem suam exercuit.
[Soon as he passed his teenage years, deadly wars, massacres, plundering, civil war were all things that pleased him, and in this field did he spend the entirety of his young life.]

Corpus patiens inediae, algoris, vigiliae supra quam cuiquam credibile est.
[His body was used to hunger, cold, wakefulness above the tolerance of any other person.]  

Animus audax, subdolus, varius, cuius rei lubet simulator ac dissimulator, alieni adpetens, sui profusus, ardens in cupiditatibus; satis eloquentiae, sapientiae parum.
[His mind was bold, tricky, shifty, a person who loved to pretend and fake, seeker of the unworldly, completely full of himself, ever burning with desires; quite skilled in speech, not so much in wisdom.]

 Vastus animus inmoderata, incredibilia, nimis alta semper cupiebat.
[His vast mind always desired things out of measure, unbelievable ones, things way too ambitious.]

 Hunc post dominationem L. Sullae lubido maxuma invaserat rei publicae capiundae;
[After the political hegemony of Lucius Sulla, the greatest desire to take over our commonwealth had seized him to the bone.]

 neque id quibus modis adsequeretur,
[Nor did he pursue this in the ways in which]

 dum sibi regnum pararet,
[while he was preparing to form a monarchy for himself,]

 quicquam pensi habebat.
[anything could be relied upon <?>]

 Agitabatur magis magisque in dies animus ferox inopia rei familiaris et conscientia scelerum, quae utraque iis artibus auxerat, quas supra memoravi.
[More and more, as the days passed by, his mind grew fiercer, bereft from familiarity, as well as his ability to do wicked deeds, both of these things grew in his limbs, things which I recalled above.]

  Incitabant praeterea corrupti civitatis mores,
[Moreover did the morality of our city become corrupted,]

 quos pessuma ac divorsa inter se mala, luxuria atque avaritia, vexabant.
[and the very worst and divulged evils among them began to stir up trouble, including luxury and greed.]

Res ipsa hortari videtur,
[This was the very affair that seemed to call out,]

 quoniam de moribus civitatis tempus admonuit,
[since the period of time gave a warning about the customs of the city,]

supra repetere ac paucis instituta maiorum domi militiaeque,
[that is, to find again the things of the past, and done by only the elite of their forefathers, at home and abroad,]

 quo modo rem publicam habuerint
[by the custom they kept possession of the commonwealth]

 quantamque reliquerint,
[and whatever they left behind,]

 ut paulatim inmutata ex pulcherruma atque optuma pessuma ac flagitiosissuma facta sit, disserere.
[but such did it happened that, little by little, did what was unchanged, turned from the most beautiful and very best into the worst and most afflicted, and who have learned so.]

[6] Urbem Romam, sicuti ego accepi, condidere atque habuere initio Troiani,
[I, for my part, have learned that the Trojans established and possessed the city of Rome in the very beginning,]

qui Aenea duce profugi sedibus incertis vagabantur,
[and these were men who wandered under their leader Aeneas for uncertain settlements,]

 cumque iis Aborigines, genus hominum agreste, sine legibus, sine imperio, liberum atque solutum.
[and with these men, the native peoples, a wild race of folk without laws and government, were free and unbound.]

 Hi postquam in una moenia convenere,
[Afterwards these men met at a single walls,]

dispari genere, dissimili lingua,
[unlike in race, unlike in language,]

 alii alio more viventes,
[each folk living by a different custom,]

incredibile memoratu est,
[it is incredible to recall,]

quam facile coaluerint:
[that they united so easily:]

ita brevi multitudo dispersa atque vaga concordia civitas facta erat.
[And so briefly did the crowd of people disappear by some vague accord, and was a civilization established.]

Sed postquam res eorum civibus, moribus, agris aucta satis prospera satisque pollens videbatur,
[But afterwards the affairs of these men began to grow large enough, prosperous, and quite promising in regards to its civilians, traditions, and territory,]

sicuti pleraque mortalium habentur,
[and thusly are several affairs of mortal beings held,]

 invidia ex opulentia orta est.
[that jealously rose on account of their opulence.]

 Igitur reges populique finitumi bello temptare,
[And so, the kings and his most supportive people attempted to wage war,]

pauci ex amicis auxilio esse;
[few men from their associates came to their aid;]

 nam ceteri metu perculsi a periculis aberant.
[by that token, other men, who were completely stricken with fear, were missing in action from the dangers.]

At Romani domi militiaeque intenti festinare,
[But the Romans, at home and abroad, were passionate in making haste]

parare, alius alium hortari, hostibus obviam ire,
[and making preparations, each man encouraging another, and facing the enemy directly]

 libertatem, patriam parentisque armis tegere.
[and protecting their freedom, and their nations with the weapons of their ancestors.]

Post, ubi pericula virtute propulerant,
[Later, when they rushed headfirst to their dangers, with courage,]

sociis atque amicis auxilia portabant
[they brought extra help from their allies and associates]

magisque dandis quam accipiundis beneficiis amicitias parabant.
[and they used to prepare their partnerships more for the sake of giving benefits, than receiving them.]

 Imperium legitumum, nomen imperi regium habebant.
[They used to run an empire based on law, and the title of the empire, fit for kings.]

 Delecti, quibus corpus annis infirmum,
[Chosen men, among whom their bodies had grown weaker over the years,]

ingenium sapientia validum erat,
[but still their intelligence was bolstered with wisdom]

 rei publicae consultabant;
[these men began to give counsel to the commonwealth;]

 hi vel aetate vel curae similitudine patres appellabantur.
[either because of their age, or their maturity, these men were called "patres" <fathers>]

 Post, ubi regium imperium, quod initio conservandae libertatis atque augendae rei publicae fuerat, in superbiam dominationemque se convortit,
[Later on, when they turned this regal power toward hubris and powermongering, which had in the beginning preserved their freedom and served to increase the size of their commonwealth.]

inmutato more annua imperia binosque imperatores sibi fecere:
[They elected their offices of state annually, never changing their customs, and two supreme commanders at a time:]

 eo modo minume posse putabant per licentiam insolescere animum humanum.
[by this token, they began to think, through their ability to do things, that the mind of men could do anything possible.]

[7] Sed ea tempestate coepere se quisque magis extollere
[But at this point in time, each man began to further his position more and more,]

magisque ingenium in promptu habere.
[and to possess the qualities to meet his challenges.]

Nam regibus boni quam mali suspectiores sunt
[You see, good men are more untrusting of kings than base ones]

semperque iis aliena virtus formidulosa est.
[and ever is a virtue that is unknown to these men, somewhat frightening.]

Sed civitas incredibile memoratu est adepta libertate quantum brevi creverit:
[But the city, in an unbelievable turn of events, attained freedom at the very same pace it had grown in so brief a time:]

tanta cupido gloriae incesserat.
[such a great desire for glory had begun to rear up even before that.]

Iam primum iuventus, simul ac belli patiens erat, in castris per laborem usum militiae discebat
[As soon as possible did the younger generations, when first they became aware of warfare, begin to educated themselves on the military discipline, through their practice in the military camps,]

magisque in decoris armis et militaribus equis quam in scortis atque conviviis lubidinem habebant.
[and they began to have a greater desire for decorous arms and war horses than in sluts and dinner parties.]

 Igitur talibus viris non labor insolitus,
[And so, to men like these, hard work was not a strange affair,]

non locus ullus asper aut arduus erat,
[no place was harsh, or arduous,]

non armatus hostis formidulosus:
[no armed foe was even the cause of a little fright:]

 virtus omnia domuerat.
[their courage conquered everything.]

Sed gloriae maxumum certamen inter ipsos erat:
[But, between these same fellows, there arose the greatest competition for glory:]

 se quisque hostem ferire, murum ascendere, conspici, dum tale facinus faceret, properabat.
[No matter who, he would rush to cause wounds to his foe, to scale walls, to stand out, all while he could perform such a brave deed.]

 Eas divitias, eam bonam famam magnamque nobilitatem putabant.
[They used to think these things sources of wealth: a good reputation and great claim to nobility.]

 Laudis avidi, pecuniae liberales erant,
[They were avid for praise, and generous with their money]

gloriam ingentem, divitias honestas volebant.
[they wanted their glory to be tremendous, and their wealth to be humble.]

 Memorare possum,
[I can recall,]

quibus in locis maxumas hostium copias populus Romanus parva manu fuderit,
[in exactly which places the Roman people laid low the greatest hordes of its foe, with only a small band]

 quas urbis natura munitas pugnando ceperit,
[and the preparations the nature of our city took in order to fight in combat,]

 ni ea res longius nos ab incepto traheret.
[but this subject would drag me too far from what I already began.]

[8] Sed profecto fortuna in omni re dominatur;
[But completely, our good fortune is now vanquished in every respect;]

 ea res cunctas ex lubidine magis quam ex vero celebrat obscuratque.
[it now extols and obfuscates all affairs out of increasingly pleasure, than from anything true.]