Monday, April 4, 2011

Latin-English Dictionary (Complete)

a ab abs (prep + abl) separation - out of (one out of many) a ab abs (prep + abl) with passive verbs - by, because a ab abs (prep + abl) in connection with, with regard to a ab abs (prep + abl) space- from, away from a ab abs (prep + abl) time - from, since, after a ab abs (prep + abl) numbers - counting from ab since, ever since, from, of abactor abductor abactus abduction abacus abacus, buffet abætere absent onself, depart, go away, leave abalienare dispose of, sell, vend abalienatio sale abalienato transfer of property, alienation abavus great-grandfather, forefather abavus great-great-grandfather abbas abbot, father abbas abbatis father, abbot abbatia abbey, monastery abbatia abbey abbatissa abbess abbreviare abbreviate, abridge, shorten abdere do away with, get rid of, remove, abstract abdicare quit, resign, reject abdicatio abdication abdicativus negative abdicere condemn, disapprove, disapprove of, rebuke abdico to renounce, reject, abdicate, disapprove of abditus hidden abdo put away, remove, hide, conceal abdomen abdomen, belly, tummy abdomen belly, gluttony abducere entice, seduce, divert, tempt abduco to lead, or take away, detach, withdraw abductio abduction abecedarium ABC, alphabet abeo to go away, retire, depart from life, die abeo to digress, change, vanish, disappear abeo to pass, to have been aberrare turn, go astray, stray off aberratio distraction, diversion aberro to wander, deviate, escape abesse differ, be different, be absent, be missing abhibere keep at a distance, keep at bay abhinc ago, back from now, henceforth, hereafter abhinc from here, hence abhorreo to shudder abicere abandon, throw away, abase, give up, resign abicio to throw down, dispense with, get rid of, dishear abico to humble, cast aside abiectio contempt, melancholy abiectus commonplace, dismal, trite, abject, base, low abiego to send away, send off abies fir, ship, vessel abigere do away with, get rid of, remove, chase away abigo to drive off, drive away, rustle cattle, steal abire quit, resign, become, come about, grow, happen abitere absent onself, depart, go away, leave abitus exit, way out, departure abiudicare refuse, reject abiungere divide, separate, disintegrate abiungo to unharnass, separate, detach abiurare abjure, abnegate abiuro to deny by oath ablativus ablative ablegare dismiss, turn away abligurrire waste ablocare invite tenders for, put out to tender, let abluo to wash, clean, cleanse abnegare abnegate, deny oneself, refuse, reject abnegatio abnegation, refusal abnego to deny, refuse abnepos great-great-grandson abnocto to spend the night out, to stay away all night abnormis abnormal abnuere shake one's head, deny, refuse, reject abnuo to deny aboleo to destroy, abolish, annul, do away with, obliter abolere abolish, abrogate, delete abolescere disappear, pass, pass by abolesco to die, perish, vanish abolitio abolition, abrogation, destruction abominabilis dismal, dreary, ghastly, hideous, horrible, nasty abominamentum abomination abominare abhor, abominate, loathe, curse abominatio abhorrence, abomination, horror abominor to abhor, hate, detest, abominate abominosus fateful, ill-fated aborior to set (as in "the sun sets") )" abortio miscarriage abortio abortion abortivus one prematurely born abortus abortion abradere scrape, scrape off, scratch off, shave, shave off abrenuntiare abjure, abnegate abrenuntiatio abjuration abripere abscond abrogare abjure, abolish, abrogate, annul, cancel, remit abrogatio abolition, abrogation abrogo to repeal, annul, remove, take away abrumpere divide, separate, break, break off, disintegrate abrumpo to break off, sever, remove, dissociate, separate abrupte abruptly, all of a sudden, suddenly abruptio divorce abruptio separation, divorce abruptum abyss, chasm abruptus intermittent, abrupt, steep abs since, ever since, from abs- dis-, im-, in-, un- abscedere avoid, evade, absent onself, depart, go away abscedo to go away, depart, leave abscessio departure abscessus absence abscidere cut off abscido to cut off, to separate, take away abscindere cut off, pick, pluck, tear off abscisus abrupt, steep abscondere conceal, hide absconditus hidden, concealed abscondo to hide, conceal, secrete absens absent absens, absentis (adj.) absent, missing, away, gone absimilis different absisto to go away, desist absit "god forbid, let it be far from the hearts of the absolutio absolution absolutus absolute absolvere absolve absorbeo to swallow, gulp down, carry away, engross absque (+ ablative) without, except abstergo to wipe off, clean away abstinere abstain abstrudere conceal, hide abstulo to take away, withdraw absum to be absent, be away, be missing, be gone absumere use up, consume, kill, liquidate, slay absumptio abuse absurdus absurd abundans abundant, overflowing, abounding in abundantia abundance, bounty, plenty abunde in great profusion, profusely, abundantly abusio abuse abuti use up, consume, abuse abutor to use abusive language, use a word incorrectly abutor to make full use of, to abuse abyssus hell, abyss, chasm abyssus abyss, chasm ac and acacia acacia acanthus acacia accedo to approach, come near, (things) accelerare accelerate, speed up accelero to quicken, hasten, speed, accelerate accendere kindle, light accendo to rouse up, arouse, excite, incite accendo to kindle, illuminate, inflame accensere add accentus accent, stress acceptabilis acceptable acceptatio acceptance acceptator acceptor acceptius suitable for receiving acceptus welcome, pleasant, agreeable accersitus summoned, called accidere come about, happen, occur accido to fall down, to happen, occur, to hack, hew to accido destroy accipere accept, receive, take, take in accipio to consider oneself indebted, receive, learn tak accipio cepi, ceptum, to receive, accept, take accipiter hawk acclamare acclaim, applaud acclamatio acclaim, acclamation, approval acclinare incline, be inclined acclivius well-disposed accognoscere recognise, recognize accola neighbor, neighbour accommodare add accommodatus of use, suitable accommodo to adjust, adapt, accommodate oneself accommodus of use, suitable accredo to believe unconditionally, accept wholeheartedly accubo to recline at table, dine accumulo to add to a heap, accumulate, amass accusare accuse accusatio accusation accusativus accusative accusator accuser accusator accusor, plaintiff accuso to accuse, blame, find fault with acer sharp, keen, eager, severe, fierce acer stinging, violent, bitter acer maple, abrasive, lurid, sharp acerbitas harshness, bitterness, anguish acerbus shrill, rigorous acerbus tart, bitter, cruel, bleak, dismal, dreary acerbus bitter, gloomy, dark acervus a heap, mass acetum vinegar Achaia Greece Acheron Acheron acia thread acidus sharp, sour acidus acid, bleak, dismal, dreary, horrible, ghastly acies keeness, edge, sharpness, battle-line, battlefiel acies army, wing of a formation acies sharpness acinus berry, grape aconitum aconite, monkshood, poison acquiescere die, expire, pass away, repose, rest acquiesco to repose, assent to, agree acquiro to acquire, gain, get, obtain acritas sharpness acriter vehemently, forcefully y acroama concert acror sharpness acsi as if (Herimann p. 283, 293) acta coast, seaside, shore, beach actio to act actio act, action, lawsuit actum act, action actus moving through acuere sharpen acutus abrasive, lurid, sharp, dangerous ad to, toward, towards adæquare compare Adam Adam adamans steeled, unyielding, adamant, stubborn intransig adamas steel adamo to fall in love with, find pleasure in adapto adapt, adjust, make ready, or fit adaugeo to make greater, add, increase, augment addo to give, bring, place, inspire, cause, add, join addubitare doubt adducere bring, fetch, conduct, guide, lead adduco to lead, induce, persuade, bring ademptio a taking away adeo to approach, visit, come to, undertake adeo to such a point, such an extent, so far, so long adeo (adverb) so far, to that point, so much, so long, etc adeptio attainment, obtaining, achievement adepto to obtain, get, acquire adfectus affectus (fr. adfici influenced, worked upon adfero affero to cause, bring about, contribute adfero affero to bring news, report, apply, bring to bear adficio to affect, afflict, weaken, sap, exhaust, drain adflicto affligo to injure, weaken, discourage, damage, break adhaero to hang to, stick to, adhere adhaero to stick, cleave, secure, keep close to adhuc till then, till now, still, even now, besides al adicio to direct, address, apply, to throw to adimpleo to fulfill, perform, carry out adinvenio to devise adinventio to invention adipiscor to acquire, arrive at, reach adipiscor to come up to, overtake, obtain aditus entrance, ingress adiungere associate, come together, join, pool adiutorium assistance, help, aid adiuvo to help, aid, assist, succor adjectivum adjective adjicio to add, to turn towards, move towards, suggest adjungo to join connect adminiculum assistance, aid administratio giving of help, administration, government administro to guide, serve (food) admirari admire admiratio wonder, astonishment, surprise, admiration admirator admirer admiror to wonder at, admire, marvel at, be astonished at admitto to admit, receive admodum quite, very, very much admoneo admonish, advise admoneo to urge or incite to action admonitus exhortation admoveo to move to, bring up, apply adnihilo to bring to nothing, annihilate, demolish adnuo to nod assent adolescens young man, coming to maturity adopto to wish for oneself, adopt, select, pick out adorare adore, worship adorator worshipper adorno to equip, furnish, embellish adpropinquo * draw near, approach, near adservio to aid, help, assist adsidue assidue continuously, without remission adstare attend, be present, witness adstringo to draw together, tighten, compress, compact adstringo (persons) bind, oblige, (+ refl.) adsuesco assuesco to grow accustomed to, used to, make familiar adsuetudo custom, habit adsum to to be at hand, to come adsum to assist, be present, be near, be in attendance adsumo (assumo) to take to oneself, claim, appropriate, call aduentus arrival adulatio fawning, flattery, sycophancy, buttering up adulator sycophant, adulator adulescens young man, youth, lad adulescentia youth adulter adulterer adultera adulteress adultus (adj.) grown up, mature, adult, of age aduro (adustum) to set fire to, burn, singe, kindle, light adveho to carry, come advena foreigner advena alien, foreign, foreigner, strange advenio to come, arrive, reach advenire arrive, get adventum arrival, advent, a coming adventus arrival adverbium adverb adversa unfavorable adversarius adversary, opponent, enemy adversarius opponent adversitas opposition, adversity adversor to oppose, resist, fight back adversum adversity adversus (adj.) facing, opposite, opposing., unfortunate adversus (prep. + acc.) toward, against, facing adverto to turn towards, direct one's attention to attra advocatus advocate, lawyer advoco to summon, call, call in an advisor ædes house ædificare build, construct ædificium building aedificium edificium building, structure ædon nightingale æger ill, sick aeger diseased, sick, infected, ill aegre with displeasure aegrotatio egrotatio sickness, illness aegroto to languish, grow more sick, fail aegrotus ill, sick aegrus ill, diseased, unwell ænigma enigma, puzzle, riddle æon aeon æquor sea aer aeris air, atmosphere, ether, weather ær air aerumna toil, hardship, tribulation aerumnosus wretched æs copper, money, salary, wage, wages æstas summer aestas estas summer æstimare appraise, estimate, rate aestimo to estimate, guess, reckon aestivus estivus pertaining to summer aestuo to burn with desire, blaze, vacillate [vikings] aestus passionate fire aestus estus heat, tide aestus maris tides ætas age aetas an age, stage, period of life, time, era æternus eternal aeternus eternus eternal, everlasting, without end aether, aetherius heaven, heavenly/celestial Æthiops Abyssinian, Ethiopian, Mauritanian, Moor Negro aevum age, life Afer African affabilis courteous affamen import affatus address, speech affectuosus affectionate affectus goodwill, emotion, disposition of mind affectus vocis tone of voice affero to carry affinitas relationship, neighborhood afflictio reduced condition, state afflictus distressed, cast down, prostrate, ruined weakene affligo to reduce, ruin, distress, cast down strike agai affluencia abundance, affluence affluenter copiously, affluently affluo to come in haste affor to speak to, address Africa Africa agalmate effigy, as of a ruler on a seal agamus single, unmarried ager land, countryside, fields ager field ager (agri) farm, field, acre agger bulwark, mound aggero to make a mound, heap up, increase aggero to pucker, pile up aggravo to annoy, incommode aggredior to go to, begin, attack aggredior to go to, approach, address, attack agito to put in motion, move, rouse agmen host agna ewe, lamb agna lamb agnatus a relation in the male line agnellina lamb agnellus small lamb, lambkin agnina lamb agnitio recognition, knowledge agnoscere acknowledge, recognize agnosco acknowledge agnosco to recognize, understand, perceive agnosco to know again, recognize, report, understand adm agnus sheep agon competition, contest agonotheta champion agrarius relating to the land, farming, or countryside agrestis (adj) rustic, wild, unmannered, boorish, clodish agricola (masc.) farmer, tiller of fields, cultivator agripeta (masc.) someone who seizes land, squatter, land-grabber ah ah, oh, ow, woe ait he says aiunt they say ala wing/armpit/naval squadron part of line of battl alacer (-ris) quick, sharp, rapid, ready, keen alacritas rapidity, quickness, animation, sharpness eagern alarius relating to the wing of an army, allied troops alatus winged, having wings alauda lark alauda the lark alba alb albeo to become white album writing tablet, list albus blank, white albus white alcedo kingfisher alcedo the kingfisher alcedonia (neuter pl.) the kingfisher's time, calm, tranquility alces the elk alces elk, moose alcyon kingfisher alcyon the kingfisher alea dice game, risk, chance, hazard alea die aleator dice-player, gambler, someone who takes chances ales augury alesco to grow, mature alga alga, seaweed alga sea-weed algeo (-ere, alsi, algens) to be cold algesco to bcome cold, to catch cold algidus (-a, -um) cold algor cold alias at another time, otherwise alibi elsewhere, in other respects alica spelt alicubi anywhere, somewhere alicubi everywhere, somewhere alicunde from somewhere, from anywhere aliena quadra vivere to live from another's table alienari (pass) to lose one's mind alienatio alienation, transfer of ownership alienigena foreign, strange, outlandish alienigenus composite, made up of different substances heter alieno to let go, transfer, estrange, forget alienus somebody else's, foreign, alien, strange differe aliger winged, having wings. alii .. alii some .. others alimentum food, provender, victuals alimonia nourishment alimonium nourishment, essentials, provisions, food alio to another place, person, end, for another purpos alioqui (adv.) otherwise alioquin (adv.) otherwise, in some respects, in general alipes wing-footed aliqua some aliquando at any time, sometimes, occasionally, at last aliquanta (adj.) moderate, or some size aliquanto somewhat, considerably aliquantulus little, small, diminutive, a little, a bit aliquantum (noun) a good deal aliquantus (adj.) of some size, moderate aliquatenus to a certain extent aliqui some aliquid someone, somebody, something aliquid anything, something aliquis someone, anyone, anything, (adv.) aliquis a, any, anybody, some, somebody, someone aliquo (adv.) in some direction aliquot some, several aliquotiens some times aliquoties [sic](adverb) aliter otherwise, in another way, in a different fashion alium garlic alius other, another, else aliusmodi in another way, somehow else in a different fash allatus (=adfero) having been brought allec herrings, pickled fish allium garlic allocutio to address, encouragement allophylus alien, foreign alloquor to address, encourage alma a nourishing one almitas bounty almus bountiful almus kind, generous, nourishing alnus the alder tree alnus alder alnus alder alo nourish, cherish, support, sustain, maintain kee alodus heritable estate alogia absurdity, nonsense Alpes Alps alquod some alsius cool alsus cool alter (adv.) otherwise alter .. alter the one .. the other alter altera alterum the second, the other one altercatio dispute, strife alternis by turns alternis sermonibus alternating speeches, dialogue alterno to do one thing and then another altilis domestic fattened bird altithronus one enthroned on high, seated in heaven altivolus soaring altor foster-father, patron, advocate, protector educa altus matured, great, high, deep, noble, ancient, old altus high, lofty, tall alumno nurseling, student, disciple alumnus nursling alvarium beehive, bee-hive alveus hollow, basket, bed (of a river) alvus beehive, bee-hive, stomach, abdomen, belly, tummy amanuensis clerk amare love amaritudo bitterness amarus bitter, bleak, dismal, dreary, horrible, ghastly ambages double-talk, digression ambiguitas uncertainty ambiguus ambiguous ambiguus doubtful ambio + inf to strive, solicit ambitio desire for power ambitus border, edge, extent, going around, circuit ambitus circumference ambivium double way ambulare march, walk, go for a walk, stroll ambulo to walk amens crazy, insane, mad, nuts amens out of ones senses amica friend amicabiliter amicably, pleasantly, sociably amicitia friendship amicitia friendship, alliance amictus mantle amiculum cloak, cape amicus friend, comrade amicus friend amita father's sister, paternal aunt amita aunt, paternal aunt amita paternal aunt amittere lose amitto let slip amitto to dismiss, send away, lose, let slip away amnis stream, torrent amnis current amo to love, like, be fond of, cherish amoena pleasant [of a place] amoenitas pleasantness [of a place] amor love amor love, affection, infatuation, passion amotio removal amoveo to move away, remove, take out, shift amphibolus ambiguous amplector to embrace, surround amplexus an embracing, surrounding, loving embrace [euphe amplifico to increase, enlarge amplio to enlarge, increase, improve amplitudo size, breadth, dignity, grandeur, greatness amplus ample, bulky, extensive amplus large, spacious, ample, great important honorabl amputare amputate amygdalum almond an or dv.) or ""Are you going OR are you staying?""" anarchos without beginning, without a leader anas duck ancilla maidservant also used by nuns to decribe themsel ancon elbow ancora anchor ancula maid, servant anculus boy, servant andron corridor, aisle anethum dill, anise anfractus crooked, with tortuous bends angelus angel Angli Angles [from England] ango to trouble, draw together anguilla eel anguis serpent, snake angularis gaunt angulatus gaunt angulosus gaunt angulus angle angulus corner, niche angustata circumscribed angustus narrow angustus narrow, limited, strait, tight, constricted anhelo to desire, want, strive for, breathe, live anima life, soul anima soul, wind, life animadverto sometimes understand, realize animadverto to turn the mind to, take notice of, see perceiv animal animal animi at heart animositas spirit, wrath animosus courageous, ardent, passionate, furious animosus undaunted, wrathful animus soul, character, nature, personality, heart, will animus character, intellect, memory, consciousness ofte animus soul, spirit, intellect animus courage, vivacity, bravery, will, spirit, soul annecto to connect annihilare destroy, quash annona yearly produce, grain crop, price of grain, cost annullare destroy, quash annullo to obliterate, destroy, annihilate annuntiare advertise, announce, give notice annuo to give assent, approve annuo to nod, consent, give assent to, approve, favor annuo to allow, grant, promise, designate annus year ansa a handle anser goose antagonista adversary, opponent antarcticus south, southern ante ahead, formerly, previously ante (prep. + acc.) before, in front of, (adv.) antea (adv.) before, previously, formerly antecedere precede antecedo to precede antecessor predecessor antelogium prologue antepono (+ dat.) put before, prefer, favor, promote antequam before (in time) anticipo to surpass, excel antiquitas the ancients antiquus ancient, old, hoary antistes bishop antrum cave, grotto, cavity, cavern, den antrum grotto anulus ring anus old anxia uneasy anxio to make uneasy, to anguish aper wild boar aperio to uncover, lay bare, reveal, make clear aperito F, an opening aperte openly, frankly apertio f, an opening apex summit apices writing apium celery apographon copy apolactizare despise apostolus apostle apostolus (legal) notice sent to a higher tribunal, ecc. Apostle apparare prepare apparatus equipment, gear, machinery, splendor magnificenc apparatus exertion, effort appareo to become visible, appear, manifest apparere appear, emerge, perform appello to call, name, summon appello to drive, move towards, [passive] to land appello to land appenditia appurtenance applaudere acclaim, applaud, clap applico to land, steer, attach appono to appoint a person, to add something appono to place near, put to, serve, put on the table appositus placed near, approaching, appropriate, appositive appotus drunk, intoxicated appretiare appraise, estimate, rate apprime quite, very, very much approbare approve approbo to approve appropinquo to approach appropinquo (+ dat.) to near, drawn near, come close, approach appugnare assault, attack Aprilis April apto to fit, approve, be suitable, proper, fit aptus suitable, appropriate, fitting aptus fitted, connected, fastened, prepared, fitted out apud at, beside, by, near to, next to apud (prep. + acc.) among, in the presence of, at, at the house of Apulia Apulia apyrenus pomegranate aqua water aquila eagle aquilo the north wind aquilo north wind aquilus dark colored, swarthy ara altar, refuge, protection ara altar arabicus Arabian, Arabic arabius Arabian, Arabic Arabs Arab aranea spider's web aranea spiderweb araneum spiderweb arare plough arator plowman, cultivator aratrum plow arbitrium judgment arbor tree, mast arbor tree arbustum a vineyard planted with trees arbustus planted with trees arca box, chest arca archa chest, box, money box, coffin, cell arcanum sacred secret arceo to shut up, enclose arcesso, accerso to bring, fetch, summon, call for archangelus archangel archidictus extremely eloquent archiepiscopus archbishop archipater great ancestor archos ruler arcus arc, bow, rainbow arcus bow (BOW and arrows), arch, bend, arc ardens burning ardor ardor, impatience arduum steep place, the steep arduus difficult, proudly elevated arduus high, lofty, tall, abrupt, steep arena arena, desert, beach, sand argenteus silver argentum silver argentum silver, money argilla clay argumentatio argumentation argumentosus proven, rich in material argumentum proof, evidence arguo to show, make clear, attempt to show, censure re arguo to blame, accuse, prove, expose, convict, declare argutus acute arista the point of the ear the beard on an ear of whea aristo ear arma arms, weapons, armaments armare arm armarium cupboard, chest, safe (for food, clothing, money) armentum herd armiger armed armilla armlets armis by force of arms armo to provide arms, arm, equip, fit out aro to plow arripio to lay hold of arrogans presuming, haughty arrogantia presumption ars strategem, science, art, skill, craft ars art ars (artis) skill method, technique, conduct, character arteria artery articulus article articulus (of time) a moment, crisis artifex author, artist, artisan, maker artifex artist artificialiter artfully artificiose skillfuly artificiosus skillful, accomplished, skillfuly made arto to press together, reduce, abrdiged artus limbs artus joint arundo reed arvina fat, grease, bacon arvum field arx, arces town ascendo to climb ascia carpenter's axe, mason's trowel ascio to take up, adopt as one's own ascisco to receive, admit, adopt, take up, approve Asia Asia asinus ass, donkey asparagus asparagus aspectus countenance asper rough, harsh, severe asper violent, fierce, rough aspergo to sprinkle, cover asperitas roughness, severity, harshness, fierceness aspernatio contempt aspernor to spurn aspersus instructed aspicio to look at, behold, gaze at, see aspirator inciter asporto to carry off, take away assensus approval assentator flatterer, sycophant, yes-man asser a stake, pole assero to claim, defend assiduus unremitting assilio to leap upon assimilares adj, similar assimulo simulate, immatate, represent assuesco (-sueui, -suetum) to accustom, to accustom oneself assus dried, roasted, grilled astrologia astronomy astrologicus astronomer astrologus astrologer, astronomer astronomia astronomy astrum star astrum star, constellation astus m, cunning asylum asylum at (conj.) but. (more emphatic and emotional than sed) atavus great-great-great grandfather, ancestor ater dark, dim, black ater gloomy, malicious Atheniensis Athenian athleta athlete atomus atom atque and atqui (conj.) and yet, still atrocitas hashness, cruelty, frightfulness, barbarity horr atrociter cruelly, violently atrox terrible, cruel, horrible, harsh attentus attentive, careful of one's property attero to weaken, ruin, rub against, rub away, erode attero destroy, waste, weaken, impair attinet [+ inf.] is of importance attollo to exalt attollo to raise, lifet up, elevate, excite, exalt attonbitus frantic, inspired, thunder-struck, stunned attonitus stunned, thunderstruck attrecto to touch attributa assigned, associated auarca leather sandal worn by pyrenean peasants auctor author, originator auctorita authority, power auctoritas authority auctorizo to confirm, approve, authenticate auctus growth, enlargement, increase audacia temerity audacter, audaciter boldly, proudly, fearlessly audax bold, rash, foolhardy audentia boldness, courage audeo to dare. (part. ausus ) audio to hear, hearken, listen to audire hear auditor hearer, listener aufero to take away by force aufero to carry away, remove, steal, carry off make awa augeo increase, enlarge, enrich augeo to increase, strengthen augmento to increase augmentum increase, growth aula palace aula court, hall aura heaven, breeze aureus golden aureus gold, golden auricilla ear auricula ear auris ear aurum gold austerus strict, rigid, stern austerus bitter, severe, strict ausus risk, hazard, gamble, dare aut or autem but, on the other hand, however, moreover, also autem but, however, nevertheless, yet automatum automoton autumnum autumn autumnus autumn autumo to assert, believe, affirm autus increase, enlargement, growth auxilium help, aid auxilium aid, help, assistance, support avara avaricious avaritia avarice, greed avarus greedy, avaricious ave adieu, farewell, bye, goodbye, good-bye, hello aveho to carry away, remove (avexi avectum ) avello to tear away, tear off avena oats aversor to repulse averto to turn away, avert, avoid. turn back avia grandmother avoco to call away, divert avunculus uncle, maternal uncle avunculus maternal uncle avus grandfather axicia scissors axilla armpit axioma axiom axis axis, axle baca berry, pearl bacca berry, pearl baccatus set with pearls, pearl encrusted, ornamented with bacchatus enraged Bacchus Bacchus baceolus fool bacifer berry-bearing bacillum rod, a small staff baiulo to carry a burden, have a responsibility baiulus porter, pall-bearer, carrier of a burden, steward bajulo to to carry balæna whale balanus acorn, chestnut, date balatro fool, buffoon, jester balatus bleating of sheep, baaing balbus stammering, stuttering, fumbling balbutio to stutter, stammer, speak obscurely balbutire stammer, stutter balena whale ballista a siege engine, catapult, stone thrower balnearius pertaining to the bathhouse, bathhouse balneator keeper of a bathhouse balo to bleat balsamam balsam tree, balsam gum balteus girdle baptizare baptize, christen barathrum pit, abyss, the underworld barba beard, whiskers barba beard barbare barbarously, uncouthly, savagely in a foreign ma barbaria lack of culture, state of being uncivilized and/o barbaria a country other than Greece or Rome, savagery ru barbaricus a foreigner, not Greek or Roman, outlander barbaricus alien, foreign Barbarus Persian barbarus barbarian, foreigner, rude, uncouth, rough savag barbarus barbaric, barbarian, foreigner, cruel barbarus barbarian barbatus bearded, having a beard bardus stupid, slow, dull baro dolt, simpleton, fool, blockhead barrus elephant bascauda a basket basiare kiss basiatio kiss basiatio the act of kissing, giving a kiss, being kissed basiator one who kisses basilica a public building for law cases, etc., a church basilice royally, regally basilicus regal, royal basilicus regal, royal, princely basio to kiss basis a base, foundation, pedestal basium kiss basium a kiss battuo to beat, strike, smack, knock, hit beatitas happiness, felicity, blessedness beatus blessed, fortunate, sometimes "saint" """ beccus beak, bill bellare wage war bellaria [pl.] dessert bellator [adj] courageous, brave, warlike bellator fighting man, warrior bellatorius warlike, martial, pugnacious belle prettily, handsomely, charmingly bellicosus warlike bellicum a signal to march, attack, advance, charge bellicus martial, military, war-like belliger at war, waging war, in a state of war, warlike belligero to wage war, be at war, be in a state of war bello to wage war bellor to wage war bellua a brute, beast, large animal bellum war, warfare bellum war bellus beautiful, pretty, charming, handsome bellus pretty, charming, lovely belua monster bene OK, okay, well beneficentia kindness, benevolence, kindliness beneficium boon, reward, wages, bribe, gift, pious donation beneficium benefit, favor, service, privilege, right beneficus kind, generous, obliging benevolens well-wishing, helpfull, thoughtful, kindly benevolentia benevolence, kindness, good will benigne kindly, generously benignitas kind, friendly, generous, abundant, bounteous benignus kind, generous, helpful beo to bless bestia animal, beast bibere drink bibi drink bibliopola bookseller biblus paper bibo to drink, quaff bicallis foot-path, path bidens sheep, sacrificial animal bilis bile, gall bipennis battle-axe bis twice bison aurochs bitumen asphalt bivium place where two ways meet blande carefully, softly blandio to flatter blandior to flatter, caress, (+ dat.) blanditia blandishments, attractions, allurement, charm blanditium allurement, persuasion blandus flattering, persuasive blasphematio reviling blasphemo to revile blasphemus blasphemer, [adj.] reviling blatta purple blennus foolish, stupid boare cry out, scream, shout boatus bellowing boletus mushroom bombax darn bombyx silk bona good qualities, gifts, blessings as well as mater bonae indolis of great promise bonus good, nice, okay bos bovine, bovine animal bos (bovis ) cow, ox. bull botrus grape botrys grape bracæ pants, trousers bracchium arm, thigh bracteola thin gold leaf brassica cabbage bravium reward brevis short, brief brevis short, small, brief brevitas shortness, brevity breviter briefly Britones Bretons bubalus buffalo bubo screech-owl bucca mouth, jaw, jawbone bucinum trumpet-blast bufo toad bulbus onion bulla stud, boss, formal papal document burdo hinny byssus cotton cloths, linens caballus horse caballus steed cactus artichoke cacumen apex, peak cadaver cadaver, corpse cadaver corpse cado to fall, drop, plummet, topple cæcare dazzle cæcus blind caecus blind, sightless cædere butcher, slaughter, drop, overthrow caedes carnage caedo to fell, fall, be fruitless, kill cælebs single, unmarried caelebs celibate caelestis heavenly, celestial, noun, a god dweller in heav caeli skies, heavens, vault of heauen caelitus from heaven cælum heaven, sky caelum sky, heaven cænum mud, slime cæpa onion cæremonia ceremony, respect cærimonia ceremony, respect cæruleus green caetera the rest, that remaining calamitas calamity, misfortune, disaster, loss calamitas catastrophe calamitosus disastrous calamus anything made or reed -- pen, arrow, pipe, etc calathus basket calautica veil calcar, -is spur calceata paved road calco to tread, trample upon, tread under foot calculus pebble, stone caleo to be warmed, be inflamed calere glow, glow with heat caliga darkness, gloom, mist caligo darkness, murk, fog, mist caligo to make dizzy caligo to becloud, darken calix a vessel for drinking calix goblet callide skilfully, cleverly, cunningly, slyly, subtly calliditas cunning callidus clever, dextrous, experienced, skilful, cunning caltha marigold calumnior to accuse falsely calvities baldness calvus bald calx the heel, stone, pebble, lime, goal, aim calx lime camelus camel camena poetry camena poetry, poem, song camera vault, vaulted room, small boat caminus a forge, large hearth campana bell campeador champion of the field, victor campester flat, even, level, a plain campitor charger, battle-horse, war horse campus level place, field, plain campus plain camur curved, bent, hooked canaba cabin, hut, shack canalis channel, canal, pipe cancer crab, the direction south, heat of summer diseas cancer crayfish candela taper, candle candelabrum lamp-stand candeo to shine, glow, grow brilliant, sparkle candide openly, clearly, candidly candidus blank, white candidus bright, shining, white canere sing canis dog canistrum bee-hive canities grey hair, old age canna reed, cane canonicus canonical, according to the canons, legal, lawful canonus canon, member of a cathedral chapter or canonry canto to sing canus blank, white caper goat capere get, lay hold of, pick up, take capillago hair capillus hair capio to rent, hire, seize, arrest capio to take, choose, attack, injure, comprehend capistro to halter, put a halter on a horse capistrum halter, harness, mazzle capitagium poll tax capitale cattle, possessions, chattels capitulus chapter, chapter meeting, chapter house capra chamois capra she-goat caprea roe capreolus roebuck capreolus chamois Capricornus Capricorn capsa box captio imprisonment captivas captivity captivo to take captive captivus captive capto to seize, catch at, strive after, desire, seek capto to grab, try to get, grab at captus a catching, taking, power or manner of comprehens captus taken, captured, prisoner capulatio decapitation capulum hilt capulus coffin, handle, hilt of a sword caput head, pate caput ieiunius Ash Wednesday carbasa (-orum, n.) flax, flaxen, made of flax carbaseus made of canvas carbasum canvas sail carbasus heteroclite carbo charcoal carbonarius a charcoal burner carcer prison, cell, jail, dungeon carceres the starting-place of a race course carchesium a goblet with handles, top of a mast, scuttle cardiacus of the stomach cardo [boundary] line, a line limiting a field by agrim cardo duplex a cardinal point, main consideration cardo duplex ends of the earth's axis carduus thistle carectum sedgy spot, place thick with rushes careo to feel the want of careo (+ abl. of sep.) be without, be deprived of, lack, want careo (+ abl.) to absent oneself from carex (-icia) rush, sedge caries rottenness, corruption, decay carina keel carina the keel of a ship, ship, vessel cariosus rotten, decayed caris (-idia f.) a kind of crab caritas charity caritas high price, high cost of living, dearness, affect carmen song carmen song, poem, prediction, incantation religious fo carnero steer, cow carneus made of flesh carnifex executioner, hangman carnificina the work of a hangman, execution, torture carnifico behead, mangle, mutilate caro flesh caro (carnis f.) flesh, meat carpo to pluck, seize, grab, lay hold of, hold on to carptor one who carves food carruca four-wheeled carriage carrus vehicle carrus four-wheeled baggage wagon Carthaginiensis Carthaginian Carthago Carthage caruncula small piece of flesh carus dear, expensive, lovely, valuable carus dear, beloved, costly, high-priced, expensive caryota date casa hut, cottage, cabin casa cabin, hut, shack caseus cheese casia a tree with an aromatic bark sweet-smelling meze casses a net, trap, snare, spider's web casses spiderweb, snare, trap cassida a metal helmet cassis a metal helmet cassis helmet casso to bring to naught, destroy, annul, make void casso in vain cassus empty, hollow, [+ abl.] deuoid of, worthless usel cassus [+ abl.] to be devoid of whatever castanea a chestnut or chestnut caste purely, spotlessly, uprightly, chastely castellani garrison of a fortress castellanus relating to a fortress, castellan castellatim in single fortresses castellum castle, fortress, fort, citadel, shelter, refuge castellum fortification castigatio [-onis] punishment, reproof castigator one who punishes, reproves, corrects castigatus restrained, orderly, neat castigo reprove, chasten, punish, chastise, check restra castimonia purity, chastity, state of being unpolluted mora castitas chastity, pure, morally clean, unpolluted castor beaver castra [-orum] an encampment, temporary fortification b castra aestiva summer camp, quarters, bivouac castra hiberna winter camp, quarters, station castrare castrate castrensis pertaining to a camp, military, disciplined orde castro castrate, enervate, weaken, unman, emasculate castrum fortress castrum fortification castrum castle, fort, fortress, fortified encampment sta castus chaste castus clean pure, chaste, pious casualis accidental, fortuitous casula chasuble, monk's cowl casus accident, chance, fortune casus accident, violent death casus downfall casus a falling, occasion, opportunity, event catadupa waterfall cataracta waterfall catax lame catena chain catena chain, fetters caterva crowd, troop, flock catervatim in troops, in masses cathedra pulpit catholicus Catholic, general, usual cattus cat catus cat cauda penis, tail cauda the tail of an animal caulis penis, stalk, stem causa case at law, case, law-suit, situation, condition causa cause, reason, motive, pretext, interest causa affair, business, business deal, case, matter causa (in the abl.) on account of, for the sake of causidicus advocate, pleader cautela caution, precaution, security cautio caution, care, foresight cautor guarantor cautor one who is on his guard, one who goes bond suret cautus [property] made safe, secured, fenced, secured by cautus circumspect cautus [persons] careful, cautious, [things] secure, mad cavare manorial task of cultivating, digging, ditching cavea hollow place, cavity, cave, pit caveo [cavi cautum] beware, avoid, look out for caveo +acc.= be on guard against, +ut+subj.=take care t caveo give security, mortgage caveo +dat. of a person= take care of, provide for caverna hollow place, cavity, cave, cavern cavo hollow out, excavate, pierce, dig, cultivate. cavum a hollow, hole, cavity, pit, excavation depressi cavus [-a, -um] hollow, empty cavus cavity, cave cavus hole, pit cedo to go, proceed, turn out, happen/go away withdra cedo (+ dat.) give ground to, submit to, be inferior to cedrus cedar celare conceal, hide celebratio large crowd, audience, assembly celebrer adj, renowned, well known, popular, famous celebris celebrated celebritas crowd, multitude, celebration, fame, renown celebrus abounding in, rich in, much frequented, respected celer quick, swift, rapid, speedy, fast celeritas speed, swiftness, rapidity, quickness celeriter rapidly, quickly, swiftly, speedily cella room, store-room, garret cellarius adj. relating to a store-room, n. cellarer celo to hide, conceal, keep secret celox -ocis fast, rapid, swift, fleet celsitudo loftiness celsus elevated, lofty, arrogant, proud, haughty cena dinner, meal cenaculum garret, attic ceno to dine censeo argue, suggest, advise censeo censui, censum, estimate, assess, evaluate censor judge censura opinion, judgment census gifts, tax, annual render census -us, wealth, property, census centrum center, centre centum one hundred, 100 (undeclinable) centum hundred, one hundred centum milia hundred thousand cerasus cherry, cherry-tree Cerberus Cerberus cercops ape, monkey cerealis sacred to Ceres Ceres Ceres cerevisia ale, beer cerno to perceive cerno to separate, sift, distinguish, decide, resolve cernuus faling headlong certamen engagement, combat certamen contest, contention, rivalry of any kind conflic certe certainly, no doubt, undoubtedly certo to struggle, fight certo to contend, settle, dispute, to settle by combat certus certain, sure certus determined certus undoubted, certain, sure, settled, resolved certus decided, definite ceruchus cord, rope, string cerva deer cervisia ale, beer cervix neck, back of the neck, nape cervix neck, boldness cervus stag, deer cervus deer ceryx herald cesso to leave off, cease, linger, delay cetera for the rest, otherwise ceteri the remaining, the rest, the others ceterum (adv.) otherwise, moreover, but ceterus the other, the rest chalybs steel chalybs steel, iron, sickel, sword chaos chaos, tangle charitas benevolence, offering Charon Charon charta letter, paper charus affectionate Charybdis Charybdis charybdis whirlpool chelys tortoise Chimæra Chimera chirographum autograph, person's own handwriting written char chirurgia surgery chirurgus surgeon chorda intestine, cord, string chorus troop chrestus slave christianismus Christianity Christus Christ chryseus gold, golden chrysizon gold-coloured, golden chrysos gold cibaria victuals cibo food for animals cibus food for men and animals cicaro darling cicatrix scar Cicero Cicero cichorium chicory ciconia stork cicur tame cicuta hemlock cimeterium cemetery, graveyard cimex bug, bedbug ciminatio accusation, calumny, charge ciminosus reproachful, slanderous Cineres Ash Wednesday cinis ash, cinder circa about, approximately, round, around Circe Circe circumsto to beset circumvenio to beset, assail circumvenio to come around, surround, cheat, defraud circus circus cissus ivy citara a harp citatio summons, call citatus summons, citation citatus quick, speedy citius speedily, quickly, rapidly citivolus swiftly flying cito to be moved, aroused cito to put into quick motion, quickened cito quickly, rapidly, speedily civilis civil, civic civis citizen, townsman, bourgeois, burgess civitas state, citzenship, city-state, city clades scourge clam secretly, in secret, stealthily. clamare cry out, scream, shout clamito to bawl out for clamo to call, shout, cry aloud, proclaim, declare clamor a shout, cry, loud call, outcry clandestinus secret clangere cry out, scream, shout clango to sound clangor sounding claritas brightness claritudo brightness claro to make bright or clear, make clear in the mind clarus clear, bright, renowned, famous, illustrious classis class claudeo to limp, halt, be lame, to hobble claudico to limp claudo (clausus) to confine, shut up, close, blockade, besiege claudus lame claustrum bolt, bar, prison, den, pen, enclosure, cloister clavis bolt, key, wrench clavus nail clementer compassionately, mercifully clementia indulgence, forbearance, humanity, mercy gentlen clepere steal clepsere steal clericus clergyman, pastor, priest clibanus oven, furnace, tray for bread making clima clime, region clima climate clinamen acclivity, hillside, slope clivus acclivity, hillside, slope cloaca sewer clura ape, monkey clypeus brazen shield coacervo to collect in a mass coacto to force, compel, coerce coactu by force, under compulsion coactum force, compulsion, coercion coactus constrained coadunati collected coadunatio a gathering together, a summing up, a uniting coaduno to collect coaegresco to become sick at the same time coangusto to confine coarto to confine cochlea snail, screw cochleare spoon coemeterium cemetery, graveyard coepi began, started, undertook, initiated (pres. incip coepio to begin, undertake coepto to begin, undertake coeptum undertaking coerceo surround, enclose, restrain, confine, regulate cogitare think cogitatio thorough consideration cogitatus thought cogito to think, ruminate, ponder, consider, plan cognatio kindred cognatus (adj.) related by blood (noun) cognomen surname, family name, nick-name cognosco to examine, inquire, learn cogo to compel, restrict, confine cogo to to force, compel, compress cohaereo to cling to, correspond to cohaero to cleave to cohibeo confine, restrain, hold back, repress cohors a yard, enclosure, troop, 1/10 of a legion cohortor to encourage, incite, exhort coire assemble, congregate, gather, meet coitus company coleus bag, sack collator contributor collaudare commend, laud, praise collaudo to praise very much, approve highly collega buddy, companion, comrade, pal, colleague colligere collect, gather, pick up colligo to bind colligo legi, lectum, to collect, gather together assemb collis hill colloco to place, put, arrange colloco to station colloquium speech, conference colluctatio wrestling colluctor wrestle collum neck colonia colony, settlement colonus tiller of the soil, inhabitant color colour, dye color color, luster coloratus colored, dark-complexioned coloro to color columba dove, pigeon columna column, pillar coma hair of the head coma hair of the head, leaves, rays of light coma stalk combibo to drink up, suck in comburo to burn up, to ruin, consume cometes comet comis courteous, kind, friendly, obliging comis affable, friendly, good-natured, kind, obliging comitatus accompanied comitatus train, retinue, following, war band comiter courteously, in a kindly, friendly manner comito to accompany comitto to entrust, commit commemoro to remind, relate, mention, to keep in mind commendo to commit commeo To go up and down, back and forth, in and out commercium wares, [+ gen.] fellowship with commessatio, onis eating together commilito comrade, companion in war comminor to threaten comminuo to scatter, weaken, damage comminus hand to hand, in close combat commisceo to intermingle, join, mix commiscere to mingle commissio perpetration, execution, performance, action commissum undertaking, that which is entrusted commissum offence committo to place, intrust, join commodo to make fit, adapt, please, oblige, serve commodo (+ acc.) to furnish, lend, give commodum suitable time, opportunity, convenience, use commodum convenience, advantage, opportunity, comfort commodum profit, favorable condition, requirements commodus proper, fit, commodious commodus useful commoneo to remember, recollect commoneo to impress upon one. to remind commoneo to remind someone forcibly of somthing commorantes inhabitants commoror remain, stay, abide, linger commoror to sojourn, remain, inhabit commotio agitation commotus disordered, moved commoveo to move violently, disturb, shake, excite, upset communico to share communis common, general, run of the mill communis common, joint comoedia comedy compaciscor agreed upon compacta covenanted compactor constructor compages structure compar companion comparere appear, emerge, perform comparo to compare compater the godfather of a man's child compatior to suffer with one, feel pity, have compassion compello to to urge, address, speak to compello to drive together, collect, force, compel compendiose briefly comperio to disclose fully, find out with certainty lay o comperio to learn, find out, ascertain comperte on good authority compes fetters compesco to restrain compescor to suppress, repress, check, restrain compescor to fasten together, hold in check, curb competentia agreement competo to be appropriate, suitable, fit compitum cross-road complaceo to be very pleasing to complacitus favorable complector compass complectus embrace, grasp compleo to fill up, man, bring up to strength, fulfil compleo to finish, complete complere fill, fill in, fill up complex confederate complexo encompass, embrace complico to fold together compono to adjust, [+ abl.] settle compono to put together, compose compositio composition, agreement, pact, arrangement compositus orderly, matching, made up of pieces comprehendo to to gather together, apprehend comprehendo to seize, arrest, take prisoner, catch red-handed comprehendo to embrace, take firmly, include, seize comprehendo to grasp, take together, unite, comprehend comprimo to hold back, hinder, keep to oneself comprobo to approve fully, to confirm, prove, establish compromitto to agree to refer to arbitration or an arbitrato comprovincialis born in the same province compte elegantly, with ornament comptus a head-dress, a hairband conamen effort conatus exertion, effort, undertaking, impulse inclinati concacare soil concateno to link together, bind together concavo to hollow out concedo to concede, yield, allow, grant, withdraw give u concepta measures, capacity concero connect join, twine, join in conflict concha mussel, purple conchylium purple concidere destroy, quash concido to fall down, sink, perish, (wind) concido to be ruined, fail, cut up, cut down, destroy concieo to bring together, assemble conciliare acquire, attain, get, obtain conciliator mediator concilio to assemble, bring togethe concilio to make friendly, procure the favor, bring togeth concilio win over, reconcile, unite, cause concilium council concilium conciliation concino to sing together, celebrate concio to stir up concipio to take or lay hold of, receive, take in conceiv concisus cut up, broken, brief, concise concitare abet, agitate, incite, stir up concite quickly concito to move violently, stir up, excite, arouse conclamo to bewail as lost conclave bedroom concludere abstract, induce, gather, infer concordare fit together, harmonize concordia harmony, unity concordia concord, harmony, agreement concordis harmonious, united concordo to harmonize, unite concremo to consume, burn up concresco to take form, grow strong concretio growing-together concruciare torture concubitus copulation conculco to tread under foot, despise, oppress, suppress conculco to abuse, tread down, tread under foot concupiscentia avarice, covetousness concupisco to covet concupisco to covet, aim at, desire eagerly concurro to concur concursus charge, assembly concussio oppression, extortion concutio to strike together, shake, terrorize concutio to shake together, agitate, alarm, disturb shatt condeco to meet condemnare condemn, sentence condicio condition, stipulation, terms condico to agree, fix, settle, make arrangements condita laid up store, foundation, establishment, making conditor creator condo erect, establish, build condo to store, place condoleo to suffer greatly conduco to conduct, lead forth conduco hire, employ for wages, among many other meanings conduplicare double confero discuss, debate, confer, betake oneself, devote confero to bring together, put together, collect confestim speedily, rapidly, immediately, without delay confestim without delay confidenter boldly, beyond a shadow of a doubt confido have confidence in, be confident of, rely upon confido to trust confidently, believe configo to transfix confingo to fabricate, make up confinio neighborhood, limit confirmo to confirm confiteor confessus to confess, own up, admit, acknowledge conflictus contest, impulse confortari to be strong conforto to strengthen much conforto to strengthen much, soothe confraga cracks confugio to take refuge in, have recourse to confugo to flee, have recourse to, take refuge confundo to bring into disorder, confounding, destroy confundo to pour together, mix, blend, confound, confuse confusim in a confused way, fumbling confusio a combining, blemish, disorder confusio mingling, mixture, confounding, confusion, disord confusus confused, disorderly, embarassed, troubled confo confuto supress, keep silent, convict confuto to confute, restrain, check, repress confuto to check, repress, stop, halt, turn back, silence congelo to congeal, harden, freeze congeries pile, mass congero to collect, compile conglobo to amass congratulor to rejoice congredior to accost congredior navigio to sail congregatio assembly, society, union congrego to gather together, assemble, convene congrego to assemble congressio hostile attack, coming together congressus encounter, assembly, meeting, congress congressus a meeting, association congrue adv, suitably congruens appropriate, proportioned congruenter harmoniously congruo coincide, agree, conform congruus agreeing, fit, suitable congruus appropriate, suitable conicio to hurl, throw, put together, conjecture coniecto to throw together, infer, guess, conclude conitor to press upon, to struggle to reach coniunctio conjunction coniuratio conspiracy, plot coniuratus conspirator, plotter coniuro to take an oath together, plot, conspire conjugium wedlock conjugo to unite conjungo to unite conjuratio confederacy conjuratus sworn conjuro to unite by an oath, conspire conjux consort connecto to join, bind connexio bond connubialis sexual connubium sexual union conor to undertake, try, venture, presume, attempt pre conor to try, endeavor conqueror to complain loudly consanguinei relations conscendo to ascend, mount, go up conscendo navem to embark conscientia conscience, consciouness, knowledge conscindo to tear in pieces conscius conscious of, aware of conscius privy to conseco to dismember, cut into pieces, chop up consecro to dedicate consecro to dedicate, consecrate, sanctify, to curse deif consectatio striving, pursuit consenesco to grow old, weak, feeble, infirm consensio agreement, harmony, cooperation, plot, conspiracy consentaneus suited to consentio to agree, consent, plot, conspire consepio to hedge in consequens according to reason consequentia consequential, relating ng conservo to preserve, conserve, maintain, keep, hold to considero to contemplate, inspect considero to look at, regard carefully consido to set down, settle consiliarii counsellors consilio intentionally, on purpose, designedly consilium deliberation, resolution, measure as in plan adv consilium advice, suggestion, wisdom, plan, purpose judgme consilium deliberation, consultation, assembly, council consimilis similar ilar consisto to take one's stand, stand still, stop, be posted consisto (+ abl. etc.) to be formed of, consist, stop, stay consisto (+ in) to depend on, rely on consitor sower, planter consobrinus maternal first cousin consolatio encouragement, amelioration, consolation consolido to make firm consolo to comfort consonum adj, n, harmonious consors companion, comradeship consortio partnership, company conspergo to sprinkle, bestrew conspicio to observe conspicio to catch sight of, perceive, behold, understand conspicuus striking conspiratio union constans steady, firm, unchanging, constant, unwavering constans constant constanter steadily, firmly, dependably constantia constancy, firmness, solidity constat it is certain constipatus surrounded constituo to arrange, decide, appoint, settle, found set u constituo to establish, appoint constituo to set up, place, establish, post, station constituo to fix, station, place, cause to stand, set consto to be established, stand firm, stop, endure constrictio to bind together, draw together constringo to fetter constringo constrixi constric to bind, confine, restrain construo to bring together construprare force, violate constupator ravisher, debaucher constupro to ravish, corrupt consuasor advisor, counselor consuefacio to accustom, acclimate, become used to consuesco to accustom, inure, habituate consueta customary, usual consuetudo custom, habit, way consuetudo custom, usage, habit, intimacy, familiar acquaint consul magistrate consul consul consulatio deliberation, inquiry, full consideration consulo to look to the interests of, come to a conclusion consulo to take counsel consulo to reflect, consider, ponder, reflect consulo (+ dat.) look to the interests of/consult, ask advice consulto to ask the advice of, consult consulto to consider carefully, weigh, ponder consulto to consult + acc consultum advice consultum decree consumere destroy, quash, consume, use up consummatio completion, summing up, adding up consummo to add together, sum up, make perfect, complete consumo to spend, employ, use up, finish, waste away des consumo to devour consuo consui consutum to sew together, stitch consurgo to stand up, rise up, to arise, break out contabesco to waste slowly away, decline in health contactus touching, contact, contagion contages a touch, contact contagio infection contagio contagium contagion, infection, touching, contact contamino to pollute, infect contamino to defile contego to conceal contego to cover, shield, protect, defend contemno to defy contemno to think meanly of, despise, condemn, hate contemplatio survey, contemplation contemplor to mark out, regard, consider carefully, survey contemplor to observe contemptim contemptuously contemptio scorn, disdain, contempt contemptus despised, despicable, contemptible contendo to contend, strive, struggle, hasten contendo to compare, contrast, compete contendo to assert, maintain, shoot (a missile) cast contente eagerly, earnestly contentio controversy, straining contentus contented, satisfied contentus strained, stretched, eager, zealous contero to crush conticeo to be silent conticinium first part of the night, evening contineo to keep in, surround, contain, confine, include contineo to touch, reach, grasp, affect, infect contineo to hold, to keep togethere, to contian contineo to hold back, restrain contineo hold together, keep together, connect, join contineo contigi, contectum border on, befall (good luck) contingo to concern, meet with, attain contingo to touch, (intransitive) contingo (contactum) to touch closely, happen to, befall continuo to join (together), to be after continuo forthwith, without delay continuo (adv.) immediately, at once continuus connected together, continuous, uninterrupted continuus uninterrupted, next contorqueo to twist contra across from, against, in exchange for, opposed to contra (+ acc.) against contradico to speak against, oppose verbally, gainsay contradictio contradiction, opposition contradictio a speaking against, contradiction contradictio objection contrado to deliver together, or wholly contraho to gather together, assemble, draw up, unite contraho to conclude (an agreement), to reduce, contract contrarius contrary, opposed contrecto to touch, handle, feel contremisco to tremble, shake, quake, be afraid of contremo to tremble, shake contricio crushing, contrition contristo to sadden, afflict, damage (of crops) contristo to make sad or gloomy contubernium band of armed retainers contumacia arrogance contumax insolent contumelia blow contumeliose insolently contundo to pound conturbo to derange conturbo to confuse, scatter, throw into confusion distre convalesco to grow strong, gain strength convello to shatter conveniens agreeing, accordant convenienter consistently convenio to join together, come together convenire assemble, congregate, gather, meet conventio covenant, assembly conventus assembly conventus coming tohether, assembly, union, congress conversatio way, manner of life, monastic life conversatio frequent abode in a place converso to abide converto to convert converto to transform converto to turn around, cause to turn to adopt the monas convinco to overcome, conquer convinco to overcome, to demonstrate conviva guest convoco to call together, convene convulsus shattered cooperio covered wholly cophinus basket copia abundamce, supply copia abundant supply copia cornu fruitful and abundant supply copiae copie supplies, troops, forces copiose fully, at length, copiously copiosus wealthy, rich, abundantly provided, well-equipped copiosus well supplied, plentiful copula bond copulo or copulor to couple cor soul, heart corax raven Corbeiam Corbie corium leather corium skin cornix crow cornu horn corollarium flower-garland corona crown, diadem corporeus fleshly corpus body correptio reproof correptius more shortly corrigia rein corrigo to correct corrigo (correctum) to make correct, make right corripio to seize, snatch up, steal, (of a disease) corroboro to strengthen corrumpere bribe corrumpo to break up, destroy, annihilate, spoil, weaken corrumpo (documents) to falsify, (character) corruo to fall to the ground, sink down, be ruined dest corruo to tumble corruptio downtumble, seduction, bribery cortex bark, husk, peel, shell Corturiacum Courtrai corusco to glitter, glittering coruscus (a) flashing, twinkling, shaking, trembling corvus raven cos whetstone cotidiano daily cotidianus daily cotidie daily cotidie daily, every day coturnix quail Courtacum Courtrai coutor to associate with, have dealings with coxa hip coxendix hip crapula wine-drinking, intoxication, drunkenness crapula drunkenness cras tomorrow cras (adv.) tomorrow, on the morrow crassus fat, fatty, greasy crastinus of the morrow, the morrow crastinus of tomorrow creare create creator creator, founder creatura creature, servant creber thick, frequent, numerous crebra frequent, repeated crebresco to to become frequent crebro repeatedly, often, one after the other time afte credere have faith, have faith in, trust, believe, deem credo to believe, trust, commit, trust in, rely on thi credo to believe credulitas easiness of belief, just belief credulus full of confidence cremo to consume by fire creo to create, make creperum darkness crepido (-inis) foundation, base, pedestal, pier, quay dam crepitaculum a rattle crepito (-are) to rattle, creak, rustle creptio taking by force, seizure crepundia a toy, rattle, plaything crepusculum dusk, twilight crescere grow cresco (cretum) to grow, increase, expand, spring forth, arise creta chalk Creta Crete creta chalk, fuller's earth cretatus chalked, in white cretosus abounding in chalk cretus descended from cribellare sift cribrare sift cribro to sift cribrum sieve crimen guilt crimen accusation, blame, fault, guilt crimen an accusation, charge, fault, guilt, crim crimen cause of a crime criminatio accusation, charge, calumny criminator accuser criminor to accuse, complain of criminose reproachfully criminosus slanderous, reproachful crines hair, locks crinis hair crinis hair, tail of comet, rays of sun crinitus long haired crispans wavy, curly crispo (-are) to curl, move rapidly, brandish, wave crispus curly-haired, curly, trembling, quivering, shakin crista crest, plume, rooster's comb cristatus crested, plumed croceus yellow, golden, saffron-colored, of saffron crocinus yellow, saffron-colored, saffron oil crocodilus crocodile crocotula saffron-colored robe crocus crocus, saffron, yellow, saffron-colored crotalia ear-rings cruciamentum torture, torment cruciare crucify cruciatus torture, torment crucio to torture, torment crucio to be afflicted crudelis cruel crudelitas cruelty, inhumanity crudeliter cruelly crudeliter in a cruel manner crudesco to become violent, become hard cruditas an overly full stomach crudus crude, raw, rough, uncooked, unripe crudus green, fresh, immature, untimely, undigested har crudus bleeding, raw, uncooked, unripe, unprepared food cruento to make bloody, stain with blood cruentus bloody, bloodthirsty, blood-red crumens bag, purse, funds, store of cash cruor blood, gore crur, cruris leg, shank, shin, also foot crus leg, paw crus shin crusta rind, peel, bark, shell, inlay, embossing crusta crust crustulum pastery, cookie crustum bread, cake crux cross crux crucis cross crypta vault, grotto, covered gallery crystallinus of crystal crystallinus crystal crystallus crystal cubans sloping cubare lie, recline cubicularis pertaining to a bedroom cubicularius bed-chamber servant, chamberlain cubiculum bedroom, sleeping chamber cubiculum bedroom cubile bed, (marriage bed), lair, den, nest hive of bee cubitalis a cubit long cubito to lie down often cubitum the elbow, a cubit cubitum ire to go to bed, retire cubitus elbow cubo to lie down, recline, be ill in bed cubus die cuculla cowl cuculus cuckoo, fool cucumis cucumber cucurbita gourd, pumpkin, squash, fool cucus cuckoo, fool cui (fem. sing. dat.) IN WHICH (province) cui (masc. sing. dat.) TO WHOM did you give it? cui (neut. sing. dat.) (the monster), TO WHOM the cattle belonged cuius (fem. sing. gen.) (the queen), the vices OF WHOM were many cuius (masc. sing. gen.) (the saint) cuius (neut. sing. gen) (the building) cuiusmodi of what kind culmen summit, pillar culpa fault culpa blame, fault, guilt culpa fault, blame, (esp. aginst chastity) culpo to blam, censure, accuse cultellus a little knife cultor cultivator, worshipper cultor cultivator, planter, with gen.= resident inhabit cultura cultivation cultus worship, reverence, splendor culus anus cum with cum (prep + abl.) with cum (with indicative) when cum (with subjunctive) when, as, while, since, although cumba boat cumulatius in rich abundance cumulo to heap cumulus surplus cunabula cradle cunae nest for young birds cunctatio delay cunctator delayer, procrastinator cunctor to delay, impede, hold up cunctus all, all collectively, the whole cuneus troops drawn up for battle in the shape of a wedg cuniculus rabbit cupa barrel cupiditas greed cupiditas ambition, avarice, party spirit, eager desire cupido passion, desire, wantining, yearning, longing cupidus eager for cupio to desire, long for/to cupio to desire, wish, long for, desire cuppedia delicacies, candies, sweetmeats cupressus cypress, cyrpess wood, a cypress-wood casket cupressus cypres cur why, wherefore cur what for, why cur? why? cura concern cura care, concern cura management, administration, care, concern, charge curatio attention, medical attention, healing, curing curator guardian, overseer curia court curiositas curiosity, inquisitiveness, nosiness curiosus careful, attentive, curious, inquisitive worn ou curis quris a spear curo to care for, trouble about, pay attention to curo manage, administer, provide money curo to [+ negative] care nothing for curo (+gerundive) to see to a thing being done, cure, rest currere run curriculum career curriculum a running, race, lap around the track, course currus cart, a plow with wheels cursim hastily, quickly, rapidly cursito to run up and down curso to run back and forth cursor runner, carrier, messenger cursus a race, a running, race course, race track cours cursus course curto to shorten, abbreviate Curtracus Courtrai curtus shortened, mutilated, defective, gelded curvo to bend, arch, curve, influence curvo to bow curvus arched, bent, bowed, curved, crooked, wrong (mora cuspis spear cuspis point, the pointed end, spear, javelin, cooking s custodela guard custodia protection, custody custodia guardianship custodia guard custodiae custodie guards, wardens custodio to guard custodio watch over, observe custos guard custos (custodis) guardian, keeper, watchman, attendant, guard, spy cutis skin cyathus goblet cyclicus circuitous cycnus swan cylindrus cylinder, roller cymba boat cymbium tuna, tuna-fish, tunny cyparissus cypres Daci Dacians dacigena Dacian-born damnatio condemnation damno to condemn, damn damno to condemn damnum loss, damage, injury, a fine damnum loss, damage dapes fortune, wealth dapifer senescal daps banquet dare give de about, concerning de (prep. + abl.) down from, from, concerning, about dealbo to purify, whitewash debello to vanquish, finish a war, fight out debello cnquer, vanquish, end a war debeo to owe, to be morally bound to, to be bound by debilito to weaken, ennervate, sap, exhaust debitum debt debrio to intoxicate decem ten December December decens becoming, graceful decens, decenter properly, fittingly, suitably decenter becomingly, properly decentia propriety, decency of behavior decerno to judge, resolve on decerno to decide, determine, settle to decide to do som decerpo to pluck off, to gather, take away decertatio a contest, contention decerto to contend, fight to the finish decessio decrease, diminution decessio a retreat, withdrawal, departure, leaving decessor someone who retires, a predecessor decessus retirement, withdrawal, departure, death decet it is seemly, comely, suitable, proper decet fitting decido to fall down, fall dead, die, sink, fall decido (-cisi -cisum) to cut down, cut off, arrange, settle decies centena milia million decimus tenth decipio to ensnare, deceive decipio (deceptus) ensnare, trap, beguile, deceive, cheat declamatio practice in oratory declamatio loud or violent speech, declamatio declamo to declaim, orate, speak loudly declaratio a clarification declaro to proclaim (a person as chosen) declaro to prove declaro to explain, explain, reveal declinatio avoiding, inflection, declension declinatio a turning aside, declining declino to turn away declino to turn aside, deflect, turn away declino avoid, deviate, swerve, digress declive (-is) a slope, decline decoctor a spendthrift, bankrupt a fool parted from his m decollo (-are) to behead decolo (-are) to trickle away decolor (adj.) pale, without color decoloratio discoloration decoquo to boil down, boil away, (metals) decoquo (-ere, -coxi, -coctum to waste, become bankrupt decor beauty, grace decoro beautify, embellish, adorn decoro to grace decorus decorated, elegant decorus beautiful, graceful, charming, proper, fit, become decrepitus infirm, decrepit decresco to wane decresco to decrease, grow smaller decretum ordinance, principle decretum decree, judgment, edict, order decumbo to fall, fall into, lie down decurro to run down, manoeuver, run in a race, take refuge decurro to sing decurro to sail downstream decursio (milit.) a charge, manoeuver decursus a running down, charge, manoeuver, attack decursus downward course decurto to mutilate decus honor, dignity, ornament dedecor unseemly, shameful, disgraceful, dishonorable dedecus shame, dishonor, disgrace, crime dishonorable ac dedecus disgrace, blemish + gen dedico to dedicate dedignor to scorn dedo to surrender, consign deduco to escort, bring away deduco to lad out colonists, found a colony defaeco to cleanse, purify, purge defendere defend defendo to defend, ward off, protect, shelter defendo to support defensabiliter defensibly defenso to defend diligently defensor supporter, defender defero to carry, to bear, to bring defero to hand over, carry down, communicate, offer ref defessus weary, tired defetiscor (defessus) to grow tired, weary. deficio to to be wanting, to run out, fail, withdraw deficio weaken, to be in want deficio (defectum) to fail, to weaken, to be in want defigo to fasten defigo fasten down, secure, fix firmly, concentrate, fix definxu obtutu to one's gaze fixed and frozen defleo to bewail defleo to bewail, weep for defluo to flow away, disappear, be lost defluo to flow down, waste, disappear defuncta deceased defungo to discharge one's duties, quit, retire, die fin defungor to pass away degenero to cause to degenerate, disgrace by degeneracy degenero to be unlike one's kind, fall off, degenerate degero to pass time, live degusto to taste deinde next, then, thereafter, from that place deinde adv, afterwards delectabilis delightful delectare please delectatio delight delectatio delight, pleasure, enjoyment delecto to attract, delight, (pass + abl) delecto to delight in, to love delego to transfer, commit, assign, impute, attribute a deleo to obliterate, efface deleo blot out, erase, annihilate, destroy deleo (deletum ) to destroy, wipe out, erase delibero to determine, to be determined, resolve delibero to consider, deliberate delibuo to anoint delicate luxuriously, delicately, slowly deliciae allurements, charms, delights, fancies sweethear delictum transgression delinquentes transgressors delinquo to fail, be wanting, fail in duty, commit a crime delitesco to hide away delubrum shrine deludo to mock, cheat deluo to cleanse demens (dementis ) insane, mad, out of one's mind, foolish demergo to plunge demergo to sink, plunge into, dip under, go into debt demitto set down, let fall (to offer payment to the chur demitto to let down, lower demo to take away, subtract demo to remove demonstro to indicate, show, describe, explain demonstro to prove demoror to loiter, linger, tarry, belay demulceo to stroke down, caress by stroking demulceo to soften demum at length at las, finally denego to refuse, deny, reject denique at last, finally, again, in short denominata designated, designate specifically dens tooth dens (dentis ) tooth densitas thickness denso to grow thick denuncio declare, give notice, announce denuntio announce denuntio to announce officially, pronounce, declare denuo anew, again, a second time, afresh deorsum downwards depascor to feed upon depereo to perish, be utterly ruined deponere deposit depono to set down, bring down depono to put down, lay aside depopulatio pillaging, looting, sacking, plundering, robbing depopulo to pillage depopulor to pillage deporto to carry [off], fetch deporto to carry off, to take away deposco to earnestly request deposco depoposci to demand depraedor depredor to plunder, lay waste, pillage, ravage deprecatio prayer deprecativus deprecative deprecator intercessor, one who pleads on behalf deprecor to entreat for, beg for, intercede, curse deprecor to deprecate, intercede? deprecor to beg by entreaty, to excuse oneself, curse deprehendo to understand, overtake deprehensio detection deprimo (depressus) to press down, depress, low-lying depromo to take down, produce, fetch out depulso push aside, thrust away deputari to be classed among, be condemned to deputo to count, estimate/prune, cut off derelinquo to forsake, desert, abandon derideo to laugh at, mock, deride derigesco to become stiff derigo [-rexi, -rectum] to set straight, put in order deripio to tear down, snatch away deruptus broken off desaevio to rave furiously describo to describe, register, assign desero to abandon, foresake desero to leave, abandon, foresake desideratus welcome desiderium wish, longing, regret, grief, want, need desidero to long for, wish for greatly, to miss desidiosus lazy, unmotivated designo designate, define, describe, mark out designo to represent designo to define, describe, designate desino to to stop, leave off desino leave off, give over, cease, stop, end, desist desino (desiit) to leave off, give over, cease, stop, desist desipio to act foolishly, play the fool make an ass of o desisto to desist from desolo to desert, foresake, leave desolo to leave desolate, abandoned, to forsake desparatus given up on, desparate despectivus despicable despecto overlook, dispise, look down upon desperata irremediable despero to be without hope, despair, despair of, give up despero to despair despero to have no hope, despair, give up despiciens contemptuous despicio to disdain despicio to look down, regard from above, despise desposco to demand destinatus resolute, firm, determined, with one's mind made destino to fasten down, make fast, fix, determine settle destituo to abandon, defraud destituo to place, leave in the lurch, abandon destitutus destitue of destruo to tear down desudo to exert oneself desuesco to to be unaccustomed desumo to select, elect, choose, take out desuper from above detego to expose determino to fix the limits of, set boundaries to, delimit determino to settle, prescribe detestabilis execrable detestor to denounce detineo to keep back, detain, hang onto detineo hold off, hold back, detain detraho to drag off detrimentum damage, loss, detriment detrimentum defeat, damage detrudo to thrust down deus God, god deus god devasto to lay waste, ravage devenio to come to, arrive at, reach devia lonely, unfrequented places devia out-of-the-way roads devinco to subdue devio to turn from the straight road devito to avoid devius inconstan devoco to call away, call down, call aside devoro to devour devotio piety devotio (Christian) piety, devotion, zeal devoveo to consecrate, sacrifice, devote, curse, execrate dexter right, righthand dexter right, on the right dextera the right hand diabolus devil, Satan diadema diadem, abbot's mitre Diana Diana diapason whole octave diapente fifth diaria daily allowance of pay, food diatesseron fourth dicere say, tell dico to say dico (dictum ) to say, tell, speak, name, call, pronounce dico mandatum legationis to relay a message dictata things dictated, lessons, presents dictator dictator dictito to say often, reiterate dicto to say often, dictate, get written down dictum word, dictate dictus dictus a saying, a speech didico to be told (Herimann cap. 39, 44) dido dididi didtum to separate, divide, distribute dies day dies diei day diffamo to proclaim differo to hesitate differo to spread news, delay, defer, postpone differo to delay, postpone, to differ, be different differo to spread about, spread news, harrass, disturb differtus stuffed full, crammed, jammed difficilis difficult, hard, troublesome difficilis difficult, hard, inconvenient difficultas difficulty, need, trouble, distress diffidens without self-confidence, distrusting diffidentia disobedience diffido to be distrustful, distrust, despair diffinio to terminate diffundo to spread, pour forth, scatter diffusus outspread digero to relate in order, dispose digestor arranger, composer, one who makes a pattern digitus finger, toe, linen digladio to run through with swords dignanater courteously dignitas rank, dignity dignitas merit, worth, prestige, dignity dignor to deign dignosco dignosco to distinguish, recognize as different dignus worthy dignus (+ abl.) worthy, worthy of, meritorious digredior digredi digressus to depart, deviate, digress digressio separation, departure, digression digressus separation, departure, digression dilabor to perish dilanio to tear to pieces dilato to spread out, extend, expand, increase dilectio love, solicitude, esteem dilgenter attentively, earnestly, carefully, diligently diligens diligent, careful diligenter diligently diligentia diligence, industry, perseverance, persistence diligo to choose out, esteem highly, prize, love diligo to value highly diluculo dawn, daybreak diluo (of troubles) to remove, resolve dimicare fight, struggle dimico to contend, struggle dimidium half dimitto to leave, forgive, send away, abandon dimitto to break up, dismiss, leave, abandon, leave behind directus plain, simple, direct, open, straightforward diremptio separation dirigo to arrange, "send out" a letter or ambassador or" diripio to separate, tear apart, pillage, devastate lay diripio to snatch away diripio to tear in pieces, lay waste, devastate, plunder diripio to plunder, tear to pieces diriter abominably dirumpo to break to pieces dirunitas long duration diruo to demolish, destroy, ruin diruo to destroy dirus abominable dis rich, possessing wealth or worth discedo to depart from, deviate, leave discedo to go away discedo (discessum ) to break up, depart, go away, pass away discerpo to dismember, disjoint, sever, divide, break up discerpo to mangle discessio f, management, ordering, direction discidium separation, division, disagreement, tearing apart disciplina teaching discipulus disciple, student, learner, pupil disco to learn, become acquainted with discordia disagreement discrepo to differ, to be diifferent, vary, disagree discretio distinction discrimen difference, hazard discrimino to separate discurro to run to and fro discutio to dissipate disicio to lay in ruins dispar different dispensatio distribution, stewardship disperdo to destroy dispergo to scatter dispertio to divide dispono to describe, dispose dispono to arrange, put in order, draw up (troops) disputatio debate, dispute, discussion disputo discuss disrumpo to smash dissemino to spread abroad dissero to discuss, speak, declare, utter dissero to examine, treat of, discuss dissimilis unlike, different, disparate, dissimilar, distinct dissimulo to disguise dissimulo to ignore, leave unnoticed dissimulo to conceal, disguise, keep secret dissipo to demolish dissolutus lax, weak, wanting in energy, dissolute profliga distinctus separate, apart, different distinctus a distinguishing, distinction, difference distinguo decorate, adorn, embellish, punctuate distinguo separate, divide, part, distinguish, discriminate distinguo to divide distraho (associations) to break up, dissolve distraho (persons) estrange, distract, (property) distribuo to distribute, divide distribuo to apportion districtus (f. distringo) strict, severe, hesitating, busy ditata endowed, endow ditio authority dito to enrich, endow, make wealthy dito to enrich, make wealthy ditus rich diu adv. a long while, long time, for a long time diu by day, for a long time, a long time ago diurnitas long duration diutinus lasting a long time, enduring, long-lived diutius longer, too long (a period of time) diuturnus lasting a long time, of long duration divello to tear apart, away, untie diverbero to cudgel soundly diversus different, unlike, opposed, hostile diverticulum by-way diverto to turn aside dives rich, opulent, wealthy divido to divide, scatter divinatio prediction, divination divinitus divine influence, admirably, nobly, by inspiration divinitus by divine communication, by divine influence divinus divine, sacred divitiae divitie riches, wealth divortium division divulgamen fame divulgatio publishing, spreading abroad divum sky divus god do to give, offer, convey, donate, furnish do pacem to grant peace doceo docui doctum to instruct, teach, tutor docere teach doctiloquus speaking learnedly doctor teacher doctrina doctrine, teaching, instruction, learning doctus taught, instructed, learned, tutored dolens painfully doleo to suffer pain, to be pained, grieve dolor pain, grief. misery, suffering dolosa deceitful dolose slyly, deceitfuly dolositas deceit dolosus crafty, cunning, sly, deceitful dolus [instrument of] deceit, trap, ambush dolus fraud, deceit, guile, treachery, a trap domesticus domestic, civil domina domna lady, mistress dominatus rule, mastery, tyranny, domination dominatus mastery dominica demesne dominor [+ gen] to be lord and master of, dominate dominor to be mastered dominus lord, master dominus domno master, lord domito to tame, subdue, break in domus house domus house, home, residence domus household, house, abode donare give donarium votive offering donativum donation, offering donatus given donec up to the time when, until, as long as, while donec until dono to give donum gift donum gift, votive offering donum gift, present, donation dormio to sleep, slumber, siesta, nap dormire be asleep dormito to be dreaming dorsum back doxa glory dubitare doubt dubito to doubt, hesitate dubium doubt dubium doubt, hesitation, reservation ducamen duchy, ducal dignity duco to lead on the march, marry a wife, command duco to calculate, count, reckon, esteem, considered duco to draw, shape, construct, (time) duco to lead, draw, esteem, consider duco to charm, influence, mislead, draw in ductor general, leader, commander, guide dudum for a long while, a long while ago, some time ago dulcedo sweetness, pleasantness, charm dulcidine sweetly, pleasantly, charmingly dulcis sweet, pleasant, agreeable dulcis delightful dulcis gentle, soft, sweet, tender dum while, as long as, until dummodo (conj. + subj.) provided dumtaxat at least, not less than, at most, not more than duo two duodecim twelve duodeviginti eighteen duplex double, dual duplicitas multiplication by two, ambiguity, duplicity duro to harden, last, endure durus hard durus hard, harsh, tough, strong, enduring, rough, rude dux chief, boss dux duke dux ducis leader, guide, commander, general, duke e from, out of eatenus so far, thus far, up to then ebrius drunk, intoxicated ebullio to boil up, bubble up, to appear produce in abun ecce Lo! Behold! See! ecclesia church ecquando at any time? ever? edico to announce, declare edictum ordinance editio statement editio the publishing of a book, an announcement edo put forth, give out edo edi essum to eat, consume, devour, waste edoceo to instruct thoroughly edoceo to inform fully, instruct thoroughly edoctus well versed, informed educator tutor educo to foster, draw out educo to draw out, lead out, march out/bring up, rear edulis edible eduro to last endure, persist edurus hard effectus rendered effectus doing, execution, performance, effect, result effeminatus womanish effercio to cram, stuff, fill effero to bring forth effertus stuffed, jammed, crammed efferus savage, wild, untamed, undomesticated efferus fierce effervo to boil up, swarm out (like bees) efficaciter effectively, efficiently efficax effective, efficient efficax efficacious efficens efficient, effective efficenter efficiently, effectively, powerfully efficio to do, produce, effect, make, bring about, cause efficio to bring to pass effingo to form, fashion, make, duplicate, copy efflagito to plead urgently efflo to breathe out, blow out effloresco to blossom, bloom, break out effluo to vanish, be forgotten, pour out, leak, seep be effluvium an outlet, seepage effodio to dig out, excavate, to gut effor to speak, express, state, declare effor to speak out effreno to let go without reins effrenus wild, unrestrained, unchecked, unbridled effundo to pour out effundo to pour out, pour forth, shed, utter effusio a pouring form, effusion effusio exhilaration, upwelling of emotion effutio to gab, chatter egelidus thawed, lukewarm, tepid egens to needy egenus in want of, in need of, destitute egeo to need, lack, want, be without egestas to extreme poverty ego I, me ego I, self egredior to come out egregius illustrious, eminent, distinguished egressio withdrawal, depart, withdraw eia ho! ejulo to wail elabor to slip away, escape elatio high wave, self-exaltation elatus puffed up elatus puff-up, proud of oneself, arrogant electrum amber electus chosen, select elegans elegant, fine elementum first principle, element, basic constituent elemosina alms elemosinarius almoner, person in charge of providing charity elephantus elephant elido to dash to pieces eligo to pick out, select, choose eligo to elect eloquens eloquent, persuasive, fluent eloquentia eloquence, readiness of speech, fluency persuasi eloquor to speak out, express oneself, declare speak elo elucido to light elucubro to compose with great labor eluo to wash out, rinse cleanse, squander, waste eluvies a flowing over, flood, innundation eluvio inundation emanio to flow out, spread, arise, emanate, originate emendator corrector, editor emendo to free from faults, emend, edit emendo to amend, correct emercor to buy up emereor to deserve emerio to obtain by service, earn completely deserve we emico to shine emineo to stand out, project, be remarkable, conspicuous emineo to be prominent, conspicuous eminor to threaten, menace eminus at a distance, from a distance emiolios one and a half emiror to wonder at exceedingly emitto to send out emitto suspiria to to sigh emo emi emptum to buy, purchase emoveo to move away, remove, take away emptio a buying, a purchase emundo to cleanse en behold! enim in fact, truly, indeed enim for, in fact, truly (may often be omitted) enimvero indeed eniteo to gleam enitor -niti, -nisus or nixus to labour to bring forth enitor to climb, advance, work one's way up, strive mak ensis sword enucleate plainly enucleo to make clear enumero to count, count up, enumerate enutrio to bring up eo to advance, march on, go, leave eo ire itum to go, advance, proceed, travel, move along prog eos dawn, daybreak ephebus youth episcopalis episcopal episcopus bishop epistola letter epistola letter, epistle, missive, message epistula letter, epistle, missive, message epitaphium funeral oration epithalamium wedding song epitoma abridgement, summary epitome abridgement, summary epos epic poem epotus drunk up, drained, swallowed up eptheca an addition epulae a banquet, feast, food, dishes, courses of a meal epulo sumptuous food, banquet, feast epulor to feast, banquet, dine epulor to dine epulor to feast, feast on epulum a banquet, feast equa a mare eques horseman equester (-stris, stre) equestrian, relating to cavalry equidem (adv) indeed, truly, for my part equinus equine, relating to horses equipero [+ dat.] to be the equal of equitatus cavalry, horsemen (classical) equito to ride, ride through equito (-are) to ride on horseback equus horse, steed, mount equus horse era mistress, lady eradico to root out, destroy, obliterate, get rid of erectus upright, standing, resolute erectus proud, alert, anxious, cheerful erepo to creep out, creep over, creep up ereptio seizure, taking by force, confiscation ereptio seizure ereptor thief, robber erga (+ acc.) toward, about ergastulum a workhouse for slaves ergo (adv.) accordingly, then, therefore ergo (gen. +) on account of, because of ericius (mil.) hedgehog, chevaux de frise erigo to erect, raise, set up, arouse, encourage incit erigo to arouse, raise up erilis relating to a master or mistress eripio to snatch erogatio payment, expenditure erogo to ask for, to pay out, expend, disburse erogo to disburse errabundus wandering erratio a wandering, straying erratum fault, error, mistake erratus wandering, straying erro to wander, stray, rove, be mistaken, err go astr erro to go astray, wander, err error aberration, error, mistake error uncertainty, deception error wandering, error, mistake, deception erubesco (+ inf.) to blush to, (+acc.) erubescundus something to be ashamed of, worth blushing over eruca a colewort (plant) eructo eject, belch eructo (-are) to vomit, throw up, to cast out, throw out erudio to polish, instruct erudio to polish, smooth, instruct, teach, educate eruditio instruction, teaching, knowledge, learning erumpo to break open, vent, discharge, erupt erumpo to break out, burst forth, (milit.) eruo to pluck, rescue eruo to dig up, pull out, raze, demolish eruptio an eruption, bursting forth, sally, attack assau erus master, owner, lord ervum a bitter weed, vetch esca food esca food, bait escensio a movement inland, milit. marching inland esculentus succulent, delicious, ripe esito (-are) to continue eating esse be esse nature of being esse suae potestatis to be one's own master essedarius one who fight from a chariot esurio to be hungry, to hunger, long for, desire, yearn esuritio hunger et and et .. et both .. and etenim for indeed ethologus a mimic etiam as yet, still, even, also, besides etiam and furthermore etiam (+ comparative) still [etiam maior = still greater etiam (answering a question) yes, certainly etiam atque etiam again and again etiamsi even if, although etsi though, although etsi (acsi) even if, although, nothwithstanding eunuchizare castrate eunuchus eunuch evacuo empty evado to escape evado to go out, set out, get off, escape, result evagor to wander out, stray off evalesco to grow strong, become fashionable, prevail be a evaneo to vanish evanesco (evanui) to vanish, disappear, pass away evangelium the gospel evanidus vanishing, disappearing, passing away evasto (-are) to lay waste, devastate eveho (-vexi, vectum) to carry out (+ relexive) evello to tear out, pluck out, turn out, result evello (-ere, velli, vulsum) to happen, occur, come about, befall evenio to come to pass, happen, befall eventus outcome, success, fate, event, occurrence everbero to strike violently, to hit hard everriculum a fishing net, seine, a clean sweep everro (-verri, -versus) to sweep out, plunder, pillage eversio an overturning, destruction, ruin eversor a destroyer everto to destroy, ruin, demolish, raise, overthrow everto to turn out, throw out, eject, dislodge, overturn evestigatus found out, discovered. tracked down evidens clear, distinct, plain, visible, evident evidenter clearly, distinctly, plainly evigilo to awaken, be alert, be watchful [trans.] work h evincio [vinxi, victum] to tie up, bind evinco to conquer, subjugate, enthrall, defeat eviscero to disembowel evito to shuun, avoid, to kill o kill" evoco to draw out, draw on, produce recall to the colo evolo to flee, escape, fly away, rush out evolutio unrolling and reading of a scroll reading of a b evolvo to untangle, extricate, detach, disclose, explain evomo to vomit forth evulgo to publish ex from, out of ex (= e ) (prep. + abl.) exacuo to sharpen exaequo exequo to be like, equal, make level or even, relate exaestuo to give forth, foam exaggeratio accumulation exaggeratus accumulated, abundantly supplied exaggero to enlarge, accumulate exagito to stir up exalto to raise high exanimus lifeless exardesco to to be inflamed exaresco to become dry, arid exarmo to disarm exaro to write down, till exaro to plow up, dig up, write on a wax tablet exaspero to irritate exaudio to hearken to, grant exaudio to listen to, hear plainly, hear favorably excedo (trans.) to exceed, leave, pass beyond excellens superior excellentia excellence, merit, worth excello to elevate, surpass excelsa elevations excessum departure, death, digression excipio (excepi exceptum ) to take out, except, take, capture excipo to receive, intercept excito to awaken, occasion, stir excito call forth, bring about, wake, raise up exclamo to shout, cry aloud, exclaim, call someone by name excludo to shut out, exclude excolo to tend, cultivate excolo to honor (a deity), polish, adorn, refine, serve excorio to skin excorio to shave, scalp, flay, oppress, peel excrucio to torment, torture, cause great pain excusatio excuse excuso to exempt from blame, excuse, make excuses plead executio to seize, recover executor adminstrator, executive officer exemplar model, pattern, original, prototype, book to copy exemplar example exemplum pattern, model, example exempoator m, model, example exeo to withdraw, go forth exerceo to train, cultivate, keep at work, exercise prac exerceo to administer exercitatio work at, busy oneself in exercitatio adminstration, [+ in] prosecute exercito to practise diligently exercitus army exertus tested, tried, approved, experienced exesto extra esto exhaurio to exhaust, make out exhaustus drained exheredo to disinherit exheres disinherited exhibeo to sustain, deliver exhibeo exibeo to produce, show, display, offer, allow, cause exhibitio producing exhilaro to make cheerful exhilaro to delight exhorresco to be horrified, to shake, shudder, dread trembl exhorto to encourage exigo drive out, force out, exact, demand, sell exigo complete, finish, determine, decide, settle exigo to exact exilis thin, slender, meager eximietate uncommonness, excellence eximius extraordinary, excellent, fine, superb eximius uncommon, extraordinary, exceptional eximo to free, release, take out, remove, waste exinde thence, furthermore exinde thence, next, thereupon, after that, then accordi existo to become exitiabilis exitialis exitosu fatal deadly, destructive, lethal exitialiter perniciously exitium ruin exitium destruction, ruin exitus withdrawing, outlet exitus going out, going forth, exit, end, finish exorbatus stripped exordior to begin exordium commencement exordium the beginning (especially of a speech) exorior to rise, spring up, issue, appear, come forward exorior to appear, come forth exorno to equip, adorn exorno to furnish, provide, supply exoro prevail upon, beg exoro to prevail upon a person, entreat successfully exorsus begun exortus appearance exosus loathing, fiercely hating, despising exosus hated exceedingly expalpo to lure out, coax out expando to spread out expedio to release, set free, clear, explain, clarify se expedio to free from a snare, disentangle, ready, settled expedite promptly expedite freely, easily expeditio enterprise expeditione military operation, military force, expedition expeditus unimpeded, unchecked, (mil.) expello to eject expello (expuli expulsum ) to drive out, expel, force out, banish expendo to consider expergefacio to awaken expergescor to bestir experior to test, put to the test, ascertain experior (experiri, expertus to try, test, experience, prove expers wanting, destitute of, not sharing in expers destitute of expertus experienced, ascertained, knowing, proven expetens desirous, eager expeto to seek after, make for expeto to fall upon expeto to demand, require, desire, strive after make fo expilatio plundering, taking booty expio to purify expiscor to fish out, find out, discover explano to make clear expleo to fulfill, finish expleo to make losses good, fulfil, discharge (duties) expleo explevi expletum to fill, fill up, complete, finish expletio to bring to completion, finish, end expletio satifying expletus (part.) perfect, complete explicatus explanation, exposition explico to uncoil, undo explico to unfold, unroll, disentangle, explain, expound explorator scout expono to expound, display expono (exposui expositum ) to set forth, explain, expose exporrigo to spread out exposco to entreat expositus open, accessible, exposed expostulo to demand earnestly, to make a claim exprimo to represent expugno to capture, overcome, subdue, take by storm, gain expugno to take by assault expurgo to purge exquisitus sought after, exquisite, excellent, fine, delicat exsecrabile detestable exsecror to detest, curse exsequiae relics exsequor to execute, avenge, punish, relate, describe exp exsequor to describe, carry out exsequor to maintain, keep up, carry out, fulfill accompl exsequor exequor to follow to the grave, follow to the end exsertus exertus project, thrust forward exsilio to spring forth, bound forth exsilium exile, banishment exsisto to emerge, be, happen, take place exsisto to emerge, appear, exist, be exsisto existo to stand forth, arise, appear exsors deprived of exspectata welcome exspecto to await exspecto to look for, expect, await, wait for exstasis amazement exstinguo, exstingui, exstinc to extinguish, put out exsto to stand out, be extant, appear, project, show it exsul exile exsulo to live in exile exsulto to revel, rejoice exceedingly, exult exsupero to excell extemplo to at once extendo to stretch out exter, externus foreign exterminata banished extermino exussum, burn down, burn, set on fire externus outer, foreign, outside, external exterritus terrified extimus outermost extollo to praise exaggerate, decorate, adorn extollo to exalt extollo to lift up, raise up, erect, elevate, exalt extorqueo to twist, wrench, dislocate, extort by force extra outside, outside of extra (prep. + acc.) beyond, outside extraho to draw forth extraho prolong, protract, bring forward extraho extraxi extractum drag out, extract, remove extraneus a foreigner, stranger extraneus outside, exraneous, foreign, strange extrarius outward, external, strange, unrelated, foreign extremitas end, farthest part extremitas end extremo at last, finally, ultimately extremus outermost, last, extreme extrico disentangle, free, extricate, clear up, unravel extrinsecus outwardly, externally, from the outside extrudo to drive out extundo to form by beating with a hammer, invent, devise extundo drive away, repel violently, extort exturbo to drive away, thrust out exuberans superfluous exubero to abound in exubero to grow thickly, abound exulcero to aggravate, exacerbate, irritate, make worse e exulto to exult, be joyful exululo to howl loudly exundo to overflow, abound exuo to divest, strip off exuo to lay aside, put away, store/strip, deprive exuro, exussum burn down, burn, set on fire exustio burning up, conflagration exuviae spoils, booty, hides pelt exuviae (anything taken off) dress, clothing faba broad bean faber skilled, ingenious faber craftsman, artisan fabre skillfully, ingeniously fabrica manufacture, craft, trade, art, trick, device fabrico to construct fabrilis workmanlike fabula fable, story, tale, play fabula fable facesso to work zealously, do, accomplish facies face facies aspect, appearance, look, condition facies face, visage, countenance facile easily, without difficulty facilis easy, agreeable, affable, pleasant facillimus easiest, most agreeable, pleasantest facina -oris bad deed, crime, villainy, deed, action facinarose viciously, scandalously facinus villainy facio to sacrifice, suit, help, be of service facio to give permission, to experience, suffer (troubl facio (trans.) to make, do, act, perform, cause, bring about facio + inf. to bring to pass, to order, to have done facio servitium to be in one's service facis a bundle, packet facticius artificial, man-made factum deed, accomplishment, work, act, achievement factum action facultas feasibility, opportunity, resources, abundance e facultas power, means, opportunity, capacity, ability sto facultas ability, store, wealth facunda eloquent facunde eloquently, fluently facundia fertile, productive, profitable facunditas fertility, qickness or readiness of speech facundus eloquent, fluent, ready of speech faeneror to hunt, loan, join faex impurities fallo to deceive, dupe falsidicus lying falsus false, deceptive falx scythe fama talk, report, rumor, gossip, tradition fama report, common talk, fame famen word, utterance, articulation fames famine, hunger fames hunger familia family familia family, household familiaris belonging to a household, friendly, intimate familiaritas confidential friendship, intimacy famosus much spoken of, renowned, notorious, infamous li famulatus obeisance, attention, obedience, allegiance vass famulatus servitude, slavery, service, an extablishment of famulo to attend famulor to be a servant, to serve, attend, obey famulus serving, servile, a servant, slave fanaticus enthusiastic, inspired, frenzied fanum a temple or church with the land around it a hol far farris spelt, grain, meal farci, farci, fartum to fill up, stuff farcio to stuff farina meal or flour farrago mixed fodder for cattle, mash, mishmash, medley farratus provided with grain fartim stuffing, filling fartor one who fattens fowls fas divine law or command, fate, destiny, lawful all fascia bandage, band, girdle, girth fascino to bewitch, envy fascis bundle, burden fastidio to dislike, have an aversion to, loathe fastidiosus squeamish, dainty, fastidious fastidium aversion, loathing fastidium scorn, disdain, haughtiness fastidium disgust, dislike, sqeamishness fastigate slantingly fastigatus pointed down, sloping down fastosus pride, haughtiness fastus haughtiness fatalis deadly, fated fateor to confess, admit, allow, reveal, make known fatigatus wearied fatigo worry, fatigue, vex, harass, tease fatigo to harass, torment fatua foolish fatum fate, destiny, doom, lot, weird fatuo to render vain, cause to fail fautor favorer, promoter, patron, partisan, supporter fautor promoter faveo to favor, befriend, delight in approval faveo (+ dat.) be favorable to, aid, support, help faveo (+ inf.) To be inclined to do favillesco to reduce to ashes feculentia dregs, lees, impurities, filth fecunda plentifully furnished, fertile fecundo fertilize, make fruitful fefello to be failed by, disappointed by something felicitas happiness feliciter happily felix happy, fortunate felix felicis lucky, fortunate, happy femina woman fenestra window fera wild animal fera animal, beast fere almost, nearly fere well-nigh fere almost, nearly, not quite, generally " feretrum bier, litter feretrum bier ferinus brutal feritas wildness, savageness feriter fiercely ferito to fight, strike, deal blows, lash out ferme, fere almost, about fero tuli latum to carry, bring, tell, relate, and much else ferocia high spirit, courage, arrogance, ferocity ferocitas courage, untamed spirit, arogance ferocitas savageness ferociter with spirit, courageously, arrogantly, forciously ferox headstrong ferox spirited, courageous, warlike, wild, arrogant un ferramenta tools made of iron, or shod with iron ferramentum iron implement ferrarius of iron, a blacksmith, iron mines ferrati cuirassiers ferratilis in chains (slaves and prisoners) ferratus iron-clad ferratus a soldier in armor, in chains furnished with iro ferreus made of iron, hard, unfeeliing, cruel, unbending ferrugineus rust colored, dusky ferrugo the color of rust ferrum iron ferrum iron, sword ferrum sword, arms, iron, horseshoe fertilis fruitful, fertile, productive fertilitas abundance fertilitas fertility, fruitfulness ferula the herb fennel, a rad to beat children with ferus fierce ferus fierce, wild, savage, untamed fervefacio to heat, boil, melt fervens glowing, hot, heated, (character) ferventer hotly, warmly ferveo be excited by passion, rage ferveo to boil, foam, glow ferveo to be boiling hot, boil, seethe, glow fervesco to become hot, begin to glow or boil fervidus fiery fervidus boiling, seething, foaming, fiery, passionate ex fessus wearied fessus tired festinanter hastily festinatio speed, haste festino to hasten, hurry, speed festino to make haste festinus hastening, hasty festivus festive feteo to have a bad odor, stink fictus feigned ficus fig ficus fig tree fidelis untranslated fidelis faithful, loyal, true fidelitas fidelity, loyalty, homage fidens confident, without fear, courageous fides trustworthiness, protection fides trust, confidence, reliance, belief, faith fides lyre, string fides promise, assurance, word of honor, engagement fides promise, trust, faith, belief, truth fiducia trustworthiness, confidence, reliance fiducia confidence, trust, assurance fiducialiter confidently fidus trusty fiendo f.p.p, same as faciendo, the making it will be m filia daughter filiolus godson, ward, foster-son filius son fimus dung, dirt, filth, manure fines territory, limits, borders fines finium boundaries, limits, territory finio to cease finis end, ending finis end, limit, boundary, purpose finitimus adjoining finitimus finitumus neighboring, adjacent, related to, similar fio, fieri, factus be made, be done, become firmamentum strengthening, prop, the main point, support firmiter enduringly firmitudo durability firmo to assert, maintain, strengthen, make firm encou firmo to make lasting, secure, affirm firmus firm, strong, reliable, solid firmus steadfast, constant, durable flagello whip, scourge flagitiosa infamous flagitium disgraceful act flagrare glow, glow with heat, burn flagro to blaze flamen breeze, holy spirit, wind flamma flame, fire flandrensis Fleming, of or from Flanders flatus blowing, blast, breathing, arrogance, haughtiness flax, falcis sickle, bill-hook, pruning hook flebilis lamentable, doleful flecto to overcome, bend fleo to weep fleo to weep, cry, shed tears, sob flere to cry, shed tears fletus weeping, tears flexilis pliant floccipendo account of slight value, take lightly floreo to [+ abl.] be distinguished for floresco to begin to blossom flos crown, move to and fro, wander flos bloom, flower fluctivagus wave-driven fluctus flood, billow fluctus billow, wave fluidus moist flumen river fluo to flow, pour, stream fodio to prick, sting, jab foede fouly, in a filty manner foedero to ally, make a treaty, make a pact, federate foedis-e foul, fithly foedo to pollute foedus alliance, agreement foeteo to smell bad foetidus smelly, stinking foetor a bad smell, a stink foetus young, progeny foliatus leafy folium leaf, sheet folium leaf folliculus small bag, small purse, little sack follis a leather bag, purse, bellows, puffed-out cheeks fomentum poultice, alleviation fomentum nourishment fomes stimulus, incentive, motive fomeus smoky, smoke-filled fonticulus small spring, little fountain for say, sing in verse, speak forabilis penetrable foras outside, without, out of doors, +dare =to publish forca pitfall, snare, trap forceps pincers, tongs forda a cow with calf fore, forem future infinitive of sum forensis relating to the forum, relating to legal business forensis public forensis, e legal forfex scissors, shears foris out of doors, outside, abroad, from abroad, from foris a door, opening, entrance forma appearance, model forma forma, shape, beauty formalis having a set or standard form, formal formamentum conformation formator a former, fashioner, maker formatura forming, fashioning, shaping formica ant formidilose dreadfully, teribly formidilosus causing dread, fear, terror formido to be terrified, frightened, afraid formido fear, dread formidolosus fearful formo to fashion formo to shape, form, fashion formose beautifully formositas beauty formosus beautiful, well-shaped formosus finely formed formosus beautiful, fine, handsome, lovely formula physical beauty, formula, rule, principle fornacalis relating to an oven fornacula a small oven fornicatus arched, vaulted foro to bore, pierce, make a hole, penetrate fors-itis chance, luck fors fortis chance, luck, fortune forsit forsan forsitan perhaps, probably fortasse perhaps fortasse maybe, perhaps, possibly forte by chance, by luck, accidentally forte perchance fortis valiant fortis strong, brave, powerful, robust, steadfast coura fortiter valiantly fortiter strongly, bravely fortitudo physical strength, courage, moral bravery fortitudo courage fortuito (used as adverb) accidentally, by chance fortuitus accidentally, by luck, casual fortuitus accidental, by chance, fortuitous fortuna fortune, luck, fate, chance fortuna condition fortunate fortunately, happily fortunatus fortunate, lucky, wealthy, rich fortunatus fortunate, lucky, happy fortuno to make happy, to bless, to prosper foruli book-case forum market place, town square forus gangway of a ship fossa ditch, trench, channel, moat fossor a digger, ditcher, sapper, fool, boor, clown fossura digging, delving, sapping, ditching fovea a pit, trap for game, pitfall foveo to cherish, encourage, enfold fragilis fragile, easily broken, fleeting, transitory fragilis weak, feeble fragilitas frailness, weakness, fragility, frailty fragilitas frailty fragor a crash, crack fragor crashing fragosus roaring, crashing, rough, broken fragro to smell, be odiferous, redolent Franci Franks Francigeni Frankish people Francisca Frankish frango to break down frater brother fraudatio fraud, deceit, trickery fraudulentus deceitful fraus fraud frendo to gnash one's teeth, bruise, crush, grind frendo gnash the teeth, crush, bruise, grind freno curb, restrain, hold back frenum reins, bridle, bit, restraint frenum bridle frequentatio frequency, crowding frequenter frequently frequentia crowd frequentia a large concourse, population, numerous assembly frequento to crowd, visit frequento to crowd, collect in large number, visit fretus + abl. relying upon, depending on, banking on frigidus feeble frigus cold, coolness, cold of winter, dullness, indolen frigus cold frivolus trifling frons forehead, brow, front fructuarius fruitful, fertile fructus fructus fruit, profit, enjoyment, produce frugalitas frugality, economy, pinching pennies frumentum grain fruor to have the benefit of, to enjoy fruor to enjoy, delight in, use frusto to break to pieces frustra in vain, mistakenly, wantonly, without reason frustra esse to be deceived, to be mistaken frustro to defraud, deprive frutex shrub, bush frux fruits of the earth, success frux, frugi fruits of the earth fuga flight, escape fugio to flee, escape, runa aaway, avoid, shun fugo to put to flight, chase away, drive into exile p fugo to put to flight, chase fulcio to support, strengthen, uphold, to besiege oppre fulcio to strengthen fulgens flashing, illustrious fulgeo (fulsi ) to flash, shine, beam fulgetra lightning fulgetrum lightning fulgidus glittering fulgur lightning fulgur to flash fultus supporter fumidus smoky, smoke-filled fumo to smoke, steam, reek fundatio-onis f, foundation fundator m, founder funditus totally funditus utterly fundo to cast to the ground, pour forth fundo to pour, pour out (like molten metal), melt, cast fundo to found, establish fundo (milit.) to rout, scatter, defeat, put to flight fundus estate funestus causing calamity, deadly fungor to [+ abl.] discharge, administer fungor, fungi, functus to occupy oneself, perform, do, execute funiculus a thin rope, cord, string funis rope, cord, line funis -is rope, cord, line furax inclined to steal furca a fork, pitchfork, narrow pass furcifer rascal furcillo to act as a support furiae madness furibundus inspired, raging, furious furiosus mad furo to rage furor madness, rage, frenzy furor fury furs thief furtificus thievish furtim by stealth furtim by stealth, stealthily fusus (from fundo) spread out, extended, wide, copious futurus -a, -um, absurd galactinus the Milky Way galbinus a greenish-yellow color galea helmet galea [leather] helmet Gallia Gaul gallina hen gallo cock Gallus Gaul Gandavum Ghent ganea ganeum brothel garrio to prate, chatter garrio to chatter, babble garrulitas prating, chattering, talkativeness garrulus chattering, talkative, garrulous garrulus noising, talkative garum a fermented fish sauce gaudeo to rejoice, be joyful, take pleasure in gaudeo (+ abl. of specificati to take delight in gaudeo (gavisus) to rejoice, take delight gaudium * joy gaudium joy, delight, happiness gaudium gladness, joy gauisus (< gaudeo) rejoicing, joyous, glad, happy gaza treasure gelamen assembly, gathering gelide coldly, weakly, feebly gelidus cold, frosty, icy, freezing gelidus icy gelo to freeze gelu freezing cold, frost gelu frost, chill, cold gelus icy coldness Gemblacensis Gembloux gemino to double geminus twinned, double, paired, half and half gemitus groan, moan gemma gem gemo to sigh, groan, wail generasco to be produced, to be born generatim by kinds, according to classes, generally in gen genero to beget, engender, produce, create genero to engender, beget generose nobly generositas noble breed d generosus of noble birth, aristocratic, well-bred genetrix mother genialis lust-producing genitalis fruitful genitor sire, genitor genitus sired, begotten, scion gens nation, people le""" gens clan, race, nation, people, tribe gentilitas heathenism genu knee genus class, high birth, child, description genus kind, sort, class, category genus hominum human race georgicus agricultural germen offshoot, germ gero to carry, bear, wear, give birth to, to car gero to transact gero to have, bear gerulus messenger gestio to [+ inf] to long to gesto to carry, bear about gestum (gero) carrying about, conduct (oneself) gestum (gero) carriage, bearing, having borne gibber -era, -erum, hump-back, hunch-back gigno (genuit) to bring forth, bear, beget, father gilvus a pale yellow color gingiber ginger glacialis icy, frozen, full of ice glacies ice glacio to freeze gladius sword gleba soil gloria fame, renown, glory glorifico to glorify, adorn, exalt glorificus glorious, full of glory glorior to glory, brag, boast, pride oneself glorior to pride oneself, boast, glory in glubo to rob gluten glue gluto glutton gluttio to swallow, gulp down gnare expertly, wisely gnaritas knowledge gnarus knowing, acquainted with, expert gnarus skilful, wise, knowing gradior to conduct one's self, walk, live Græcia Greece gramen grass grandaevus old, aged grandis great grano, onis hailstorm grassor go about, go ahead, proceed, attack grassor to rage gratanter with joy grate freely, willingly, happily gratia in order to, for the sake of, to gratia gratitude, favor gratia grace, esteem, obligation, thanks gratia (in the abl.) on account of gratia agere (+ dat.) to thank grator to manifest joy, congratulate gratuita gracious gratulatio to [+ gen] give thanks for gratulor to rejoice gratulor to wish a person joy, congratulate (+dat.) give gravatus sick, oppressed, ill gravida pregnant gravis heavy, weighty, serious, important, severe griev gravis burdensome, unwholesome gravitas weight, seriousness, dignity, importance graviter heavily, seriously gravo to oppress, burden, make suffer gregatim in troops, or crowds gregatim adv., in flocks, herds, troops, crowds gressus pace, the ability to walk grex crowd, herd, flock griphus enigma, puzzle, riddle gubernaculum helm gubernare control, govern, restrain, rule gubernatio direction, command, leadership gubernatio-ionis direction, government nt gurges whirlpool gusto to taste gustus taste gutter neck, throat, gullet habenae government, reins habeo habui habitum to have, hold, possess, consider, regard habere have, have got habilis suitable, fit habito to have frequently, dwell, reside, take possession habito to dwell, abide habitudo condition habitus disposed, in a certain condition hac this side, this way, here hac (fem. sing. abl.) He who lives BY THIS (the sword). hactenus hitherto, up to this point, so far Hadria Adriatic, Adriatic Sea hae he (fem. plur. nom) THESE (speeches) haec hec (fem. sing. nom.) THIS (sword) haereticum n, heretical haero to be brought to a standstill, keep at, hesitate Hafnia Copenhagen hanc (fem. sing. acc.) She wasted THIS (her youth) harum (fem. plur. gen.) The city wall had four OF THESE (gates) has (fem. plur. acc.) They gave THESE (their lives) Hasnonium Hasnon hasta spear haud no, not at all, by no means haurio to devour hebes sluggish hebeto to blunt hedera ivy Helcim Helchin on the left bank of the Scheldt Heniis Harniis Hames Herebus Lower World hereditas inheritance, often simply, property y.""" hesito (haesito) to be unsure, uncertain, wavering Hesperus Hesperus heu alas! heus hark! hi (masc. plur. nom.) THESE (men) hic here hic (adv.) here hic (masc. nom. sing.) THIS (house) hic haec (hec ) hoc hiems winter hilaris cheerful, merry, gay hinc after this hinc from this place, hence hinc hinc on every side hinc inde from different directions hinnire whinny hinnus mule hio to gape wide Hirenses, Irenses Irish his (fem. plur. abl) A life is enriched BY THESE (friendships) his (fem. plur. dat.) She gave her property TO THESE (churches) his (masc. plur. abl.) They passed BY THESE (roads) his (neut. plur. dat.) Listen TO THESE (orders) Hispania Spain Hispanus Spanish Hister Danube hoc (masc. sing. abl.) He gave plenty FOR THIS (field) hoc (neut. sing. abl.) Do not hesistate BECAUSE OF THIS! (doubt) hoc (neut. sing. acc.) Break THIS! (fetter) hoc (neut. sing. nom.) THIS (monastery) hodie today hodie today, to-day hodiernus of today Hoienses huy, belgium, between liege and namur holocaustum offering homo man, human being homo hominis human being, man honestas respectful treatment, respectability honeste respectfully, properly, suitably, appropriately honesto to embellish honestus respectable, distinguished honestus honorable, respectable, fine, beautiful, proper honor honor, esteem, public office honor honor, honour honor official dignity or office, ornaments, esteem honorabilis respectful honorifice honorably, respectfully, with deference, duly honoro to honor hora hour, o'clock, time hora hour, time hordeum, ordeum barley horrendus dreadful horrendus horrible, dreadful horreo to [+ ne] shudder at, be horrified at horresco to begin to shake horror horror hortor exhort, incite, encourage hortor to instigate hortus garden hortus ortus garden, pl. grounds, park horum (masc. plur. gen.) The horses OF THESE (soldiers) horum (neut. plur. gen) The cattle OF THESE (monsters) hos (masc. plur. acc.) They burned THESE (houses) hospes foreigner, stranger, guest hospes guest, host, stranger hospitalis hospitable hospitium friendship hospitium hospitality, guest chambers, inn hospito to welcome hostes hostium the enemy hostilis hostile or enemy, armed hostilitas enmity hostiliter by force of arms hostis an enemy of the state hostis enemy huic (fem sing. dat.) There is a statue IN THIS (abbey) huic (masc. sing. dat.) He sent FOR THIS (doctor) huic (neut sing. dat.) i'd give my right arm FOR THIS (cookie) huius (fem. sing. gen.) They are fond OF THIS (change) huius (masc. fem. neut. gen. Go ahead, eat some OF THIS humanitas gentleness humanitas kindness, culture, refinement humanus pertaining to man, humane, cultured refi humilio to abase humilis humble humilis lowly, humble humilitas humility humo to inter humo cover with earth, bury humus ground, earth, soil, land, country humus region, earth, soil, dirt, sod hunc (masc. sing. acc.) He ate THIS (fruit) Hunnam Bunna hyæna hyaena, hyena hydrus serpent, snake hypocrita hypocrite hypotheca mortgage Iacchus Bacchus iaceo to lie, lie prostrate, lie dead iacio to throw, cast, hurl, lay, scatter, diffuse iactantia bragging, boasting iaculator a thrower, javelin man, spear thrower iaculum dart, javelin, short spear iam already, by now, yet iam now, by now, already, presently, immediately soo iam moreover, henceforth, indeed, just, further iam pridem now for a long time iam tandem in the end iamdiu now for a long time iamdudum now for a long time ianitor -oris doorkeeper, porter ianua door, gate ianua door Ianus Janus ianus arcade, covered passage ibi there ibi there, yonder ibidem in the same place, at the moment, in that matter Ico to strike, hit, wound, strike a bargain make a d ictus blow, wound, stabbing, thrust ictus blow, bite, stroke, bolt, thrust ictus stroke idcirco on that account, for that reason, for that purpose idem eadem idem the same identidem again and again, repeatedly ideo for that reason, on that account, therefore idoneus proper, worthy, fitting, deserving, capable iecur the liver ieiunitas hunger, emptiness, meagerness, poverty ieiunium fast, abstinence, hunger, leanness, thinness ientaculum breakfast iento to eat breakfast igitur therefore, consequently, for this reason igitur adv, therefore ignarus unacquainted with ignarus ignorant, not knowing ignavus lazy, listless, inert, sluggish cowardly, a coward igneus fiery, ardent, burning ignis fire ignominia dishonor ignoro to be ignorant, disregard, not be recognized ignosco to pardon ignotus unknown, obscure, ignorant, ignoble ile guts, intestines ilicet it is finished, right away, immediately ilico on the spot, immediately illa (fem. sing. abl.) He who lives BY THAT (the sword). illa (fem. sing. nom.) THAT (sword) illa (neut. plur. acc.) Deborah always won THESE (wars) illa (neut. plur. nom.) THOSE (arms) illac over there, along that path, in that direction illae ille (fem. plur. nom.) THOSE (women) illae ille (sing. gen.) She paid half OF THIS (the cost) illaesus unharmed illarum (fem. plur. gen.) The city wall had four OF THOSE (gates) illas (fem. plur. acc.) They gave THOSE (their lives) illata from infero to cause, occasion, etc ille (masc. nom. sing.) THAT (house) ille illa illud that, the former, the famous, he, she, it illecebra allurement illectus allured illi (fem sing. dat.) There is a statue IN THAT (abbey) illi (masc. plur. nom.) THOSE (men) illi (masc. sing. dat.) He sent FOR THAT (doctor) illi (neut sing. dat.) i'd give my right arm FOR THOSE (cookies) illiam (fem. sing. acc.) She wasted THAT (her youth) illic there, at that place, therein, in that matter illicitus unlawful illico immediately illis (fem. plur. abl) A life is enriched BY THESE (friendships) illis (fem. plur. dat.) She gave her property TO THOSE (churches) illis (masc. plur. abl.) They passed BY THOSE (roads) illis (masc. plur. dat.) Tell it TO THOSE (Marines) illis (neut. plur. abl.) She earned it BY THESE (her deeds) illis (neut. plur. dat.) Listen TO THESE (orders) illis (plur. abl.) She earned it BY THESE (her deeds) illius (fem. sing. gen.) They are fond OF THAT (change) illius (masc. fem. neut. gen. Go ahead, eat some OF THAT illius (neut. sing. gen.) She paid half OF THAT (the cost) illo (masc. sing. abl.) He gave plenty FOR THAT (field) illo (neut. sing. abl.) Do not hesitate BECAUSE OF THAT! (doubt) illorum (masc. plur. gen.) The horses OF THOSE (soldiers) illorum (neut. plur. gen) The cattle OF THESE (monsters) illos (masc. plur. acc.) They burned THOSE (houses) illuc thither, to that place, to that matter to that p illud (neut. sing. acc.) Break THOSE (fetters)! illud (neut. sing. nom.) THAT (monastery) illudo-si-sum 3, to mock, to scorn illudo illusi illusum to mock, make fun of, ridicule illum (masc. sing. acc.) He ate THAT (fruit) illustrator enlightener illustratus renowned illustris famous illustro to light up, illuminate imago image, likeness imbecillitas indisposition imbellis unwarlike imber rain imbibo imbibe, drink in, think up, conceive imbrium of rain imbuo to imbue imbuo to soak, steep, saturate, to stain, dye to becom imitabilis imitable imitabilis that which can be imitated imitor to imitate, substitute immanis monstrous immanitas heinousness, savagery, frightfulness immaniter dreadfully, savagely immarcescibilis unfading immensus vast immerito adv. undeservingly, without merit, unjustifiably immineo to hang over, be imminent, threaten immitis rude immo by all means, by no means, on the contrary immo nay, should I say, on the contrary immodicus immoderate, excessive, beyond measure immortalis immortal immotus unmoved immunda unclean, impure, dirty, foul immundus foul, impure immunis exempt, free impedimentum hindrance, impediment, obstacle, difficulty impedio to entangle, hold fast impedio entangle, ensnare, obstruct, surround, hinder pr impeditio hindrance impeditus entagles, hindered, embarassed, prevented obstru impedo to entangle, ensnare, hinder, prevent, obstruct impello to drive against, strike upon impello to stimulate impello impuli impulsum to set in mortion, impel, urge on impendeo to hang over, threaten, menace, be imminent impendo to lay out, expend, weigh out impendo to expend impenetrabiilis impenetrable impensa expense, outlay imperator commander in chief, general, emperor imperceptus unperceived, unknown imperiosus imperious, dominering, powerful imperito to govern imperium power to command, authority, command, rule contr imperium sovereignty, realm, command impero to give orders, command, to rule, hold sway impero to command imperterritus undaunted impertior to bestow impervius unpassable impeto to attack, head for impetro to get, accomplish, effect, obtain (by asking) impetro to procure impetus vehemence impetus attack, onset, rapid motion, impulse, passion fo impetus attack, rush, assault, impulse, sudden passion impiger diligent, active impiger indefatigable impigre diligently, actively impingo to hurl against, strike impirius fiery impius ungodly impius without respect, irreverent, unpatriotic, wicked implacabilis unappeasable impleo to fill in (or up), satisfy, content, fulfil per impleo to fill up impleo to fill up, content, satisfy impono to place, set, stow, embark, cheat, deceive impono to lay in importunitas insolence, incivility importunus unsuitable, unfavorable, troublesome inconsidera importunus unsuitable impraesentiarum for the present, in present cirumstances imprecor to curse imprimis especially, particularly, specifically improbitas depravity improbus outrageous, self-willed, impudent improbus inferior, bad, wicked, persistent, perverse, bold improvidus improvident, negligent, thoughtless, feckless improviso unexpected, (ex improviso) impudens impudent, shameless, insolent, presumptuous impudenter impudently, insolently, presumptuously impugno to attack, assault impunitus unpunished, unrestrained, safe imputo to lay to a charge, enter in an account impute t in a, in, inside, into, per, within, across from in (+ abl.) in in (+ acc.) into, toward, against in excelsis in the highest in praesentia for the present inaestimabilis inestimable inaestimandus invaluable inaestimatus unexpected inanis empty, void inanis useless inanis empty, vain, inane inasnum n, foolish, insane incalesco glow, kindle incassum in vain incassum to no purpose incauta reckless incedo to awake, march, go, enter into incedo to move forward incendia fire incendo to set fire to incentivus provocative inceptor beginner inceptum beginning, attempt, enterprise incertus uncertain, doubtful, unsure, hesitant incessanter incessantly incessus pace, gait incestus lewd inchoatus unfinished, only begun incido to fall in or on, fall in with, happen, occur incido in mentionem to happen to mention incipio to take in hand, begin, commence incito to spur on incito to excite, spur, inspire, increase, hasten, urge inclino to bend inclino to bend, incline, turn, change, fall back, waver inclitus illustrious includo to shut in, enclose, establish a siege, surround inclutus inclitus celebrated, famous, renowned incogitania thoughtlessness incogitatus thoughtless, inconsiderate, spontaneous incogito to plan, arrange, contrive, think out incognitus unknown, unexamined, unrecognized, unclaimed incola resident incola inhabitant incola, ae resident, inhabitant of a place, foreign resident incolo to reside or cultivate or inhabit incolumis uninjured, safe, scatheless, unharmed incolumitas safety incomitatus alone, unaccompanied, without followers incommendatus without a protector, without a lord incommode inconveniently incommoditas inconvenience, uncomfortable, disadvantage incommodo (-are) to be troublesome, unpleasant, annoying incommodus inconvenient, troublesome, irksome incommodus disagreeable, unpleasant incommutabilis unchangeable incomparabilis without compare, peerless, incomparable incompertus unknown incomposite irregularly, in a disorderly manner incompositus disorder, lack of regularity incomprehensibilis impossible to catch, incomprehensible incomptus unkempt, untrimmed, rude, rough inconcessus forbidden, prohibited, not allowed inconcinnus awkward, clumsy, without elegance, absurd laugha inconcussus firm, unshaken, stable inconditus disorderly, not arranged, unplanned, confused incongruens not agreeing, inconsistent, out of place incongruus unsuitable inconsiderate thoughtlessly, without consideration inconsideratus without thought, inconsiderate, reckless unadvis inconsolabilis inconsolable, uncurable inconstans inconsistent, changeable, fickle, unreliable fai inconstanter inconstantly, changeably, inconsistently inconstantia changeability, inconsistency, faithlessness inconsulte indiscreetly inconsultus inconsiderate, without advice inconsultus without asking advise, precipately, imprudent ra inconsumptus unconsumed, undiminished, not depleted incontaminatus pure, unadulterated, unpolluted incontentus unstretched, not extended, unstrained, untuned incontinencia lack of restraint, incontinence incontinens incontinent inconveniens not suiting, dissimilar inconvulsus unshattered, undestroyed incorrectus unimproved, uncorrected, not emended incorruptus uncorrupted, genuine, pure, untainted increbresco (-ere) to grow strong, prevail, increase, wax incredibilis incredible, unbelievable incredulus incredulous incrementabiliter increasingly incrementum augmentation, increment incrementum growth, increase, offspring increpito (-are) to call out to, to rebuke increpo to rebuke increpo (of persons) to chide, rebuke incresco (-ere) to grow in, or upon incruente without bloodshed incubo to hang over, lie heavily upon, dwell in watch o incubo to brood over, lie in a place, attach oneself to inculco to crowd in, press in, trample in, impress upon inculpatus innocent, without blame, guiltless inculta waste, desert incultus untilled, uncultivated incultus untilled, uncultivated, unpolished, rude, rough incultus untidy, neglected incultus neglect, lack of cultivation incumbo to depend on, devote oneself to incumbo to apply oneself, concentrate, favor, further pr incumbo to lie or lean upon, lean over, overhang incunabula swddling clothes, infancy, birthplace, source or incunctanter unhesitatingly incuratus unhealed, uncured, untended incuria carelessness, neglect incuriose negligently, carelessly incuriosus neglect, careless, negligent incurro to run into, assail, attack, raid into, come upon incurro to [+ acc] incur incursio clash, collision, attack, raid, foray, invasion incursio attack, assault incurso to collide with, strike against, attack incursus an attack, assault incursus an attack, assault, efforts, impulses incurvo (-are) to bend, curve, make crooked incutio to strike into indagatio investigation inde thence, from there, for that reason, thereafter indebitus not owed, not due indemnis innocent indicibilis indescribable, inexpressible indicium sign indicium data, information, evidence, indication, pointer indico to proclaim, make publicly known, announce discl indico to enjoin indico to disclose indifferens neither good nor bad indifferente indifferently indifferenter indiscriminately indigentia indigence, poverty, destitution indigeo to require, need, stand in need of indignatio indignation indignatio displeasure indignatus indignant indignus unworthy, lacking in merit, unfit indignus unbecoming indigus, indiguus desirous, needful of indissolubilis indestructible indo (past indidi) to establish, cause, occasion indoles genius, disposition, talent, tendency, metier indomitus untamed, wild indubitanter without doubts, confident, without hesitation induco bring in, introduce, induce, persuade, decide induco cover, put on clothing, erase writing, revoke an induco to bring, lead, conduct induco-are to lead induco indux inductum to lead in, introduce, induce, influence indulgens indulgent indulgeo to pardon, forgive, excuse industria diligence industrius industrious, diligent, assiduous, hard-working indutiae truce, armistice, suspension of hostilities indutus enveloped, decked out, dressed indutus attired, clad induviae clothes, clothing, garb inedicabilis unexplainable, inexplicable inedicibilis inexpressible ineffabilis unutterable inefficaciter ineffectually, vainly, in vain inefficax ineffectual, unproductive, profitless, weak inennarabilis indescribable ineo to begin ineo to enter, go in, begin, commence, undertake star ineptio to play the fool, to trifle inermis defenseless, harmless, impotent, without strength iners unskilled inexperta untried inexpugnabilis impregnable, unconquerable not to be taken by fo infamo to put to shame, disgrace infandum oh woe unutterable! infans child, infant infantia infancy, babyhood infector dyer infectum reddere to revoke, render impossible, make voil annull infectus unworked, not done, unfinished, incomplete infectus discolored, darkened, corrupted infecunditas barrenness, sterility infecundus barren, sterile infelicitas bad luck, misfortune infeliciter unhappily infelix unfruitful, barren, unproductive, infertile infenso to attack, avenge infensus hostile, agressive, dangerous gerous inferi those down below, the dead inferne on the lower side, below infero to otherwise bring upon, enter, be troublesome infero to carry in, put or place on infero to say or put forth, bring forth, bring out infero (in logic) to infer, conclude inferus below, under, southern infervesco to come to a boil, become hot infeste in a hostile manner, belligerently infesto to molest infesto to attack, disquiet infestus aggressive, hostile, dangerous inficio to discolor inficio infeci infectum to poison, taint, corrupt inficio infeci infectum to tinge, dye, stain, imbue infideles faithless [ones] infidelis unfaithful, disloyal, untrue infidelitas faithlessnes, disloyalty infideliter faithlessly, disloyally infidus untru, disloyal infigo to fix, fasten, to imprint, impress infindo infidi infissum to cut into infinitas infinitio eternity, infinity, endlessnes infinitus unlimited, infinite, without bounds, boundless l infirmatio weakening, refusing, invalidating infirme weakly, faintly infirmitas infirmity infirmitas weakness, feebkeness, instability, fickleness infirmo to weaken, shake, invalidate, annull/disprove infirmus not strong, weak, feeble, (sometimes) infit he, she, or it begins, begins to speak infitialis negative, containing a no, rejection infitias ire to deny infitior to deny, deny a debt, refuse to return something inflammatio setting afire, inspiring nspiring inflammo to set on fire, inflame, to torch, kindle inflatio inflation, flatulence inflatius too pompous, on a grander scale inflatus pompous, swollen, puffed up, inflated inflatus blowing into, blast, inspiration inflecto to warp, change, sway, affect inflecto inflexi inflectum to bend, bow, curve infletus unwept, unmourned, unlamented inflexibilis unbending inflexio a bending, swaying inflexus bending, curving infligo inflixi inflictum to strike, hit, knock, cause damage inflo to inflate, swell inflo to blow influo influi influxum to flow in, to rush in, steal in infodio infodi infossum to dig in, bury informatio concept, idea informis formless, shapeless, deformed, hideous informo to instruct infortunatus unfortunate, unhappy, unlucky infortunium misfortune, bad luck, punishment infra (+ acc.) below, under, (time) infra (adv.) below, underneath, to the south, in the underworld infra inferius infimus low down infractio a breaking, infractio aninimi dejection infractus broken, weakened, impaired infragilis unbreakable, strong infremo to growl infrenatus without a bridle infrendeo to gnash the teetch infrenis unbridled infreno to bridle, check, restrain, break in infrequens scanty, thin, uncrowded, infrequent thinly popul infrequentia scantiness, emptiness, loneliness infructuosus unproduction, infertile, unfruitful infrunitus silly infucatus colored infula insignia of office, headband, fillet infula headband (worn by a priest), insignia infulatus crowned with an episcopal mitre infundo infudi infusum to pour in or over, (+ dat.) infusco to make dark, blacken infusio wetting, dousing, drenching ingemino to redouble, repeat, be redoubled, increase ingemisco to groan ingemisco to groan, sigh over ingemo (+ dat.) to groan, sigh over ingenero to plant, implant, generate ingeniose cleverly ingeniosus able, talented, neturally fit, adapted ingenium innate character, talent, nature ingens of immoderate size, vast, huge, monstrous, remark ingens prodigious ingenuitas free birth, noble-mindedness, frankness, openness ingenuus free-born, noble-minded, upright, honorable ingero to go off to, betake oneself to, pour forth infl inglorius without fame, unddistinguished, inglorious ingluvies (of an animal) crop, maw ingrate ingratiis ingratis unwillingly, ungratefully ingratus ungrateful, unpleasant, disagreeable ingravo to weight down, aggravate, afflict ingredior to enter upon, begin on, (with inf.) ingredior ingredi ingressus to step in, enter, go in, walk ingredior vi ventorum to proceed on the winds ingressio an entering, beginning ingressus entering, going in, inroad, movement/assault ingruenter violently ingruo to fall upon, assail, attack, assault ingruo to fall violently upon, assail, assault inguen the groin ingurgito to glut oneself, gorge ingustatus untasted inhabilis unmanageable, ill-fit, poorly adapted, unsuited inhabitabilis uninhabitable, unfit for man or beast inhabito to inhabit inhaeresco inheresco to adhere to, begin to cling to inhaero to adhere inhaero inhero to stick in, cling to, cleave to inhalo to breathe upon inhibeo use, employ inhibeo to hold in, check, restrian, back water, practice inhio to gape, yearn for, desire, want, covet inhio to [+ dat] attend closely to, [+ ad, pro] desire inhoneste dishonorably inhonesto to disgrace, dishonor inhonestus degraded, dishonored, dishonorable, shameful ugl inhonoratus unrewarded, not honored inhonorus dishonored inhorreo to bristle inhorresco to begin to bristle, shudder, quiver, shake inhospitalis inhospitable inhospitalitas lack of hospitality inhospitus inhospitable inhumane inhumanly inhumanitas curelty, inhumanity, incivility, discourtesy sti inhumaniter discourteously inhumanus cruel, savage, barbarous, inhuman, uncivil unciv inhumatus unburied inibi therein, in that place, (time) inicio inieci iniectum to throw on, put on, don, inspire inimicus personal enemy, foe, opponent inique unfairly iniquitas injustice, iniquity, unfairness iniquus unequal, unjust, unfair initium beginning, start, commencement, origin iniuria injury, damage, hurt, injustice, wrong iniustus unjust, inequitable, unfair injurius wrongful, acting unlawfully injustus wrongful innocens blameless innocuus innocent innotesco to become know, noted innotesco to become known innumerus countless innuo to give a nod to, give a sign to inobedio-ire disobident, disloyal inolesco to grow in or on inopia scarcity, poverty inopinatus unexpected inopportunitas inconvenience, unseemly event inopportunus unfitting, inopportune inops destitute, impoverished, indigent, powerless inops poor, helpless, in need, needy, wthout resources inquam I say inquinamentum filth inquiro to ask, examine, search for inquis you say inquisitor [med] juror, member of an inquest, trustee inquit he, she, it says inrideo to laugh at, mock, ridicule inritus irritus void, invalid, in vain, useless, ineffectual insania insanity, irrationality, madness, folly insanio rage insanum foolish insciens unknowing, unaware, ignorant inscribo inscribe, entitle, enlist insensatus irrational insequor to follow, pursue, assail, reproach, rebuke atta inservio to be a slave, serve, be devoted to insideo sit upon something, be firmly placed insidiae snares insidiae (plural) treachery, ambushes, plots, conspiracies insidiator one who lies in wait insidior to [+ dat] lie in wait for, plot against insigne badge insignio to put a mark upon, adorn, distinguish insignis distinguished insigniter to be built on, distinction/distinguished insigno to engrave insinuo to insinuate, work one's way in, intimate insisto to [+ dat] persist in, urge insolesco to grow haughty insolita unaccustomed, unusual insolitus unaccustomed, unusual, strange, uncommon insolubilis indissoluble insons guiltless, innocent insons insontis guiltless, innocent insperate unexpectedly insperatus unexpected, unlooked for, unanticipated inspicio to consider, perceive inspiro to inspire insquequo until instabilitas constant motion, restlessness instanter urgently instar a form, figure, after the fashion of, like instigatus incited instigo to goad, incite, stimulate, urge instituo to establish, found, institute instituo-ui-utum 3, put in place, begin instituta apostolica canon law institutio custom, institution, tradition insto to pursue eagerly, devote oneself to insto to be earnestly engaged in, draw nigh instructus trained, taught instructus versed in instructus (from instruo) equipped, trained, supplied instruo prepare, provide, draw up an order of battle instruo to draw up instruo to built in, set up, construct, furnish, train insuadibilis adamant, immovable, not to be persuaded insudo (with ablative) exert oneself in, busy oneself with insula island Insula Lille insulto to leap at or on, revile, insult, deride heap sc insultus attack, assault insum [inesse, infuit] to be in or on, contained in wi insumo get one's wish, obtain one's desire insumptuosus inexpensive, cheap, economical insuper as mentioned above insurgo to rise up, [+ remis] ply one's oars insurgo insurgi insurrectum to rise up, rebel, revolt integer whole, untouched, unhurt, undamaged, complete en integer irreproachable, chaste integritas integrity intellectus meaning, understanding intellego intellexi intellect to understand, comprehend, see intemporaliter eternally, without end intemptesta nox dead of night intendo to stretch, strain, try to prove intendo to extend, aim, direct, direct one's course intenta earnestness, seriousness intentio intention, plan, aim, design, purpose intentio effort, exertion, attention, intent, attack accu intentor informant intentus thorough, tense, anxious, strict inter approximately, about, around, roughly inter (+ acc.) between, among inter canem et lupum at twilight intercapedo interval, space intercipio intercepi intercep to intercept interdico to forbid, prohibit, outlaw, gain an injunction interdico to place an interdict interdico to forbid interdum sometimes, now and then, at times intereo to perish, die, go to ruin, decay intereo to to be undone, take part in intereo to perish, die interfectio-onis f, a killing interficio interfeci interfec to kill, murder, slay interfixus paved, made firm interiectio interjection interimo to slay, kill, slaughter interitus ruin, destruction internecio destruction internuntius go-between internus deep, inward interpellatio to appeal, suit interpolatio interval interpono to place between, interpose, intervene interpretor to explain interrogatio interrogation, inquiry interrogo to inquire intertio arrest, seize, take into custody interventus mediation intervigilium a nap, a doze, forty winks intestinus internal, inner intextus embroidered intimo to announce intolerabiliter unsupportably intoneo to resound intorqueo twist, distort intrepidus unshaken, undaunted intrepidus eager, hot-blooded intrico to entangle intro to walk into, enter, make one's way into introduco to lead in, introduce intueor to look at attentively, gaze at, consider intueor to admire, contemplate, observe, look upon intuitus contemplation intumesco to swell, puff up intumesco to swell up, increase, swell with anger intus within inultus unavenged, unpunished inundantia flood, overflowing, inundation invado to attack, usurp invado to undertake, go in, enter, get in invado to assail, usurp, seize, attack, fall upon invalesco to gather strength, become stronger invectio invective, scolding invective scoldingly invenio to come upon, find, discover inventor contriver, inventor, discoverer investigo to track down, investigate inveteratus hardened by age, of long-standing invetero to give duration, to render old invicem one after the other, by turns, mutually, each oth invicem reciprocally invictus unconquer, unconquerable, undefeated invideo to envy, refuse invideo to envy, be jealous of, look upon with envy invidia envy, jealousy, hatred, censure invidus envious inviso to go to see, visit, inspect, look at invisus hated, hateful invito to invite, summon invitus unwilling, against one's will invocatio invocation, an invoking involvo to wrap ioco iocor to joke, jest, make merry iocus joke, jest, jape, gag ipse ipsa ipsum himself, herself, itself ipsemet his own very self ira anger ira anger, wrath iratus angry, wrathful ire go ironia irony ironice ironically irradio to beam forth irrepo to insinuate oneself, steal in irretitus caught in a net, trapped irreverens disrespectful irrisorie ironically, with a smile irrito to irritate, exasperate, excite irritum nothingness, worthlessness, vanity irritus undecided, void, unfixed, of no effect irritus vain, useless, ineffectual, of not effect irrumpo to burst upon irruo to rush into, rush upon, attack is ea id this, that, he, she, it iste ista istud that, sometimes pejorative ita so, thus ita ut (with subj.) in such a way that Italia Italy itaque consequently, so, subsequently itaque (adv.) and, so, therefore item adv, likewise, moreover iter itineris road, route, journey itero to repeat, say again, iterate iterum again, a second time, once more iubeo to order, bid iubeo iussi iussum to order, command, tell someone to do iucunditas pleasure, charm iucundus agreeable, pleasant, gratifying iudex judge, juror iudicium judgment, decision, opinion, trial iudico to judge, consider iugis iuge perpetual, continuous iugo to bind together, connect, couple iugosus mountainous iugulum iugulus the throat iugum crossbar, beam of scales, crest, ridge iugum yoke, a team of oxen, a pair, bond, union, slaver iuguolo to cut the throat, butcher, kill, destroy iumentum beast of burden iunceus made of rushes iunctio connection, joining iunctura a joining, joint, rekationship, combination iunctus -a, -um united, connected, joined together iuncus the rush iungo iunxi iunctum to join, unite, cinnect, yoke, harness, to mate iuniperus the juniper tree iurare swear iuratus under oath iureiuro to swear an oath iurgium quarrel, altercation, brawl iurisdictio administration of justice, extent of competence iuro to swear, to make an oath ius iurandum iuris iurandi et oath ius iuris justice, law, right, broth, soup iussu (abl.) at the command of, by order of iusta due forms, funereal rites iuste fairly, justly, rightly iustitia justice, fairness, equity iustum what is right iustus just, right, equitable, fair, lawful, proper iuvenalis iuvenilis youthful iuvenesco to reach the prime of life iuventus youth (between 20 and 45) iuvo to help, aid, assist, to please, delight, gratify iuxta just short of iuxta close by, near, in like manner, equally iuxta (+ acc.) close to, near to, (time) iuxtim equally ivi past tense of eo jaceo-ere-ui to stand (that which is stated) jacio to cast jactantia ostentation, bragging jactito boast jaculum dart, javelin jaculum dart jubilo to shout jubilus shout of joy jucundus pleasant, delightful judicium trial, legal investigation, judgement, decision judico to pass judgment judico to condemn, judge, try juge always jugis continual, perpetual jugis continual, ceaseless, perennial, constant jugiter continually, perpetually, constantly, instantly jugiter perpetually, continually jugulo to slaughter jugum ridge, rising jumentum draft animal juramentum oath, act of oath-taking jurgium strife, contention, to cause strife, brawl jus right, law jussio order justicia equity, justice justifico to forgive justus equitable juvenis young man, youth juventus the age of youth (20-40 years) juxta adv, in a like manner, likewise Karthaginiensis Carthaginian Karthago Carthage labasco to give way, totter labea lip labecula a slight stain, minor disgrace labefacio labefeci labefactum to shake, loesen, impair labefacto to weaken, disturb, shake violently labellum a little lip, a small washing vessel labes labis stain, blemish, disgrace, infamy, misfortune labia lip labilis transient, fleeting, slippery labiosus having large lips labium lip labo to totter, sink, begin to fall labo to totter labor job, work labor to sink, slip away labor hardip, fatigue, distress labor hardship, exertion labor laboris labor, work, toil labor lapsus to slip, glide, slide laborare work labores solis eclipse of the sun laboriose laboriously, with great effort laboriosus toilsome, laborious, (persons) laboro (intrans.) to work, toil, suffer, be afflicted, be troubled labrum bath, lip labrum lip, edge, rim, bathing tub labrusca wild grape vine labruscum the wild grape lac lactis milk lacer mangled lacer torn, mangled, cut to pieces laceratio a tearing, mangling laceratus torn to pieces, mutilated lacero to tear to pieces, mangle, squander money slande lacerta lizard lacertosus muscular, powerful lacertus the upper arm, strength lacesso to harass, attack lacrima tear lacrima tears, exudations from some plants lacrima Heliandum amber lacrimabilis lamentable, deplorable, woeful lacrimo to weep, shed tears, exude, drip lacrimosus tearful, mournful, shedding tears lactans giving milk lactatio enticement, come-on lacteus milky, of milk, milk-white lacto to allure, entice, wheedle lactuca lettuce lacuna missing letters, words, or phrases in a manuscript lacuna a hole, empty space, pond, pool, deficiency, loss lacunar panelled ceiling lacus a hollow, lake, pool, pond, troough, tank, tub lacus lake, loch laedo ledo strike, hit, hurt, damage, offend, annoy, violate laesio lesio rhetorical attack, wounding laetabilis letabilis joyous, glad laetans rejoicing, joyous laetifico to rejoice laetitia joy, gladness, delight laetitia letitia leticia fertility, richness, grace, joy, delight laeto leto to cheer, gladden, make joyful laetor to be delighted laetor letor to rejoice, be joyful laetus glad delighted laeve leve left-handedly, awkwardly laevus levus foolish, silly, unlucky, unpropitious laevus levus the left hand, left side, left-handed laganum a cake lama bog, slough lambo to lick, (of rivers) lambo to lap lamenta (neut. pl) weeping, wailing lamentabilis lamentable, mournful lamentatio weeping, wailing, lamenting lamentor to weep, wail, lament, (trans.) lamia ghost, phantom lamia witch, vampire lamnia lammina lamna sheet of metal, coin, knife blade, nutshell lampas torch lancea lances laneus woolen laniatus a tearing, ripping, mangling, mutilating lanio to mangle lanx dish, platter, plate lanx scale lapsus fall, fault, error, sliding, gradual movement laqueum noose, halter, snare, trap laqueus snare, trap, noose largiflue bountifully largifluus bountiful largior to lavish, bestow, grant, give abundantly largior to give bountifully, shower (with gifts) largissimum bounty largitas bounty, liberality largitio bounty largus bountiful lascivio to run riot, play, be wanton lasesco to become tired, grow weary late broadly, widely, extensively latebra covert, hidden recess latenter secretly, in a concealed manner later brick latere to lurk, lie hidden latet to be unknown latex liquid latibulum lurking-hole latito to keep out of the way, be concealed latito to lie hidden, be concealed latitudo breadth latrator a barker (such as a dog) latratus barking latro bandit latro robber, bandit, brigand latro (-are) to bark, bay, rant, runble, roar latro (-onis) hunter latro (-onis) hired servant, mercenary soldier latrocinium villainy, a gang of latrocinium mercenary service, highway robbery latrocinor to rob on the highway latrocinor (dep) serve as a mercenary, to rob, steal latrunculus highwayman, robber, brigand, bandit mercenary so latus broad latus broad, wide, extensive latus -eris sides, flank, lungs laudabilis praiseworthy, laudable laudabiliter (adv) in a laudable fashion laudatio praise, commendation laudator praiser laudo to praise, extoll, commend, name, mention cite Laudunum Laon laureatus crowned with laurel, laureate laureola a laurel branch, crown of laurel laureola victory, triumph, success laurifer triumphant, victorious laurifer carrying laurel, crowned with laurel laurus laurel laurus the laurel, bay tree, triumph, victory, success laus praise, glory, fame lautitia splendor, elegance lautus washed, bathed, cleaned, fine, elegant, refined lauvabrum a bath lavacrum bath lavare wash lavatio washing, bathing lavo to bathe lavo to wash, bathe, moisten, get wet, wash away laxamentum a widening, expansion, rest, respite laxe widely laxe widely, loosely, unrestrained laxitas wideness, expansiveness, roominess laxo sell formally, give up, loosen laxo to relieve, release, set free, liberate, yield up laxo widen, extend, enlarge, undo, relax laxus wide, spacious, later, postponed, lax, loose rel lebes copper kettle, basin, cauldron lectica litter, bier lectio selection, picking out, reading, perusal lector reader lectulus a small bed, cot lectus bed, couch legatarius legatee legatio embassy legatio office of legate, office of ambassador embassy c legatus deputy, ambassador, envoy, commander of a legion legatus ambassador, messenger legens (-entis) a reader legifer lawgiving legio legion legio a selection, chosen body, legion legio army, legion legitiums lawful, licit, right, proper, legitimate lego to gather, choose, collect, pass through, read lego appoint, select lego vela to furl sails legumen a bean, pea, legume lemiscus a ribbon lemma theme, title, epigram lemures (pl. only) ghosts, phantoms lenimentus alleviation, impreovement, mitigation lenio to mitigate, relieve, make better lenis smooth, gentle, kind, mild lenis gentle lenis soft lenitas mildness lenitas lenitudo smoothness, gentleness, mildness leniter gently leno procurer, go-between lenocinium enticement, allurement lenocinor to pander, flatter, make up to, to promote advan lens lentil lente slowly, calmly, cooly, deliberately lentesco to become soft, flexible, sticky, to weaken slac lentitudo slowness, sluggishness, apathy lento to bend lentulus rather slow, a little slow lentus tough, resistant, tenacious, supple, pliant lentus lethargic, inactive, slow, lingering leo lion Leodie Liege Leodium Liege leopardus leopard lepas mussel lepide charminly, wittily, elegantly, pleasantly lepidus charming, witty, pleasant, elegant lepidus affable, friendly, good-natured, kind, charming lepor to charm lepor lepos charm, wit, elegance lepus hare, rabbit Lesciense, monastery of Liessies letalis mortal, deadly, fatal letaliter mortally, fatally letanie litany lethargus drowsiness, apathy, sleepiness, coma letifer deadly, mortal letifer death-dealing leto to kill, slay letum death, ruin, annihilation levamen alleviation, mitigation, solace, refreshment levamentum comfort, easing, alleviation, consolation levatio alleviation, mitigation, solace leviculus empty-headed, vain, silly levidensis thin, slight, poor levis light, slight, trivial, beardless, bald light-ar levis [+ gen] unreliable levis rapid, swift, unimpotant, fickle, inconstant uns levitas lightness, levity, fickleness, inconstancy groun leviter lightly, softly, slightly levo to smooth, polish levo to raise, lift up, relieve, ease, diminish weake lex law lex legis law, statute, covenant, agreement libatio libation libellus book libellus little book libens with good will libenter willingly, with pleasure Liber Bacchus liber free liber child, offspring liber libera, liberum free, independent, unrestricted liber libri book liberalis courteous, generous, gentlemanly liberaliter courteously, generously, honorably liberatio release, liberation, aquittal, setting free libere freely, openly, frankly libero to lift (an obstacle), raise libero to set free, deliver, liberate, release, exempt libertas freedom, liberty, independence, frankness, candor libertas freedom libet to be pleasing, agreeable libido whim, caprice, violent desire, passionate longing libra scales libramen poise, balance libro to launch, ponder licens unimpeded, free, unrestrained, unchecked licentia license, leave, authorization, freedom, liberty l licentio to authorize, permit, dismiss liceo to be valued at, be for sale liceor to offer a price, to offer to buy, bid proffer licet imper v., it is right, just licet granted that, although, it is allowed one may or licet (as conj.) granted that, although licito to sell licitus permitted, allowed ligamen string, thread ligatio imprisonment, bondage, captivity, servitude lignarius carpenter lignator wood-cutter lignum timber, wood ligo to bind, tie lima file, polishing, revision limbus band, girdle limes border, frontier limito bound limus mud lingua tongue, language lingua language, tongue, speech linio to besmear lino to smear, befoul, dirty linquo to forsake linteum linnen, napkin liquidus limpid, liquid liquidus fluid, flowing, liquid, clear, evident, certain liquor fluid litania (med.) prayer, supplication, chant, litany litigatio dispute litigiosus contentious litigo to [+ contra] dispute litigo to quarrel, dispute litis dispute, contention, fight, battle, fracas lito to propitiate littera letter (of the alphabet) litterae (pl.) letter, epistle, missive, note, literature litus coast, seaside, shore, beach livor black and blue mark, malice, punishment t/punishm loci (pl.) passages in literary works loco to place, put, position loco to assign, allot, grant, hire locuples opulent locupletatus enriched, endowed locupleto to enrich, make wealthy locus place, location, situation, spot. [monastery] locusta lobster, grasshopper loginquitas distance, remoteness, isolation lomentum soap longaminus patient longe far longe lateque far and wide longinquus remote, prolonged longitudo length longus long loquacitas eloquence lorica leather cuirass lorica hauberk [a coat of chain mail] a knight's service loricatus wearing armor, armored lorum thong lubricus oily, slippery, slick lucerna lamp lucidus -a-um, shining, bright, clear lucinaria lamp lucror to gain, profit, win lucrosus profitable, gainful lucrum gain, profit luctisonus sad-sounding, mournful, baleful luctuosa feeling sorrowful luctus lamentation, mourning, grief luculenta splendid lucus thicket ludicer playful, means arbitrary, capricious ludicrum game ludus game, sport, school lues plague, pestilence, calamity lugeo to mourn, be in mourning, grieve/(tans, ) lugo mourn lugubris mournful lumen light, lamp, lantern, light of day lumen light lumen the eye, clearness, understanding luminarium light, lamp luminosus bright luna moon lunatus crescent-shaped luo to undergo lupus wolf lura bag, sack lustro to survey, encircle Lutosensis Leuze lutosus miry lutum mud, slime lux light lux lucis light luxuria luxury, extravagance, opulence luxus luxury luxus debauchery, extravagance Lyæus Bacchus lychnus lamp macellarius butcher, slaughter-house macer thin, lean macero to soften, weaken, reduce, torment macies thiness, gauntness, poverty barrenness macilentus lean, thin, skinny macresco to become lean, skinny, thin mactabilis deadly, lethal macto to magnify, glorify, honor, slay, fight, punish macula stain, mark, spot, blemish, fault, flaw maculo to stain, blemish, defile, pollute maculosus spotted, speckled, poluted madesco to get wet madide drunkenly madidus wet, moist, soaked, boiled, soft, drunk, dyed st mador maero to grieve, sorrow maeror meror mourning, grief, sorrow magalia little tents magis more, to a greater extent, rather, for preference magister boss, master magister instructor, teacher, schoolmaster magister master, canon, master of a school, professor magnificabiliter splendidly, greatly, terrifically magnificentia magnificence, splendor, eminence, magnanimity magnifico to extol magnificus eminent, splendid, magnificent magnopere magnus opere very, very much magnus maior maximus large, great, important magus magical maiestas majesty, dignity, greatness maiores (pl.) ancestors major domus Mayor of the Palace, chief steward majores elders majores natu elders mala jaw Malbodiensis Maubeuge male badly male wickedly, with evil intent maledictio curse, abuse maleficus wicked, accursed, evil malefidus faithless malens preferring malevolens malevolent, spiteful person malignitas wickedness maligno to contrive/do maliciously maligo to do/contrive evil Malmundarium Malmedy malo to choose, prefer malum evil, misfortune, misdeed, crime, injury, damage malus bad, miserable, nasty, poor malus peior pessimus bad, wicked, evil mamma udder, breast, teat, mam, mammy, mom, mommy mammona abundance, wealth mancipium slave mancipo to transfer, alienate, seize, catch, give up mandatum message, command mandatum commission, charge, entrust mandatum order, decree, mandate, instruction mando to commit, entrust, order, command mando to send word, confide mane morning, early in the morning, early manentia permanency maneo to remain, stay, stay the night, last, endure ab manifesto to make public manipulus maniple mano to flow mansuesco to grow mild mansuetudo mildness mansuetus mild, soft, gentle mansurus that which will endure, abide manus hand manus manus hand, band, handwriting mara marl [an earth rich in CaC, added to lime-deficie Marceniense Marchiennes Marcieniensis Marchiennes marcus hammer mare sea mare maris sea maritus husband marmor marble marmoreus like marble maro to apply marl to the soil martyr-yris martyr martyrium n, martyrdom mater mother mater matris mother matera, mairia for the fermentation of beer beer materia material, substance, matter matertera maternal aunt matertera aunt, maternal aunt matrimonium marriage maxime especially, particularly, principally maxime greatly, exceedingly, to the highest degree, very me (abl.) me, you'll do fine with ME baby me (acc.) me, that old black magic has ME in its spell medicor to heal, cure medicus doctor, physician medie moderately mediocris ordinary, average, fair, moderate, mediocre meditatio practice, preparation, getting ready meditatio consideration, pondering medium everyday life, the common good, the public eye medius middle, the middle of, central, midst mei my, mine MY heart belongs to daddy. that old gan mel mellis honey melior better Melita Malta mellitus honeyed, sweet as honey membrana thin skin, film, parchment, membrane prepared sk memini meminisse to remember memor mindful, remembering, grateful, thoughful pruden memoratus mentioned memoria memory, remembrance, recall, recollection mendiosus full of mistakes, shot with errors mendosus faulty, full of faults mendum menda fault, blemish, mistake, error mens mentis mind, thought, intention, intellect mensa table mensis month mensis mensis month merces mercedis pay, reward, recompense, compensation mereo deserve, gain, obtain, serve as a soldier mereo mereor deserve, earn, be entitled to, merit meretrix meretricis prostitute, whore, harlot meridianus midday, afternoon, south messis the harvest, in-bringing, crop messor reaper, harvester mestitia misfortune? Metim Metz metuo to fear, dread, be frightened metus fear, dread, anxiety meus my mica crumb, morsel, grain, small loaf micans twinkling, sparkling, shining, gleaming, flashing michina nostril mico to serve, quiver, shake, palpitate mico glitter, gleam, shine, sparkle, flash, be bright mihi (dat.) me, give ME land, lots of land miles pawn, soldier miles militis soldier, warrior, knight milia (pl.) thousands militaris -e of a soldier, military, martial militus ground, milled (of grain) mille a thousand mille thousand, one thousand millies milies a thousand times minae battlements, parapets, threats, menaces minagium duty of the sale of grain Minerva Minerva miniatus damaged, diminished, lessened, decreased minime in the least degree, very little/not at all by n minimus least, smallest, slightest ministro to attend, wait upon, assist ministro to serve, wait upon, provide, supply minor smaller, less, slighter minuo to draw blood, let blood, to bleed (someone) minuo minui minutum To less, diminish, decrease, grow smaller minutor miner miraculose miraculously mire wonderfully, mervellously, uncommonly mirifice wonderfuly, marvelously, extraordinarily miro to wonder miror to marvel at, admire, wonder mirus wonderful, astonishing, extraordinary misceo miscui mixtum to mix, mingle, blend misellus miserable, pathetic, wretched miser wretched, unfortunate, miserable miserabile sadly, mournfully, wretchedly miserabilis sad, wretched, mournful, plaintive miseratio a fine, charge, tax, amercement misere wretchedly, miserably misereo, misereor to pity misericordaliter mercifully misericordia pity, mercy misericorditer miserably, wretchedly, cruelly miseror (+dative) to pity misfacio to do wrong to, injure, hurt, harm missa holy mass mitesco to grow mild, ameliorate mitigo to make mild or ripe, make smooth, pacify appeas mitis mild, gentle, ripe, mature mittere send, transmit moderamen management, direction moderor to moderate, diminish, direct, govern moderor to guide, manage, mitigate, measure moderor conduct, play an instrument moderor take with moderation, temper modeste discreetly modestia moderation modestus orderly, within bounds, moderate, restrained modestus moderate modica moderate, within bounds, limited, undistinguished modicus ordinary, undistinguished, within bounds modicus scanty, meager modio a grain measure, a bushel basket modius peck, bushel modo now, just now, only modo..modo at one time .. at another modus measure, bound, limit, manner, method, mode, way moenia walls, walled town, city, mansion, dwelling moenia walls, fortifications of a city, ramparts, castle moere bemoan, moan moeror grief, sorrow moestifer sorrowful moestitia sorrow Moguntium Mainz moles huge bulk, massive building, might moleste take annoyance, moleste fero I take annoyance moleste fere to be vexed molestia annoyalce, troublesomeness, stiffness affectatio molestus troublesome, disagreeable, annoying molimen an attempt molior to attempt [+ inf.], struggle alone, strive molior to build, erect, construct, contrive, toil, strug mollio to soften, make pliant mollis soft, pliant, flexible, easily moved, gentle molliter gently monachicus monastic, liturgical monachus monk monarchia monarchy Monasteriense Mnster monasterium monastery, abbey, convent monastica religious moneo to warn, admonish, remind, advise, instruct monere caution, warn, advise, counsel, notify monitio admonition, warning monitum admonition mons mountain monstro to ordain monstro to show, appoint, point out, ordain, nom monstrum portent, omen, monster monstrum portent Montensem Mons monumentum memorial or token of remembrance, remembrance mora delay moratlis mortal morbus sickness, disease, illness morbus disease, illness mores, morium ways, conduct, character, morals morior to die, wither away, decay moror to stay, remain, reside, linger morosus capricious mors death mors mortis death morsus a biting, bite, also, sting, pain mortalitas the state of being mortal, death, a dying mortifer deadly, death-bringing mortifera deadly things mortuus dead, deceased, passed away, gone West, departed mortuus dead morulo to linger mos moris, will, inclination, custom, wont, usage ru mos manners habit, customs mos custom, habit, way motus-us m, motion (earth quake) moveo moti motum to move, arouse, affect, influence mox soon, presently, then, thereupon mucro sword's point, sword mucro a sharp point, edge, dagger point mugio to groan, bellow, roar, low mugitus bellowing mulceo to soften up Mulciber Vulcan mulco to damage muliebris womanly mulier woman multi many, numerous, the common herd multicanus harmonious multifariam in many ways multifluus copiously-flowing multigenus varied, of many kinds multimodus manifold multiplex manifold, many-fold, many times, tortuous multiplex various, numerous multiplicatus multiplied multipliciter in many ways, in various ways multis prosecutionibus pursuing the matter many times multitudo crowd, heap, mass, multitude, pile multo torment, fine, distrain multo by much, by far, by a great deal, by a lot multum much, greatly multus much, great multus plus plurimum much, a lot mundo to clean mundus clean, neat, elegant mundus world, universe mundus world munero/munerior to give, present munia tributes, gifts, payments munificator bestower of gifts munifico to present with something , ""gratifier""" munificus munificent, generous munimen fortification munimentum fortification, protection, defenses munio to fortify, defend, protect, build a road munita fortifications munitio rampart munitio fortifying, defense works, bridging fortificatio munitus fortified munus gift, present, spectacle, function, tribute serv murmur roaring, murmuring murus barrier, defending wall murus wall mus mouse mussito to grumble, mutter mustela weasel mutatio change, alteration, transformation mutatus altered, changed, become different mutilus mussel muto to change, alter, exchange muto punish, fine, mulct muto penis mutuo to borrow, procure mutuus interchanged, mutually, reciprocal, reciprocity mutuus reciprocal, mutual naevus fault nam but now, certainly nam conj, for, for example, instance nam but now, on the other hand, surely for it is cer nam for namque for indeed Namucense Namur narro to make known, say, speak, narrate narro to set forth nascor nasci natus to be born, spring forth nasus nose natalis natalis birthday natare float, swim natio nation, people natio nation natio nationis nation, race, people, breed, pagan people nativitas birth natu (ab,sing.) by birth natura nature natus son nauta sailor navale ship's station, dockyard navigatio voyage, navigation naviger ship-bearing navigium navigation navigo to sail, navigate navis ship, vessel navis navis ship, vessel, boat navitas energy, get up and go ne (conj.) that .. not, in order that .. not, in order not to ne .. quidem not .. even nebula fog, mist, cloud nebulosus misty, foggy nec conj, and not nec .. nec neither nor nec tamen and yet .. not necare die, expire, pass away necdum (neque dum) and not yet necessarius needful, things needed necessarius necessary, needed, essential necesse (adj.) necessary, unavoidable, indispensable necessitas need, exigency, unavoidability necne or not necnon and also neco to slay neco to kill, slay, put to death necto to fasten together necto to tie up, bind, fasten nefandus abominable nefarius execrable, impious nefas wrong, sin negare deny, refuse, reject neglectum slight neglego to disregard negligentia carelessness nego to deny, refuse a request, deny something to some negotium employment, business, task, occupation, pains negotium pains, labor, task, pursuit nemo no one, nobody nemorosa shady nemorosus wooded, covered with trees, forested nemus tree, sacred grove neo to spin, interweave. (to spin thread and yarn) nepos nepotis grandson nequam vile nequam worthless, good for nothing, bad nequaquam by no means, not at all nequaquam in no wise neque neither neque .. neque neither .. nor neque nec and not, nor nequeo not to be able nequeo not to be able, to be impossible nequequam by no means, not at all nequiquam fruitlessly, to no purpose nequiter wretchedly, vilely nequitia vileness nequitia nequities worthlessness, badness, wickedness nescio to be ignorant, be unaware, not know, be unkowing nex violent death, slaughter, death nexus fastening nichilominus nevertheless nidor vapor, smell, reek, odor niger black nihil (undeclinable) nothing nihildom nothing as yet nihilominus nevertheless nihilominus nichilominus nevertheless, notwithstanding nihilum nothing nimirum of course, undoubtedly, certainly (sometimes iron nimis adv. too much, overmuch, excessively nimis (adv.) too much, overmuch, excessively nimium (adv.) too much, overmuch, excessively nisi if not, unless, except nisus exertion, endeavor niteo to shine, glitter, be bright, glow, be sleek flo nitesco to begn to shine, to grow fat or sleek nitesco to begin to shine, grow sleek nitida glittering nitidus bright, shining, fat, sleek, flowering nitor brillance, brightness, glow, elegance, splendor nitor to strive, exert oneself, make an effort, perseve nitor splendor, glow, elegance, brilliance, brightness nitor to endeavor nitor to rest, lean, support oneself, trust in, depend Nivellensem Nivelles, city and monastery niveus white, snowy nix snow nixor to lean against, strive, strain, labor, struggle nixus strain, effort no (nare, navi) to swim, float, fly, sail nobis (abl.) us, there'll be no one as happy as US nobis (dat.) us, the world belongs to US nocens bad, wicked, injurious, culpable, evil noceo do harm, inflict injury noceo (+ dat.) to do harm to, inflict injury, hurt nolens unwilling nolo to to be unwilling nomen appellation, name nomen name nomen Romanorum Roman power nominatim by name, expressly nomine tenus nominally, in name nominor to be renowned non not non jam no longer non solum .. sed etiam not only .. but also nonaginta ninety nondum not yet nonnisi not, not unless nonnullus some, pl. several nonnumquam sometimes nonus ninth norma organization normalis regular Northmanni Normans nos us, they tried to tell US we're too young nos we, WE live and die by that creed nosco to become acquainted with, get to know noster nostra nostrum our, ours noster nostri our ours, OUR hearts beat as one noster nostri our ours, that old dream of OURS nota mark, token, note, sign notabilis -e, noteworthy, notable, notorious notarius stenographer (class.), notary, legal scribe notitia knowledge. information, data, notes, annotations noto-are make note, mark down notos south wind nous intelligence novem nine novercalis malevolent novitas newness, novelty, strangeness novo to make anew, refresh, revive, change, alter inv novus new, fresh, young, inexperienced, revived refres novus novel, unusual, extraordinary, news, novelty a n novus new, novel nox night nox noctis night noxa offense, crime noxialis noxious nullatenus in no wise nullus not any, no, none numen divine will numerus total, category, class, number nummus coin numquam at no time, never nunc now, at the present time, soon, at this time nunc at present, now nunc quidem at one time..then nuncupo to call, proclaim nundinae trade nunquam never nuntio to announce, report, relate nuntium-i n, messenger nuntius messenger, message nuper newly, recently, not long ago nuptiae wedding nuptialis wedding nusquam nowhere, on no occasion nusquam esse -- not exis nusquam nowhere, in no place, nothing, for nothing, never nusquam esse not to exist nuto to falter in fidelity, give way to waver in opin nutrimens food, nourishment nutrimentus nourishment nutrio to suckle, nourish, bring up, rear nutritor toraise, feed nutus command nutus a nod, command, will, gravitation, movement down nutus a nodding, nod, command, will nux nut obdormio to fall asleep obduco to draw over, cover, lead against, pass, spend obductio covering obduro to be hard, persist, endure, last, hold out obedienter obediently obedio to yield obedience to obex barrier obfirmo to bolt, lock, fasten, bar obicio obieci obiectum to offer, throw in someone's teeth obitus death objurgo to fight, attack, oppose obligatus bound, under an obligation obliquo to turn sideways, turn aside obliquus slanting oblittero to cancel, blot out oblivio forgetfulness, oblivion obnixe with all one's strength, instantly obnoxius harmful, hostile obnubilo to overcloud obruo to overwhelm, destroy obscoena offensive, filthy obscurum darkness obscurus dark, dim obsequens compliant obsequium indulgence, pliancy, submission obsequium obedience, indulgence obsequium funeris funeral rites obses surety, hostage obses (obsidis) hostage, security, pledge, surety obsideo to sit near, haunt, frequent, besiege, invest obsido blockage, besiege, invest obstaculum obstacle obstinatus firm, resolved, staunch obstinatus resolute obsto to oppose, defend, stand against obsum to hinder obtempero to obey obtero to bruise obtestor to assert obtestor to implore, entreat, beg, call as a witness obtineo to hold, keep, possess, maintain, to continue obtineo to gain obtutus gaze obviam on the way, in the way, (+ dat.) obviam (adverb) in the way, on the way, toward obviam ire (+ dat.) to go to meet, oppose, help, remedy obvio to encounter, meet obvius on the way, in the way, (in dat.) obvolvo to muffle up obvolvo to wrap up, cover occasio opportunity occasio favorable moment, opportunity occasus setting (of the sun, etc), the west, fall destru occasus sunset, west occatio harrowing occidio slaughter, massacre occido to kill occisor murderer occludo to close, shut up, close off occulco to trample (down) occulte secretly, in secret, by stealth occulto to hide, conceal, cover occultus hidden, concealed, secretly occumbo to fall, topple, drop, fall dead occumbo to fall occupo to take possession, grasp, seize, enjoy get a st occupo to occupy, seize, appropriate, confiscate comman occuro to occur, come about, happen occurro to go to meet, rush upon occurro to occur, run to meet, attack, oppose, work again occursus a meeting Oceanus Oceanus ocius quick. fleet, sooner, faster octavus eighth octo eight octoginta eighty oculus eye odio to hate, despite, hold in contempt, dislike stron odium hatred odium hate odor odor, odour, scent, smell odorifera fragrant odorus keen scenter, sharp nosed oestrus horse-fly, frenzy offa lump, swelling, pellet, shot, mass of something offendo stumble, lurch offendo to displease offendo to knock, hit, strike, shock, offend, displease offensio striking, knocking, hitting against, blow offensio cause of offense offensus offense offensus collision, shock, dislike, displeasure offero to bring forward, place before, present, offer e officina workshop, factor officiose courteously, dutifully, solemnly, ceremoniously officiosus respectful, attentive officium duty, service, job, post, position, responsibility officium office, obligation, duty olim once, at a future time olim at that time, formerly, once, for a long time now olus vegetable Olympus heaven, home of the gods, height of eminence omitto to omit, leave out, let go omitto to let slip, lose, pardon omnifariam in every way omnigenus of all kinds omnimodus universal omnino altogether, entirely, wholly, certainly, complete omnipotens all-powerful, almighty, omnipotent omnis all, every oneratus loaded onero to load, burden, oppress, fil up onus load, burden, weight, trouble, charge public roa onustus burdened, laden opera work, pains, labor opera effort operae pretium est it is worthwhile operatio work operor to work, labor, toil, take pains operor to be active, do opes (pl.) means, wealth, abundance, riches, resources opilio shepherd opimus splendid opinio rumor opinio opinion, report, rumor, conjecture opinor -atus, 1, dep. v, to be of the opinion of opisthotonos A disease where the body is curved backward opium opium oporotheca place for keeping fruit oportet it is fitting, it is proper, reasonable, becoming oportet imper v., to assume it shall be, reasonable nece oportet it is proper, one should, one ought oportet it is needful, it behooves oportunitas convenience, fitness, advantage, opportunity oppidum city, town oppidum (fortified) town oppono opposui oppositum to set against, oppose, be opposite opportune fitly opportune (adv) opportunely, conveniently opportunitas fitness, suitability, convenience, advantage opportunus opportune, fit, convenient, suitable opportunus fit, suitable, liable to ble to opportunus meet opprimo to subdue, overpower, press against, take by surp opprimo oppressi oppressum to suppress, overwhelm, overpower, check opprobrium reproach, disgrace oppugnare assault, attack oppugno to war with, storm oppugno to fight against, attack, assault, assail ops assistance, treasure, wealth, fortune optatus longed-for optimates the aristocratic party optimates magnates, great lords, the best people, the upper optime as best one can optimus one of the best, aristocrat, noble opto to wish for opto to desire, wish for, want opulens rich, wealthy, powerful, mighty, splendid sumptu opulentia riches, wealth, power, might, opulence, splendor opulentia wealth opulentus wealthy, splendid opus deed, labor opus work opus operis work, labor, work done, completed work, building opusculus a little or small work, a small book ora edge, rim, border, boundary, coast, coast-line ora coast, seaside, shore ora region, clime, district, country residents of a ora sea-coast oraculum a solemn statement, oracle, prophecy words of a orare pray oratio prayer oratio speech, address, oration orator orator, speaker. spokesman, envoy, ambassador oratorie oratorically oratorius oratorical, oratory oratu (abl.sing.m.) by request orbis circle, orb, ring, disk, orbit, coil, round rota orbis world, circle orbis circle orbis lacteus the Milky Way orbis signifer the Zodiac orbis terrarum the world, the Earth orbita a wheel rut orbitas bereavement, loss of children, loss of parents orbus destitute orbus deprived of children or parents, orphan, deprived orca a pot or jar orchestra theater space reserved for the Senate, senators orcus the Lower World, whale ordinarius according to order, regular, ordinary ordinatim regularly, ordinarily ordinatio rule, government, order, arrangment, regulation ordinatus arranged, orderly ordine, ordinem regularly, appropriately, properly ordino (-are) to set in order, regulate, arrange, appoint gove ordo rank, class, order orexis appetite, desire organum instrument, musical instrument orgia orgy orgia a festival of mysteries, orgy orichalcum copper ore, brass oriens rising, the rising sun, east, morning Orientales Easterners orior to be born, to be a consequence or result of some orior rise, become visible, appear orior oriri ortus rise, become visible, appear oriundus born oriundus arising from, springing from, coming from ornamentum equipment, kit, trappings, furniture, decorations ornamentum weapons, honor, distinction ornamentum accoutrement ornata adorned ornate splendidly, ornately, elegantly ornatus to adornment ornatus dress, attire, equipment, ornament, embellishment orno to equip, furnish, supply, decorate, adorn ornus mountain ash oro to speak, argue, plead, orate, beg, entreat orsus a beginning, undertaking, initiative ortigometra quail ortus -us, m, birth, origin, rising, source oryza rice os bone ostendo -ere-di sum, to show, to exhibit ostes earthquake ostium entrance, door ostrea oyster otacustes spy otium free time, leisure, ease, peace, repose ovanter exultingly ovis sheep ovis ovis sheep ovum egg pacifice peaceably pacifico to pacify, make peace, reconcile pacificus peace-making paciscor to barter [away] paciscor to make an agreement, covenant, pact paciscor to make a bargain or agreement, covenant, deal pactum treaty, pact, contract pactum agreement, contract, covenant, pact pactus agreed-upon, stipulated, betrothed Padus Po paecipio to warn, admonish, teach, instruct pæne almost, nearly paene, pene nearly, almost pæninsula peninsula paeniteo to rue, cause to grieve, be repentant, repent paganus countryman, peasant, pagan pagatim in vilages, in a village manner, in a rusticway pagenses inhabitants of a district, country-folk, peasants pagus district, countryside rural portions of a civita pala spade, peel for putting bread in the oven palaestra training, wrestling-place palam openly, publicly, (+abl.) palea chaff palestra gymnasium, wrestling school palificare make evident paliurus a plant, Christ's thorn pallens pale, wan, pale yellow, pale green, weak, droopin palleo be pale, be yellow pallesco (+ acc.) grow pale at palliata cloaked pallidus pale, wan, causing paleness " pallium stole, any drapery pallium coverlet, mantle, cloak pallium covering, monk's garb, nun's veil, mantle pallor paleness, fading palma palm palma glory, prize, award for victory, salvation palmarium excellent, splendid, outstanding palmula blade of an oar palor (dep.) to wander, stray, err palpito throb, tremble, shake palpo to feel one's way palpo carress, stroke, coax, cajole, flatter paludosus swampy, marshy, boggy palumbes pigeon palus stay palus penis palus pale, stake, swamp, bog, marsh paluster marshy, swampy, boggy pancratium chicory pando to make known, publicize, make patent pando to stretch out, spread out, extend pandus curved, crooked, arched, bowed pane bread, loaf pango to fix, hammer in, drive in, fasten pango to pledge, agree upon panis bread, loaf panis (-is) bread pannosa tattered pannus swaddling clothes pannus rag, patch, piece of cloth panthera leopard, panther panton everything papa bishop, dad, daddy papæ darn papas tutor papaver poppy papilla teat, breast, nipple papula bladder, bubble papula a pimple papyrus paper par equal, like paratus prepared, ready, equipped, skilled sons) skilled" paratus preparation, fitting out, equipment parce moderately, economically parcius scarcely parco to spare, refrain from parco (with dative) to spare, refrain from injuring parcus sparing, thrifty, economical, moderate pardus panther, leopard parens parent parentela kin parentes relatives, parents pareo to appear, become evident, become plain pareo (+ dat.) to be obedient to, obey, submit pariare (med.) to pay, settle an account, pay a fine paries wall parificio (med.) to put on the same level parilis similar, like, equal parilitas equality, level to make fit pario to spawn pario peperi, partum to bear, bring forth, produce cre pariter alike, at the same time, together pariter likewise, equally, in like manner, as well paro to prepare, get ready, set, put, furnish, supply parro a bird of ill-omen, a bad sign (owl?) pars side, region pars part, piece, share particeps partaker, partner, sharer, comrade partim partly, some parum too little, too few, not enough parum minus minime (adv.) little, too little, not enough parumper for a moment parumper for a short time, for a little while, for a bit parus titmouse parvulus child, infant, young, little, very small, tiny parvus minor minimus small, little pasco to graze, forage, browse passer sparrow passim adv. far and wide, everywhere passim scattered about, indiscriminately pastor shepherd pastoricium (med.) a fee for using a pasture pastorizare (med.) to pasture, graze animals, to put to pasture pastus pasture patefacio to disclose, expose, open, make open patella dish, platter, plate pateo to be open, be exposed pateo to be revealed, to stand open, to be clear, plain pater father paterna of a father, paternal, native paternus of a father, paternal, native patesco to be laid open, bare, exposed, to be revealed patibilis endurable, bearable, sufferable patiens patient, (+ gen.) patiens long-suffering patienter patiently patientia forbearance patientia patience, suffering, endurance patina a dish patior to suffer, endure, permit patior to suffer, be afflicted with patria fatherland patria fatherland, one's native country, homeland patricius a nobleman patrius handed down from one's forefathers patrizo to take after one's father patro to effect, perform patrocinium patronage patrocinor to protect, defend, support, patronize patronus patron, protector patruus uncle, paternal uncle patruus paternal uncle patulum a space, court pauci few, a few, some paulatim gradually, litle by little paulisper for a little while, for a short time paululum very small, very little pauper beggar, person without means pauper poor, with few means, poverty-stricken paupertas beggardry, poverty, humble circumstances paveo to dread pavidus dreadful as in producing fear, quaking as in feel pavio to tread down upon pavor quaking, dread pax harmony in musical context pax peace pax pacis peace pax pacis peace, truce, treaty peccamen sin, fault, error peccatus sin pecco to do wrong, err, sin, go astray pecto to comb, card, thrash (to card wool) peculium a bit of money, a small property pecunia money pecuniosus rich, wealthy \profitable, lucrative pecus a single head of cattle, especially a sheep a he pecus, pecoris herd of cattle pedes pedestrian pedes going on foot, walking, foot-soldier, infantryman pedis louse pedis foot-soldier Pegasus Pegasus peior worse (see malus) pelagus main, open sea pelicanus pelican pellax seductive pellis skin pellis pelt pello pepulli pulsum to hit, beat, exile, drive away, banish peloris a clam pelvis font pendeo to hang, depend, be suspended, be uncertain unde pendere droop, hang pendo to weigh, value, consider, judge, esteem penetrabilis capable of being penetrated, penetrating, piercing penetralis passing through, penetrating, internal, inner penetralis (noun) interior, inner rooms penetranter deeply, penetratingly, searchingly penetro to go against, attack, enter, penetrate penetro to put into, pass through, penetrate penicullus a painter's brush, pencil, stylus peniculus a sponge, brush penintentiarius confessor, penintentiary penis tail penis penis, tail penitens (penitentis) a penitent penitentia penance penitio to do penance penitus inward, inner, internal, interior penitus (adv.) inside, widely, through and through, completely penitus (adverb) accurately, thoroughly, wholly, entirely penna wing penna feather penna feather, wing pennae wing pennatus winged, with feathers penniger winged, with feathers pennipes wing-footed, swift, fleet pennipotens capable of flight pennipotenti birds pensator distributor pensilis hanging pensio a weighing out, paying, payment, rent, day of pay pensito to weigh carefully, weigh out, pay pensito to ponder, consider, think over penso to weigh out, estimate, ponder, consider, pay pu pensus paid out, valued pentecoste Pentecost, Whitsunday penthiacus ragout, stew penuriosus penurious, poor, poverty-stricken penus, us provisions, supplies, victuals peplum robe of state per (+ acc.) (of space) per (+ acc.) (means/instrument) per (+ acc.) (cause) per (+ acc.) (of time) per (prefix to an adjective) very, excessively, quite per antea before, formerly per moenia urbis inside the walls of the town per sic quod on condition that, with the understanding that pera wallet, purse, bag peractio completion, finishing, end peracto to carry through, complete, accomplish peraeque quite equally peragito (-are) to harass, push around perago to to go through with, accomplish, finish perago (-ere) to harass, disturb, mention, complete, accomplish perago (legal) to prosecute to the end peragro to search through, traverse peragro to wander through, travel through perca bass percello to smite, strike with consternation, excite percipio percepi perceptum to gain, learn, perceive, understand percontor percunctor inquire, interrogate, investigate perculsus a shock percunctor to interrogate percutio (percussum) to strike hard, pierce, transfix, shock percuto to affect deeply perdignus very worthy perditio loss, destruction perditio ruin perdo to destroy, ruin, waste, scatter, squander perdo to ruin, lose perdo to lose, destroy perduco to guide perduco to lead through, conduct, carry through peregrinus wanderer, foreigner, stranger, pilgrim, crusader perennis everlasting, uninterrupted pereo to pass away, be destroyed, perish pererro to ramble over perfectus complete, finished, done, perfect, without flaw perfero to bear, suffer, endure perficio to accomplish, perfect, complete, achieve, effect perfidia treachery, faithlessness perfidia treachery perfidiosus treacherous, faithless perfidus treasonous perflo to blow through or over perfringo to break through, penetrate, shatter perfruor to execute completely, enjoy to the full perfundo to drench perfusus steeped, soaked, drenched pergo to continue, proceed, go on with pergo to proceed, pursue periclitatus put in peril, endangered periclitor to test make a trial, put in peril, endanger periculosus hazardous, dangerous periculum danger, peril periculum risk, danger, destruction periculum danger, risk perimo to slay perimo peremi peremptum to destroy peritus skilled, expert peritus skilful periurium perjury, oath-breaking, foreswearing an oath perjuro to break an oath perlabor to slip through perlustro to pass through, survey, look, examine permaneo to stay to the end, last, endure permaximum the very greatest permeo to pass through permeo to traverse permetior to measure, traverse permitto to suffer, allow permoveo to excite, agitate, stir up, move perniciosus pernicious, destructive perorno to greatly adorn peroro to speak from beginning to end perosus hateful perpendo to weigh carefully perperam wrongly, falsely perpes never-ending perpetior to endure perpetro to complete, accomplish, perform perpetuus perpetual, lasting, continuous, uninterrupted perpetuus unbroken perquiro to make a diligent search for, examine Persa Persian perscitus very clever, exceedingly sharp perscribo to write out, write down, place on record perscrutor to search through, examine perseco to cut through, dissect, cut away persentio to feel deeply persequor to persecute, hunt down, track, trail persequor persequi persecutus to follow, pursue, take revenge perseverantia perseverence, persistence perseverantia steadfastness persevero to to abide by strictly, continue steadfastly co persevero to persist, persevere, continue persisto to persist, persevere persolvo to unloose, explain, expound, pay off a debt, pay persolvo to render, discharge persona actor's mask, part, role, character, personality persona [medieval] one holding an honor, official, magnat personam gero to act a part perspicax penetrating perspicuus clear perspicuus transparent, bright, clear, evident persto to persist, remain firm perstruo to construct persuadeo persuasi persuasum to persuade perterreo to terrify pertimesco to become very much afraid pertinacia firmness, obstinacy, stubborness pertinaciter stubbornly, obstinately pertinax persistent, firm, mean, stubborn, obstinate pertineo to pertain to, relate to, concern pertingo to stretch out, extend pertorqueo to twist, distort pertraho to drag, forcibly conduct, entice, allure perturbatio passion perturbo to disturb, trouble, perturb, disrupt perturpis very disgraceful peruro to burn up peruro perussi perustum to burn up, consume, inflame, gall, chafe pervalidus very strong pervasor invader pervenio to come to pervenio (+ acc.) to reach, attain, reach, be passed to pervenire accomplish, attain, reach perversa corrupt, awry perverto to turn upside down, overturn, overthrow pervicax determined pervideo to look over, survey, inspect, discern pervigil ever-watchful pervium thoroughfare pes foot, paw pes pedis foot pessimus worst (see malus) pessum to the ground, to the bottom, downward pessum dare to destroy, ruin, wreck pessum ire to sink, be ruined, destroyed, be put to an end pestifer pestilential, injurious, damaging, plaguey pestifer baleful, destructive, mischievous person pestifere destructively, injurously pestilencia pestilence, plague pestis destruction, pestilence, curse pestis pestis plague, epidemic, pestilence, destruction, curse petere ask, ask for, beg, bid, request petitus inclining toward peto to ask for, beg, request, demand, to sue for peto to make for, seek out, relate to peto to make for, go to, seek, strive after petorritum vehicle petra rock petro chamois petroselinum parsley petrosus rocky petulans wanton petulans frolic, frolicsome, petulant phalangula small host phalanx host, band of warriors phalerae trapping for foreheads and breasts of horses orn phaleratus bridled, harnessed, bearing arms pharetra a quiver phasma phasmatis ghost, spirit, specter philema kiss philologus scholar, learned man, adj. learned, literary phoca seal Phoebus sun phreneticus lunatic phthisis consumption, tuberculosus phthisis consumption, tuberculosis phui shame phy shame phylacterium amulet physiologus a natural science pia pium honest, godly, holy, pious, dutiful, patriotic piaculum sin piaculum a victim, sacrifice, atonement, punishment, a sin pica jay, magpie picea the spruce tree pictor painter picturatus painted, of cloth, embroidered picus woodpecker pie adv, piously, religiously, dutifully pietas dutifulness, dutiful conduct, piety, devotion ki pietas compassion, dutifulness, kindness piger pigra pigrum lazy, slow, dull pignus pawn, pledge, token, (in pl.) pignus gage, collateral, surety, pawn pilo to shave, sut the hair pilosus hairy, covered with hair pilum heavy javelin pilus a single hair, a trifle pinetum pine wood pingo stain, dye, decorate pinguesco to grow fat, sleek pinguis fat, oily, rich, sleek, fertile pinguitudo fatness, rotundity pinna wing, mussel, feather, pen pinus pine, pine tree pio to purify with sacred rites piper, piperis pepper pipio to chirp, tweet, pipe pirum pear pirus pear tree piscator fisherman piscis fish pisum pea pius dutiful, godly, holy, upright, kind, honest affe pius pious, dutiful, compassionate, respectful gracio placatus appeased placeo (+ dat.) to please, be agreeble to placere please placet it is agreed, it is resolved, it seems good placide quitely, gently placidus quiet, still, gentle placitum accord, agreement, pact, assembly for judgment placitum conference, meeting, negotiation placitum judgment, case, plea, litigation, defense placo to placate, appease plaga region plaga a blow, stroke, wound, buffet plaga blow, buffet, slap plaga plague (Vulgate), affliction, scourge plaga district, zone, region plagatus wounded plagiarius kidnapper, plagiarist planctus wailing plane plainly, clearly plango to beat ones breast planta plant, shoot, sprout, twig, sprig planta sole plantarium nursery, nursery garden, sole of the foot planto to set in place, make, form, shape, plant, fix in planum level ground plasmator maker plasmo to mould platea street, courtyard plaustrum wagon, cart, Charles' Wain, the Big Dipper plebeius common plebs the common people, the masses, the crowd plebs populace, lower classes, the mob plecto to punish plecto aliquem capite * suffer capital punishment, death plector to be punished plectrum lute plene (adv.) completely, wholly, fully plenus complete, full plenus filled, laden plenus full, complete, satisfied, rich, mature pl plerumque for the most part, generally, commonly, mostly plerusque very many, a great number, a large part the grea plico to fold plorabilis deplorable ploratio lamentation, mourning, weeping plorator a lamenter ploratus weeping, lamenting ploro to lamen, weep, weep over pluere rain pluma feather, pen pluma feather, featherbed, pen plumbeus leaden, made of lead, dull, stupid, heavy, opress plumbum lead plumbum lead, a bullet, lead pipe plumbum album tin pluo to rain, shower, sprinkle plura more numerous, several, many plures more numerous, several, many pluries often, frequently plurimi at the highest price, of the highest worth plurimus most, very many pluris (gen.) at a higher price, of a great value plus more plusculus somewhat more, rather more pluvia rain, shower pluvialis pertaining to rain, of rain pneum breath pocius potius rather, preferrably podagra gout poema poem poema poematis poem, verse, rhyme poena punishment Poenicus Carthaginian Poenus Carthaginian poeta poet poeta (masc.) poet polenta pearl barley, barley groats pollen fine flour, fine meal. (also pollis ) pollens strong, mighty polleo to be strong, powerful, able polleo to be rich in pollex thumb, big toe polliceor to promise, offer polliceri promise pollicitas offering pollicitatio promise pollicitus promised, a promise polluo to defile polus pole, heavens pomum fruit, apple pondera balance, equilibrium pondero to weigh, consider, reflect pondus weight, weight of character, firmness, constancy pondus a pound's weight, weight, mass, load, heavy body pono posui positum to lay, place, put, set, (milit.) pons bridge, drawbridge pons pontis bridge pontifex bishop pontus bridge Pontus Black Sea, Euxine Sea pontus sea populatio devastation, wasting, population populi people populus poplar, folk, nation, people populus popular populus people, the people, nation, crowd, multitude, hos populus populace, laity porca pig porcina pork porcus pig porro forward, further, next, in turn, (of time) porta gate, entrance portare carry, wear portus harbor, harbour, port portus harbor posco to beg posco to call upon, ask ernestly, request positus position, place, arrangment positus situated possessio possession, property possessiones holdings possideo hold, abide possum to be able, to be capable possum posse potum to be able, avail, have influence post after post (+ acc.) after, behind post modum afterwards, presently, shortly post tergum [left] behind postea afterwards, next, subsequently postea afterwards posteri posterity posteritas succeeding generations, offspring, posterity posterus, postremo subsequent, following, next, future posthabeo to put after, consider of less account [posthabi postpono to put after, consider secondary postquam (conj.) after postulatio a demand, request, desire, complaint postulativus plaintive postulator plaintiff, complainant postulo to complain, contain, measure, need, require postulo to ask, demand, require, summon, prosecute impea potens mighty, able, powerful, strong potentia might, power, authority potentia [political/diplomatic power] influence potestas power, ability, authority, opportunity potestas legal competence potior to [+ abl] obtain potior (+ gen. or dat.) to possess, hold, get possession of potissimum (adv.) chiefly, most of all potissimus best of all, chief, principal potius rather, preferably potius comp. adj, in order that, rather practicus active præ because of, on account of, for sake of prae pre (adv.) before, in front prae se ferre, pre se ferre to show, exhibit, on account of praebalteata girded praebeo to offer praecautus on one's guard praecaveo to take precautions praecedo to precede praecellens distinguished, excellent praecello to preside over, be distinguished praecelsus very lofty praeceps precipice praecidentius cautiously praecido to cut short, lop, mutilate praecingo to gird, encircle praecipitium headlong fall praecipito cast down headlong praecipo to instruct praecipue adv, especially praecipue especially, chiefly praecipue particularly praeclarus excellent, famous, beautiful, striking praeconium laudation praecursor forerunner praeda booty praedatio taking of booty prædator robber praedatus taking of booty praedestino to determine beforehand, predestine praedicare to preach praedicatio preaching (s), foretelling (s), condemning praedico to fix in advance praeditus well endowed praedium estate praedor to plunder praeduco to put before praeeo to lead the way praefatus-i before mentioned ed praeire to go before praejudicium damage praejudico to decide beforehand ie plan praelabor to glide past, translated as transient praelibo to taste beforehand praelior to do battle praelium battle praelium facio to join battle praemitto to send forward, dispatch, send in advance praemium reward, exploit - præmium compensation, reward praemoneo to forwarn praemunio to secure praeniteo to gleam especially prænomen first name praeoccupor morte to fall prey to death praeopto to desire more or much praepedio to hinder praepes nimble præpositio preposition praepositus manorial agent, steward, bailiff, prior praepositus prepositus (monas prior praesagio to prophesy praesagium presentiment praesagus prophetic praescio to foreknow praesentia presence, presence of mind, effect, power praeses guard praesidium garrison troops, assistance, aid praesidium guard, garrison, detachment, protection praestigiator impostor praesto to furnish, offer praesto to stand before, be outstanding, excell, surpass praesto [+ subj clause] to be better, preferable praesto presto to answer for, be responsible for praesto presto to do, perform, display, fulfill, offer, present praestolatio prestolatio the waiting for, expectation praestolor to wait for, stand ready praestringo to bind fast praesul presul dancer, presider, protector, director praesum to be set over, preside over have charge of praesum v, to be before praesum presum to be at the head of, be in charge of praesumo to trust, venture, dare praesumo presumo to anticipate, take for granted praesumptio audacity praeter adv, beyond, after praeter "adj., except; prep. + acc., besides, beyond mor praeterea adv, besides, moreover, as indeed it is praevalens very powerful praevaleo to prevail, have power praevalesco to grow very strong praevalida very powerful praevaricor to transgress praevenio to come before, anticipate praevenio to get the start of, to forestall, prevent, hinde praevideo to take precautions praevius previous, former prandio to eat lunch prandium dinner, lunch pratum meadow, hay-field pratus meadow pravitas crookedness, depravity, deformity, perversity pravus depraved, wicked, evil, perverse precatus prayer, beseeching precipio to anticipate, instruct, advise, warn precipue especially, particularly, chiefly precipue chiefly, especially, particularly precipuus excellent, distinguished, special, extraordinary precor to beseech, pray, beg, entreat, invoke prehendo to seize, snatch, grasp, detain, arrest premo to weigh down, stifle, overwhelm premo squeeze, press down, strike down premo pressi pressum to squeeze, press down, strike down prenda booty, loot, stolen goods preoccupo to attack first, take, vex, occupy preoccupo to block, prevent, frustrate prepositus reeve, steward, provost, prior, abbot presertim praesertim especially, chiefly presso to conceal pretereo to go by, pass by, escape pretium price, vaue, reward pretium price prevenire to come to, go before hand, attend prex entreaty prex precis request, entreaty, prayer pridem in time past primaeva youthful primitus first, for the first time primo first, firstly, first of all primo first, at first, at the beginning, at the start primordia atoms primordium first beginning, origin primoris first, foremost, most distinguished primoris first, foremost, at the top, uppermost primum at first, for the first time, in the first place primus first primus chief princeps chief, main, major, principal princeps * leader, prince, preeminent person, magnate pri principatus rule, dominion, pre-eminence, first place principium beginning principor to rule priscus ancient, antique, former, old days, venerable pristinus former, venerable, ancient prius before, formerely priusquam (conj.) before privatus deprived, released privatus private, unofficial, a private person privigna step-daughter privo to rob, deliver, deprive privus (with gen.) deprived of pro instead of, before, in front of pro (+ abl.) in front of, before, on behalf of, for pro (+ abl.) in return for, instead of, for, as pro eo because of the fact, because, for this reason proavus great-grandfather probabilis credible probabiliter with credibility probatur from probo-are, to judge, test, examine probatus approved probitas probity, uprightness, honesty probitas liberality problema problem, trouble probo to show, prove, demonstrate, approve, find good proboscis proboscis, trunk probrum reproach, abuse probus above-board, honest probus upright, liberal, generous procax brash procedo to go out, come out, result, prosper, turn out we procedo to go ahead, proceed, advance, continue procella tempest procella storm, tempest, gale, charge, onset e, onset, wav procellosus tempestuous procer chief noble, prince proceres prelates, chiefs, magnates proceritas height procerus tall processus procession, progress procido to fall prostrate procinctu prepared or ready for battle proclivia slopes proclivus inclined, ready procreo to beget procul far, at, to, from a distance procuratio management, administration, diretion, supervision procurator manager, bailiff, agent procuro to take care of, manage prodeo to advance, go forward, appear, go forth sally f prodico to put off, delay prodigentia profusion, prodigiality prodigialiter amazingly, wonderfully prodigiosus unnatural, wonderful, miraculous, amazing prodigium prodigy, portent, monster, unnatural thing prodigo drive forth, waste, spend, expend prodigus rich, extravagant, abound in, profuse prodigus lavish proditio treason, betrayal proditio betrayal, treason proditor traitor, betrayer proditus treachery prodo publish, bring forth, appoint, abandon, betray prodo deliver, transmit, hand over, disclose prodoceo teach, inculcate, indoctrinate prodromus forerunner produco to bring into the world producto produxi productum produce, bring forward, bring out producto produxi productum promote, divulge, bring to light proeliator warrior proeliator preliator fighter, warrior, combatant proelium battle profano to violate profano profane, desecrate profanus not sacred, uninitiated, ordinary, common impiou profanus wicked profectio departure profectio departure, source, origin profecto truly, really, indeed profectus advance profero to carry out, bring forth, advance, impell/cite profero to enlarge, extend, delay, postpone profero to reveal, proffer professio declaration, profession, trade, art, craft profe professio monastic rule professio monastic profession of vows oath of canonical ob professor authority, expert professorius authoritative professus having professed monastic vows proficio advance, assist, help, aid, be of use proficio to go on, be advantageous, accomplish proficio to make progress, advance proficiscor to depart, set out, to start forward, to arise proficiscor to travel, march profiteor to acknowledge, confess, offer, promise profiteor to confess (one's sins), to take a monastic oath profiteor to make a public statement, to declare oneself profiteor to declare publicly, profess profugus fleeing, fugitive, banished, migratory profundum a depth, abyss, chasm, the sea profundus deep, profound, high, thick, dense, boundless profusius profusely profuturus beneficial progagus offspring progener husband of a grand-daughter progenero to produce, engender progenierum from generation to generation progenies descent, lineage, progeny, offspring, descendants progenitor founder of a family, ancestor progenitus descended prognatus born, sprung from, son progredior to march forward progredior to go forth, advance, proceed, go out progressio advance, progress, increase progressus advance, going forward, increase, a royal circuit proh ah! prohibeo to hold back, withhold, restrain prohibeo to prevent, hinder, restrain, prohibit, forbid prohibitio prohibition, restrain, forbidding proicio to throw forth, fling, abandon proinde consequently, therefore, as a result prolabor to slide forward, slip forward, fall forward fal prolapsio a slipping or sliding prolatio a bringing forward, mentioning, extension deferr prolato to enlarge, lengthen, extend, put off, defer prolecto to entice, allure proles descendant, progeny proletarius a citizen of the lowest rank prolicio prolixi to lure forth, entice prolix long, stretching prolixus wide, broad, long, willing, obliging, favorable proloquium assertion, utterance proloquor to speak out, declare openly proluo prolu prolutum to wash away, wash clean prolusio preliminary exercise, prelude proluvier innundation, scouring, discharge proluvies overflowing promereor to earn promerita deserving prominens jutting out, standing out, a projection promineo to stand out, jut, extend promiscus promiscuus mixed, indiscriminate, commonplace, usual promissio a promise promissor a promiser, suretor, guarantor promissum promise, offer promittere promise promitto engage oneself, promise promitto to let go forward, send forth, promise, undertake promitto to let go, send forth, undertake, promise promitto to put forth, make a promise, oath promo prompsi promptum to produce, disclose, bring forth promontorium peak, mountain crest, ridge, promontory promoveo promovi promotum push forward, move ahead, advance prompte promptly, resolutely, readily promptus ready at hand, visible, apparent promptus ready, inclined to promptus (persons) prepared, resolute, prompt promulgatio publication, promulgation (of a law) promulgo to publish promus steward, butler promutuus (cash) advanced, prepaid, arragned beforehand pronepos proneptos great-grandson pronomen demonstrativum demonstrative, demonstrative pronoun pronuntio to proclaim, announce, declaim pronus stooping propago to extend propago-are to spread, propagate propalata made public, publicized propalo to make public prope almost, nearly prope near, near to, not far, not long from now prope near, nearly, not far from, just now, closely propello to drive before one, drive away propense readily propero to hasten, accelerate, speed up propero to hasten, speed, move rapidly, come quickly propero to hasten propino to set before one propinquitas intimacy, nearness, closeness propinquo (intrans) to come near, draw near, approach propinquus near, close, similar, nearly related propinquus kinsman propitius gracious propitius favorable, gracious proplasma example proponere offer, propose, suggest propono to design, point out propono display, publish, relate, tell, propose, promise propositio proposal, proposition propositum intention, declaration propositum a design, purpose, scheme, theme of discourse proprie exclusively, particularly, peculiarly. properly proprietas ownership proprius characteristic, particular proprius one's own, permanent, special, peculiar propter (+ acc.) near, close, on account of, because of propugnaculum tower, fortification, rampart, defense prora prow prorsus forward, straight ahead, to sum up, utterly whol prorsus utterly proruo to tumble down prosa prose prosapia family, stock prosequor to pursue prosequor (prosecutus) to attack, go with, pursue, attend prosilio to spring up, burst forth prosper propitious prosper favorable, fortunate, lucky, prosperous prospera good fortune prosperitas success prosperitas propserity, good fortune prospicio to see from a distance, prosper, propitious prospicio to look into the distance, contemplate prosterno to knock down, cast down, destroy, ruin prosterno to overthrow, prostrate prostituere prostitute prosum to benefit prosum (profuturus) to be useful, of benefit, do good prosum (with dat.) to be useful, do good, benefit protego to protect protelo to lead protendo to stretch out protense extensively. protero to tread under foot, trample proterus wanton protestor, protesto to declare in public, affirm, bear witness prothonotario protonotary prothoplastus the first man protinus forward, further on, continuously, immediately protraho (protractus) to draw out, rpotact, defer, make known prout as, just as, according to provectus advanced, advanced in age provectus aged, old, advanced in years proveho to carry on, carry forward, advance, promote proventus a growing up, increase, crop, yield, or issue provida prudent providentia providence, foresight, prudence provideo to foresee, provide, make provision for providor caretaker provincia province, region provisio forethought provisor one who provides for, or against provolvere se to throw oneself down, abase oneself provolvo to fall down at another's feet proximare advance, come close, come closer, come on proximus nearest, closest, next prudens prudent, wise prudens discreet, sensible, judicious prudenter wisely, discreetly prudenter discreetly prudentia practical judgment, discretion prudentia foresight, wisdom, discretion prunum plum prurigo to itch prurire itch psallo to sing Psalms of David, psalmodize, sing psallo to play/sing to stringed instrument, esp. cithara psittaca parrot psoleus penis pubertas manhood pubes young men, signs of manhood pubesco to reach the age of puberty publicus of the people, public, open to all puchre beautifully, finely, handsomely pudendus shameful, disgraceful pudeo to be ashamed pudet it causes shame pudicus modest. chaste pudor ignominy pudor modesty, bashfulness puella daughter, girl, lass puella girl puelus bath puer boy puer son, boy puera girl, lass puerilis childish, boyish, folish, foolish pueriliter boyishly, childishly, foolishly pugna fight, battle, conflict, set-to pugna battle, scuffle, struggle pugnacitas the desire to fight, pugnacity pugnaculum fortress pugnare fight, struggle pugnator combatant pugnax fond of fighting, combative, stubborn, contntious pugno to fight pugnus the fist pulchellus pretty pulcher beautiful, fine, handsome, lovely pulcher pulchra pulchrum beautiful, handsome, fine, fair pulchritudo beauty, fineness pulex the flea pullulo shoot up, sprout, burgeon pullulo to increase, spread pullus young pullus dark, dim, black pullus dark-clorored, blackish, sad, gloomy, a dark garm pullus young animal, chicken, chick pulmentum anything eaten with bread, sauce or relish pulmo the lung pulpa flesh pulpitum platform, stage pulsatus touched, struck pulso to strike, touch pulso to strike (the hours) pulsus beating, blow, push, impulse, influence pulverulentus full of dust pulvis dust, powder, arena, scene of action pumilius pumilio a dwarf pumilus dwarf, midget punctum a prick, little hole, puncture, a point, spot pl pungo to sting pungo pupugi punctum to penetrate, sting, annoy, harrass pungo pupugi punctum to prick, puncture, stab, touch, move puniceus reddish puniceus purple, red Punicus Carthaginian punio to punish, avenge, gave vengeance punire punish punitor punisher, avenger pupa doll, puppet pupa doll, little girl pupillus orphan, minor pupillus pupilla orphan, ward puppis stern of a ship, the poop puppis poop, poopdeck, stern pupula pupil of the eye purgamentum rubbish, trash, filth, sweepings purgatio cleaning out, cleansing, excsuing, justification purgo to clean, cleanse, purify, clear away, wash off purpura purple dye, purple cloth, high rank, emperorship purpura purple purpureus brilliant, purple-colored purpureus purple purus clean, pure purus pure, free from, spotless, without stain purus spotless pus pus pusillus tiny, puny, petty, mean pusillus insignificant, very small pusio lad putator pruner puteo to stink, be redolent, smell bad puter rotten, decayed, putrid, loose, crumbling, flabby putesco to putrefy, day, rot puteulanus blue puteus well, pit puto to clear, settle up, consider, think, believe su putus pure, unmixed, unadulterated pyga behind, bottom, buttocks pyramis pyramid pyropus bronze pyus pyxidis a little box, casket qua (adv.) by which route, where qua (fem. sing. abl.) (the abbess) quadra dining table quadraginta forty quadraginta forty (Indecl.) quadratus square, a square quadrigae four-horse team quadrivium second stage of the medieval curriculum quadrivium crossroads, place where four roads meet quadrum a square quadruplator an exaggerator, informer quadruplor to be an informant quae (fem. pl. nom.) Let THOSE (women) quae (neut. pl. acc.) those things WHICH we must have quae (neut. plur. nom.) WHAT cannot be avoided must be endured quae que (fem. sing. nom.) (the milkmaid), WHO loved a prince quærere ask quaerito to seek/look earnestly for quaero to seek, search for, get, obtain quaero to plan, search, procure quaestio judicial investigation quaestuosus questuosus profitable, fond of gain, rich quaestus questus profit, a source of profit, gainiing, getting qualis of what kind? of the kind that qualiscumque of any kind whatever, any whatever qualislibet of what sort you will qualitas quality, property, nature qualiter just as, in whatever manner/way quam (adv. and conj.) how, than, as .. as possible quam (fem. sing. acc.) (the church), WHICH the Lord loved quam plures as many as possible quamdiu such a long time quamobrem for which reason, on which account, why quamobrem, quam ob rem wherefore? why? for which reason quamquam though, although quamquam nevertheless, and yet (beginning a sentence) tho quamtotius completely, all l quamvis adv/conj, ever so much quamvis (conj) however much, although, as much as you like quando when quandoque adv, of one time or another quandoquidem since, because quanti for how much, at what price quanto by how much (+ comp. adj. or adv.) quantum adv, regard to, as much as, the more, the greater quantum how much?, how much!, as much as quantum (+ gen.) as much of .. as quantum in me est as much as in me lies quantus how great, as great as quantus how great?, how great!, how much, as great as quantus .. quantus as great as, as much as quantuslibet as much as you will, as great as you will quantuvis as great as you please, however great quapropter wherefore quare wherefore, why, because of which thing quartus fourth quarum (fem. pl. gen.) their envy and jealousy, OF WHICH we know quas (fem. pl. acc.) the fates, against whom he struggled quasi as if, just as, just as if, as it were, a sort of quassatio a shaking quasso to shake violently, shake to pieces, break, shatt quasso to batter quatenus in order that quatenus/quatinus since, as, in order that, that quater four times, again and again quattuor four quattuor four (indecl.) quattuordecim fourteen quem (masc. sing. acc.) (the man), WHOM the king struck quemadmodum how, in what manner quemadmodum how?, just as, lust like quendam a certain (one, thing, someone) queo to be able quercetum an oak grove, and oak forest quercus oak quercus oak tree queribundus complaining, plaintive, whining querimonia complaint, accusation, a charge in court queritor to complain excessively, whine, gripe quernus oaken queror to complain, lament, bewail (dogs) querulus complaining, whining, lamenting questus complaint, lament qui (masc. neut. nom.) (the prince) qui (masc. pl. nom.) Let THOSE (men) qui (question) how? in what way?, somehow, wherewith quia because quianam why? quiane why? quibus (fem. pl. abl.) the beards, BY WHICH the pirates were known quibus (fem. pl. dat.) the good fortune, TO WHICH he owed his crown quibus (masc. pl. abl.) his sons, BY WHOM he was attacked when old quibus (masc. pl. dat.) the monastery IN WHICH he was intered quibus (neut. pl. abl.) the arms WITH WHICH he won Rome quibus (neut. pl. dat.) the crimes FOR WHICH he was executed quicquid whoever, whatever, whatsoever, anything at all quicum with whom, with which quid (+ genitive) how much? how many? quid (question) what (thing)? quid ita why so? quidam quaedam quedam quidam a certain person or thing, a kind of quidem adv, in truth, certainly, at least, indeed quidne (question) why not? quies repose quies quiet, rest, peace, a resting place, sleep a dre quiesco to rest, sleep, be at ease, stop (doing something quiete calmly, undisputably quiete quietly, calmly quieto to become calm quietus resting, sleeping, undisturbed, neutral, quiet c quilibet anyone, anything, whatever (or whomever) quin [+ subj.] rather, let, verily quin (with verbs of hindering, etc.) without + part rt quin but come now, rather, indeed quin etiam yea, indeed quin etiam why even, in fact, moreover quinam quaenam quenam quodnam which? what? quindeciens fifteen times quindecim fifteen quingenti five hundred quinquagesimus fiftieth, a fiftieth part quinquaginta fifty quinque five quinquennis five years old quinquiplico (-are) to multiply by five quintus fifth quinymo quinimmo no, rather quippe certainly, to be sure, indeed, of course quiritatio a scream, cry, shriek quirito (-are) to scream, cry out quis anyone, anybody, anything quis (question) who?, what?, which? quislibet anybody, whom you will, all, any quisnam, quidnam who, what quispiam anyone, anything, someone, something quisquam anyone, anything quisque each one, each person quisquis whoever, whatever, whatsoever, anything at all quo to which place, to what place, whither, where quo where ... to quo (masc. sing. abl.) (the money) quo (neut. sing. abl.) (the eagerness) quod because, whereas, the point that, the fact that quod (+ comparative) the x the better (quod celior = the faster the quod (beginning sentence) and, but, now quod (neut. sing. acc.) (the sea), WHICH you cannot drink dry quod (neut. sing. nom.) (the war), WHICH killed so many quod (with time) since, as far as, to the extent that quod sui juris est what is one's by right quodammodo in a certain way, in a certain measure quomodo in what manner, how, in whatever way, somehow quondam formerly, once, at one time, ertswhile quondam once, one time quondam former, one-time, deceased, late quoniam since, whereas, because quoque also, too quor what for, why quorum (masc. pl. gen.) the army, half OF WHICH was ill quorum (neut. pl. gen.) dangers, OF WHICH there were not a few quos (masc. pl. acc.) those WHOM he accused of treachery quot how many, as many (indecl.) quotiens often quotienscumque however often quovis to whatever place you will

rabidus raging, crazy

rabies frenzy

rabies madness, fury, frenzy

rabiosus savage


racemus-bunch, cluster

radians- shining


radicitus by the roots, utterly


radius beam , staff , rod

radix root, radish

radix source, root, foundation

rado ere- scratch

raeda [reda]- carriage

raedarius [redarius]- driver


rameus- of boughs



ramus- branch


rancidus - stinking





rapina ravishment, rapine, robbery

rapio to ravish, steal, rob

rapta-seduced or abducted woman




raptor ravisher, thief


raptus- robbery, plundering

rapulum radish

raresco-grow thin or rare

 rare thinly, rarely, uncommonly

rarus rare, uncommon, far apart, thin, scanty



ratio system, manner, method, procedure ratio procedure, theory

ratio reckoning, account, reason, judgment considerati

rationabiliter reasonably


ratiocinator-calculate , m. bookkeeper

 ratis vessel

ratus-fixed, reckoned





 re vera in truth

rebellis rebellious, rebels

rebello to wage war against, rebel

reboare to resound like celestial thunder

recedentia retreat, ebbing, disappearance, distant, far

recedo to go back, retreat, retire, disappear

recedo retire, withdraw recedo to fall back, pass away, depart recenseo to recount, review

recessus a going back, retreat, place of retreat quiet pl

 recidivus returning, restored, rebuilt recipero to regain, revive, restore

 recipero to receive, accept, withdraw, take back

reciprocus reverberating

 recito to read aloud, recite

recognosco to recognize, recollect, recall recolitus venerable, honorable, worshipful

recolligo gather, regather, flock together

recolo to recall, reflect upon, rework, resume rehabili

recolo to consider, recall, comtemplate

recolo to cultivate, work again, resume, rehabilitate

reconcilio to restore, repair, (of persons)

 recondo lay up, store, hoard recoquo recas
t recordatio recollection, memory, recall

recordo to be mindful of, recollect

recordor to remember, think of, recollect, ponder over

recreo to revive

 recro to recreate, restore, revive

rector guider, leader, director, ruler, master rectum virtue, right
 rectus straight, appropriate

 rectus right, correct, proper, upright, natural, plain recubo to recline, lie

recuperatio recovery, recuperation

 recupero to regain, recoup, recover

 recuso to refuse, decline, reject, be unwilling

recuso to refuse redarguo disprove, refute. with gen. prove guilty, convict redarguo to confute

 reddere give back, return

 reddo to repeat, recite, represent, imitate, pay up, de

reddo to give back, restore, return, answer, translate

 reddo to impart, render, return, hand over, surrender

 redemptio ransoming,

redemption, buying back, farming taxes

 redemptor redeemer (Christ)

redeo to go back, come back, return, (revenue) redeo to fall back upon, be reduced to, be brought to redeo to be reduced to, fall back upon

redigo to bring back, make, reduce redigo (redactum) to bring or reduce to a condition, lessen

redimio to crown, bind around, encircle, surround

redimo to redeem, ransom, buy back, hire, buy, procure

redintegro to repair, fix, restore

redire go back, return

reditus return, income, revenue, reward

redivivus rennovated, reconstructed, rebuilt, recycled

redomo to break, tame [again]

redono to give back, give up

reduco to lead back, bring back, return

redundantia overflowing,


redundo to overflow, stream over, overflow, excess, flood

redux one brought back from imprisonment

 refectorium refectory, monastic mess hall

 refer to recount, recite, announce, allege, report rep

 refercio to stuff, cram

 refero to put down, enter (in a register) assign to a c refero to carry back, bring back, return refero to bring as expected, pay up, deliver refero to bring again, restore, repeat, echo, reproduce

refero to say back, reply, answer

refert (impersonal) it concerns, it makes a difference

 refertus stuffed, crammed

 reficio to repair, fill reformo to form again, re-establish, mould anew

 refoveo to cherish again, refresh, warm

refragatio resistance

 refreno to check, rein in

refrigerium consolation

refugium refuge

refulgo to shine brightly

refundo to infuse

 refuto to repel, repress, oppose

 regalis of a king, royal, regal

 regalis regal, royal

regenero to be born again

regere control, govern, restrain, rule

regimen rule, guidance

regina queen

regio region

regius royal, regal

regno to reign, rule, predominate regnum kingdom

regnum rule, authority, kingdom, realm

regredior to march back, retreat, return

regressus retreat

regula rule, monastic rule

relatio to report

 relatus recital, report

relaxo to loosen, enlarge, relax, ease, lighten relevo to lift again, lighten, alleviate, relieve

relictus left behind

relictus someone having inherited, been bequeathed

religio fear of God, way of life, esp of monks/nuns

 religio religion religiosus god-fearing

relinquo to leave behind, bequeath/abandon, forsake

reliquum remainder, what is left, leavings

 relucesco to become bright again

reluctor to struggle against, resist

remandatum reply

remando to notify in return, send back word, respond

remaneo to remain behind, stay, continue

remedium cure, remedy, nostrum, medicine

remeo to return home, return

remigium oar, rowing

 reminiscor to recall remitto to forgive, send back

removeo to draw back, set aside, take away

remuneror to repay, reward remuneror to repay

remunio to refortify

reniteo to flash

renovare renew

renovatio renewal, renovation, restoration

 renovo to revive, renew, restore, repair, repeat

 renuntio to declare, announce, report, give notice

 renuo to deny, refuse, reject

reor to think, suppose, decide

 reparo to restore, renew, make good, buy, purchase obta repecto to comb back

 repedo to go back

 repello to drive back, repel

rependo to ransom, pay back, requite

repens sudden, unexpected, fresh, recent

repente all of a sudden, suddenly

repente suddenly, unexpectedly

repentinus sudden, unexpected

repere to crawl

reperio to get again, find, ascertain, invent, find again

reperio to meet with, devise, hit upon, discover, find

repetitio repetition

repeto to seek again, ask back, recommence

repeto to fall upon again, repeat, demand repeatedly re repeto to return to, begin again, deduce, recall, recoll

repleo to replenish, fill up, fill up again, fill, satis

repletus filled, full

replico to reflect upon, withdraw

repono to deposit, lay up, store, requite

repraesento to display, hurry on

reprehendo to blame, reprove,

refute, hold back, check catc reproba -ae, false

 reprobabilis comtemptible

reprobo reject, disaprove, condemn

repromitto to promise in return, promise again

repugno to make resistance

repungo to prick, goad repuo to reject

reputo to reckon, reflect upon, impute, think, judge

reputo to believe, suppose.

requies repose

requiescere repose, rest

requietum repose, rest

requirere need, require requiro to seek, hunt for requiro to ask for, look for, demand, desire, miss

 res occurrence, deed, condition, case res thing, object, being, matter, affair, event, fact res affair, business, business deal, case, matter res publica commonwealth, state, republic, public business res rei thing, matter, busines, affair

resarcio to repair, mend, patch

reseco to cut back, cut short, diminish

 resero to reveal

 reservo keep back, hold back, reserve, keep, preserve

 resideo to abide, be left behind, sit up

resipisco to recover one's senses, become reasonable

resisto to resist, halt, withstand resisto to resist, halt, withstand, make a stand, oppose

resolvo to enfeeble

resono to resound, [+ acc] make resound with

 resonus resounding

 respectus regard

respergo [resperi, respersum] to sprinkle, splash

respicio to look back, provide for, respect have regard f

respicio to turn attention to

respiratio respiration, exhalation

 respiro to breathe, breathe again, recover, decline dimi

respondere answer, reply, respond responsal deputy, representative

responsiva a written reply, answering letter

 responsum answer, reply

 respublica state

respuo to refuse, cast off, reject

restauro to restore

restio rope-maker

restituere give back, return

restituo restore, put back, replace, reinstate, repair

restruo to restore

resumo to recover, renew, repeat, resume

resupinus lying on one's back

resurrectio f, resurection, awakening, renewal

retardo to impede, slow down, obstruct

retendo to slacken, unbend, become flexible

retineo to hold back, restrain, detain, keep, maintain

retineo to remember, not let go, keep, affirm

 retracto to reconsider, undertake again

retribuo to give again, give as due

retrogradior to go backwards

retrudo to thrust back

retundo to check

reus culprit

reus defendant, accused, answerable, bound

revello to violate, pluck away

revenio to come back, return

re vera in reality

 reverbero to repel

reverens reverent

reverenter with awe, respectfully

 reverentia awe, reverence

revereor to stand in awe

reverto to go back, return, revert

revoco to call back, recover, refer, revoke

 revolvo to unroll a book, go over again, repeat

revolvo to reflect upon, brood

rex king

rex regis king

Rhodanus Rhone

rhapsodia-book of poems

rhetor-teacher of oratory


rhetoricoteros - oratorical


rhetoricus-rhetorical, m. teacher of oratory


rhombus- fish [turbot]


rictum-opening, mouth

rictus-mouth opened wide, gaping

rideo risi risum to laugh at, laugh

ridiculum n, joke

ridiculus facetious, laughable


rigeo-grow stiff



rigor ari-water  [guide]

rigor stiffness, hardness, sterness



rimor to examine, explore, investigate, root up

rimosus-full of cracks

ringor-snarl, grow vexed

ripa-river bank, margin

ripula-small bank

riscus-trunk, chest


risus laughter rite duly

rite-according to religion, duly

ritus ritual, usage, ceremony, rite

rivalis-rival , suitor


rivus-stream [rivulus/rivolus]


rixatio quarrel

 rixor to wrangle

robigo [rubigo] inis-rust


 robur strength


 robustus hardy, robust

rodo rodere gnaw

rogare ask, ask for, beg, bid, request rogo to ask, ask for rogo eum ut +subjunctive to ask someone to do something

rogalis-of the pyre

rogatio-question, inquiry

rogatiuncula-small question or issue

rogator-polling clerk

rogus-funeral pyre

 Roma Rome

Romanus novel, Roman


 ros moisture ros dew

 rosa rose

rosarium-rose garden



roseus-pink, rosy


rostrum bill of a bird, beak

 rota wheel

rotatus- rounded

 rotensus extensive

roto to turn round like a wheel, rotate, turn, go aroun

Rotomagense Rouen

rotundo-go round

rotundus wheel-shaped, round

rubeo-grow red


rubeta- toad

rubeta nt pl-bramble , thicket


ruber red

rubor redeness, blush, modesty, shame, disgrace

rubrica-clay, chalk [red]




rudimentum trial, attempt, essay

rudis clumsy, rude, raw, rough, uncultivated

rudo to bellow, roar


rufus red, ruddy

ruga a wrinkle

rugosus- wrinkled

rugio rumble

 ruina downfall, destruction

 ruinosus falling down, going to ruin

 rumex sorrel

Ruminalis [Rumina] goddess of nursing [fig tree of Romulus and Remus]


rumino to chew the cud, ruminate ruminor to ruminate upon

rumor hearsay, rumor, gossip

rumpere break


rumpo to rupture, annull, violate

runa a dart


runco to thin out, weed, cull

rupes-rock, cliff


 ruo to rush, tumble down

rursus on the other hand, in return, back, again [rursum]

rus ruris- countryside

ruscus-broom [ruscum]

russus red

rustice (adv) boorishly, in a peasant manner

 rusticus rustic, rural, peasant

 ruta bitterness, unpleasantness the herb rue

Ruthenia Russia

 rutila a spade, shovel


rutilus red, golden, auburn rutilus shining




 sabbata sabbath

saburra- sand

saccus- sack, bag [sacculus]

sacer sacra sacrum-holy

sacerdos-priest, priestess


sacramentum-sacrament [military oath of allegiance]




sacrificium- sacrifce

sacrilegium- temple robbing

sacrilegus- unholy , m, temple robber

sacro-dedicate , devote

sacrum-holy object, or rite, or vessel

sacculus purse, little bag, little sack


sacer sacred, accursed

sacramentum oath, sacraments, sacred rites

 sacrificum sacrifice

 sacrilegus sacrilegious, impious

saeculum  eternity, without end, lifetime, age

 sæpe frequently, often, regularly

saepenumero repeated, again and again



saepio to hedge in

saepius sepius often, frequently, repeatedly

saeptum enclosure

 saeta hair , bristle

saeta equina horse-hair


 saevio to vent one's rage, rage
 saevio to rage, be furious, take violent action

saevus furious

saga-fortune teller

sagacitas- wise

sagaciter wisely, accurately, sagaciously


sagina-stuffing, fattening

sagino to fatten

sagio-discern, perceive

sagitta arrow


sagmnen-tuft of sacred land


sagum-mantle, cloak

sal salis- salt

salaputium-little man

salarium-salt-money, salary

salarius-of salt

salebra-harshness , pl, roughness

Saliaris- Salian, splendid , sumptuous

saliatus-priesthood of Mars

salictum-willow grove


salignus-of willow

Salii-college of pirests founded by Numa for the service of Mars

salilum-salt dish

salinae-salt pits

salinum-salt cellar

salio-jump, leap

salire jump, leap, spring

Salisubsuli-dancing priests of Mars

saliunca-scented weed

saliva saliva

salix willow

 salmo salmon


salsamentum-brine [pickled fish]

 salsus salty, witty

saltare dance



 saltem adv, at least saltem at least, at all events

salto-jump [dance]

saltuosus- wooded

saltus m - forest [or dancing]

salubris advantageous

salubriter advantageously

salum sea

 salus safety, security

 salus health, safety, well-being, salvation, salutation salus safety, help or assistance, health, wellness who salutare greet, salute

salutifer salvation-giving



saluto to wish well, greet, visit, reverence, pay respect

salutor visitor, caller

salveo to be well

salveo to be well, be in good health

salvus unhurt, safe, sound

sambucistria- harpist

sanabilis- curable

sancio-decree, ordain

sanctifico to sanctify, make holy

sanctimonia purity, charity, virtue, sanctity, sacredness
sanctimonia moral purity

 sanctimonialis nun, sister

sanctio to ratify, hallow, render inviolable or irrevocab

sanctio ratification, saction, ordinance

sanctor-ordainer, establisher

sanctus holy, sacred, saint

Sancus/Sangus-Sabine god

 sandalium sandal



sane rationally, sensibly, really, indeed, to be sure sane (adverb) rationally, soberly, really, indeed

 sanguis blood

sanies gore

sanitas health

 sanitas health, soundness of mend, sanity

sanna mocking grimace, mockery


sano to heal

 sanus sound, healthy, sanus healthy, well


 sapiens wise, judicious sapiens sagacious, sage, wise

sapiens (subs.) a wise man, philosopher

sapienta wisdom

sapienter wisely, judiciously

sapientia wisdom

sapio to discern, know

sapo soap

sapor taste, elegance

Sarcalogos Christ, the word incarnate

sarcina bundle, pack, burden, load

sarcinarius- for carrying

sarcio-repair, mend



sardonyx- gem


sarisa-lance [sarissa]

sarisophorus- lancer



sartago-frying pan

sartus-mended, repaired



satago to pay a creditor, satisfy a creditor

satago to bustle about

satago have one's hands full, have enough to do [satagito]

satelles- attendant

satellites armed retainers, retinue


satin- satis-ne?

satio to satisfy, sate

satis enough, sufficient, sufficiently

satius-rather , preferable

sato to sow, plant

sator planter, father, creator

satrapes viceroy, governor, ruler

satur-ura- full

satura satire [satira]


saturitas- abundance

Saturnalia- festival of Saturn [Dec. 17-26]

Saturnus-Saturn, Latin god of agriculture and civilization cf,  Cronos

 saturo to fill, satisfy

satus origin, start, beginning, planting, sowing

satyrus- Satyr, forest god that hangs out with Bacchus and has goat legs and horns



saviolum-kiss [suaviolum]

savium [suavium]-kiss

saxatilis- fish [rock fish]

saxeus- rocky

saxillum-stone  [saxulum]

saxum large stone

scaber scabby, rough

scabies the itch, mange, a rash

scabo-scratch v

scabrosus scabrous, rough

scaccarium chessboard, game of chess.

scaena, scena stage or tent, even foliage

scaenicus/scenicus- scenic, dramatic

scalae- ladder, stairway




scamnum bench, stool

 scandalum stumbling-block, quarrel

Scandia Scandinavia

 scando to ascend, board

scaphium-basin, pot [scapium]

scapulare sword-belt

scapulus the shoulder [scapulae]

scarus-sea fish

scatebra-gushing, springwater


scateo-spring forth [scato]

scaturiges-spring water [scaturigines]


sceleratus accursed, miscreant

scelero- defile

scelestus wicked, accursed, infamous, criminal

scelus accursed deed, wickedness, calamity scelus crime, sin, evil deed, wickedness

sceptuchus-sceptre bearer

sceptrum rule, authority, royal staff

schema rhetorical figure, shape

schoenobates-rope dancer

schola school, elite troop of soldiers

scholasticus scholar, learned one, schoolboy

scida [scheda]-sheet of paper

 scientia knowledge

scientia knowledge, science, skill

scilicet namely, that is to say scilicet rightly, it is just scilicet evidently, certainly, of course, no doubt, assure

scilla- squilla

scindo to cut, rend, split/divide, separate



scio to know, understand scire know, know how


scirpea- wagon of basketwork

scirpiculus- rush basket, straw basket

scirpus/sirpus-straw, rush

sciscitor to ask

scisco to ascertain scisco investigate, ask, inquire, vote, ordain, resolve




scitus ordinance

 scius discerning



 scolopendra centipede


scopae broom


scopulus-rock, cliff

scorpio/scorpius - scorpion


scortillum- harlot

scortor-whore oneself


screatus-hawking , hemming

scriba-scribe, secretary

scribo, scripsi scriptum to write, compose

scrinium chest

scrinium bookcase, case for papers

scriptor writer, author, scribe



scriptus-clerkship, secretaryship

scripulum-ounce [scrupulum]


scrofa- pig

scrupeus-rough , sharp

scrupulosus intricate, thorny

scrupulositas rough spot, jagged edge

scrupus-stone [anxiety]


scrutor-search, examine

sculptus engraved / sculptilis

scurra- jester

scurrilis- buffoon-like

scurror-play the jester

scutale- strap

scutatus- shielded



scultula- cylinder

scultulata-chequered garments

 scutulatus diamond-shaped, shield-bearing

scutum oblong shield/scutulum


se- by itself [sed]

se- prefix for semi-/ or sex-

se astringo to commit oneself to

 se gero to conduct oneself, conduct, carry on

se habere to keep oneself

 se teneo stay

secedo to withdraw
secedo to go apart, withdraw

 secerno secrevi
secretum to separate

 secessus solitary, m, retreat [secessio]

secludo to shut out

seco to fly or cut through seco to settle (as to settle an argument)

secretarius privy counsellor


secretum secret, solitary, private, retired secret conver

secretus- secret

secta- mode, manner [body, sect, party]


sectilis-cut , divided

sectio-cutting up , forfeiture

sector - cutter , pursesnatcher [land purchaser]

sector ari- follow


secubo-lie apart

secundarius- second in order


 secundum accordingly, in an accordance with
secundum (+ inf.) following, after, during, according to

 secundum (adv.) after, behind

secundus second /or favorable

securis axe, hatchet, battle-axe

securitas guarantee of safety, surety, guarantor r

 securus [+ abl.] free from, alone, safe

securus safe, secure, free from care, unworried unconcer

securus [+ gen] untroubled by, easy, at ease

secus wrongly, badly, not as one would wish

secus otherwise, not so

 secus + atque or quam differently from, otherwise than

secutor [sequutor] - follower

secuutus follower, pursuer

 sed but, and indeed, what is more sed but

sedatus calmed, settled, checked

sedecim sixteen

sedecula- little seat

sedeo to settle down, reside sedeo to sit

 sedes residence, throne, temple

sedile- chair

seditio sedition

 seditio dissension, quarrel, insurrection, mutiny, rising

sedo to settle, smooth, calm, allay

seductor seducer

sedulitas- zeal

sedulo zealously

 sedulus zealous

seges wheatfield, wheat crop, field of wheat

segmentatus- trimmed with purple

segmentum-cutting , trimming

segnis sluggish


segnitia- sluggishness [segnities]


seiuges- team of 6 horses [chariot]



selibra-half- pound


sella- chair

sellisternia- religious banquet to goddesses


sellularius- mechanic working on a stool

 sem prefix meaning half-

semel a single time, for the first time, even once onc

 semen seed, kin

semen seed


semestris six months [semenstris]

semet- sui



seminarium warm-frame, seed-bed

semino to plant, breed, produce, give rise to

Semiramis-queen of Assyria [effeminate]

semis issis-half-unit

semita by-way, path, foot-path, track

semitarius-fond of footpaths

semivir-half man half beast, beast man


semotus distant, isolated, removed

semoveo to remove, set apart, isolate, separate, set aside

semper always

semper always, ever

 sempiternus eternal


senaculum-session hall (for senate)

senarius- 6 each

senator- senator

senatus- senate body , senate

senecta- old age

senectus old age, dotage

seneo to be old, aged

senesco to grow old, to grow aged, to mature, wear out

senex- old man

seni ae a- 6 each

senilis an old man, aged man senior lord, elder

 senipes steed

senium old age, dotage, decay, decline, deterioration

senior- older

 senium gloom, melancholy

sensa thoughts, teachings

 sensilis sensitive

sensim slowly, bit by bit, gradually, by degrees

sensus feeling, sense, understanding

sententia opinion, thought, way of thinking, meaning purpo

sententia sentiment, opinion, decision, saying


sententiosus sententious

sentes-thorns , bramble

sentina dregs, rabble

 sentio to feel, judge, suppose, vote sentio to perceive, experience, hold an opinion

 sentus thorny

seorsum apart, separately


sepelio to ruin, destroy, inter, bury

sepes fence

sepia- inkfish, squid

sepono sequester, banish

sepositus distant

sepse- se ipse

septem seven

 septendecim seventeen

septiformus sevenfold

septimus seventh

septuaginta seventy


sepulchrum grave, tomb,

sepulcrum tomb

sepultura burial

sepultus buried, sunk, immersed

 sequax following, attending, attendant, pursuing


sequester tra trum-intermediate , negotiating

sequor to follow, trail

 sera bolt

sera adv - late

Serapis-Egyptian god

sereno to make clear, serene, make calm

serenus serene


 series sequence

serio seriously

 serius serious, grave, solemn

sermo discussion, speech sermo talk, common talk, conversation, rumor

sermocinare to talk to oneself

sermocinatio disputation sero to beget

sermunculus-common talk, rumor

sero adv at a late hour, late

 sero to sow, plant

serpens serpent, snake

serperastra / serpirastra-bandage




serratus-serrated , m. jagged coin


serum-milk, whey

serus-late , adv serum- late at night



servilis- servile

servio (+ dat.) to be a slave to, serve servire serve

servitium payment of dues, military service, service

servitus servitude, slavery

servo to watch over, keep, protect, observe, save rese servo to preserve, serve, guard

servola/servula- female slave [masc. servolus]

servus slave servus servant, slave, serf servus [servos], adj servile

 scandali quarrelsome servant

sese himself, herself, itself, =se


 sesqui one and a half times

sesquialter once and a half

sesquimellesimus 1500th

sesquioctavus containing nine eighths

sesquitertia one and a third

sessilis- for sitting

sessio sitting down, loitering, hanging around, chair s


sessiuncula - small group

sessor-sitter, resident

sestertius [HS] coin [two and a half], sesterce [small silver coin , worth 2 pence and a half]

set= sed

setius[secius]- to a lesser degree

severitas severity, rigor, sternness, strictness

 severiter harshly

severus stern, harsh

sevoco-call apart, summon away

sex six

sexaginta sixty

sextans- 6th part, small measure

Sextilis- sixth (August)

sextum-for the 6th time

sextus sixth

sexus sex

si if

si [sei] if, provided that



sibimet to them themselves

Sibylla-female soothsayer of Apollo

Sibyllini (libri)- prophetic books sold to Tarquinius Superbus by the Sibyl of Cumae and consulted by a commission in times of danger to the Roman state

sic so, thus, yes, that is so, that is right sic yes


sicarius-murderous, m, assassin


sicco to dry up/out , out

 siccus dry, thirsty, sober, temperate


Sicilia Sicily

sicine-and so?

sicubi-if anywhere


sicunde-if from anywhere

sicut as, just as, as it were, (+verb in subj.) [sicuti]

sidereus- starry

sido ere- sit down , sink

Sidonius- Phoenician [Sidonis]

sidereus heavenly, starry sidus star

sidus constellation, star

 sigillum seal, sign. statuette

signator-signer, witness

signifer-starry, m. standard bearer



 signum seal, indication, sign, mark, token

signum signal, miraculous works

silenda- secrets

silens silent, still

silenti etc the dead

silentio to [+ acc.] to keep silent, to silence

silentium silence, stillness, quiet, repose, obscurity

 sileo to be still, silent, (+ acc.)

siler willow

silesco-fall silent

silex- flintstone

silicernium-funeral feast

siliqua-husk, pod

silurus-sheat- fish


silva woods, forest, grove

silva forest, woods

Silvanus- god of woods

silvesco-grow or run wild


simia- ape

simile n - similarity

similis like, similar, resembling

similis similar, like, resembling

similitudo likeness, resemblance, uniformity

simius-ape [simiolus]

simplex simple, unaffected

simplum-single number , singularity


simpuvium-sacrificial bowl

simul at once, at the same time, together simul together

simul atque as soon as [simul ac ]

simulacrum-image, likeness

simulatio shamming simulatio pretense

simulator hypocrite

simulatus/simulans counterfeit

 simulo to pretend, sham

simultas sham, artifice

sin-but if, if however

sincerus genuine

sinciput-cheek, jowl

sine (+ abl.) without

singularis alone of its kind, solitary, machless, unique

singularis alone

singulariter adv, one by one, exceedingly, especialy

singulatim/singillatim-one by one

singuli one each, one apiece, single, separate

singultare hiccough, hiccup

singultim stammeringly

singulto to sob

singultus sobbing, gasping, death rattle


singultus sobbing

singulus single, separate, one at a time, one each

sinister left

sinistrorsum- to the left

sino allow, suffer, permit, let sino to allow, leave undone

sinum-pot, jar

sinuosus-full of curves

sinus curve, fold, bend, pocket, lap, bay, gulf

 sinus inner feeling, secret heart

siparium-theater curtain

siquando-if ever

siquidem since, indeed

Siren-Siren , mythical bird with girl's face

Sirius-Dog Star


sis (=si vis) if you wish, are willing, want, prefer sis (2nd person present subju you may be

siser eris- root, weed

sisto to check sisurna mattress


sisymbrium- thyme

sitella - urn

sitiens thirsting for

sitio to be thirsty

sitis thirst, dryness, drought, eager desire

sittace [psittace] parrot

situla bucket, pail

situs region, idleness, inactivity

situs adj-located, placed

sive conj, on the one hand, but if, if..or if sive seu or if



smila knife


Smintheus- Apollo



soccus-slipper, sock

socer father in law

societas fellowship

socio-join together, unite

socius partner, comrade, associate, ally, fellow socius sharing, associated, allied socius-i m, companion


socors slothful

socus plowshare

socrus-father in law


sodalitas fellowship, companionship, secret society

sodes if you will, if you please  [si audes ]

sol sun sol solis sun

solacium help, support, military aid

solamen relief

solator supporter,

solacer solemnis festive

solarium-sun dial




solemnitas festival

soleo to to be wont

soleo to be accustomed, be used to

solers ingenious, adroit, skilled, ready, well-disposed

solido-make firm

solidus whole, safe solio ? Herimann, cap. 28

solitas lonliness, solitude, being alone

solito to be accustomed to, have the habit of make a pr

solito [+ comp. adj.] more than usually

solitudo desert, isolation, loneliness, solitude

solitus accustomed, usual, habitual, ordinary, customary

 solium chair of state, throne, bath-tub

solemnia-appointed, published, annual

sollers clever, skillful

sollertia ingenuity

sollicite anxiously, worriedly

sollicito to concern oneself about the future or about othe sollicito to stir up, incite, arouse

sollicitudo concern, solicitude, worry sollicitudo uneasiness, anxiety, disquiet, apprehension

sollicitus troubled, anxious, concerned, worried

sollicitus uneasy, worried, anxious, restless, agitated

solor solace, support

solsitium-longest day, solstice

solum exclusively, just, only, alone, solely

solum land, country, soil, ground, bottom, floor, found

solum (adv) alone, only

solus alone, only, sole, solitary solus alone, only, the only

solutio loosening, payment, solution, explanation

solvo to loosen, untie, release, free, dissolve, break somes body, remains, corpse, book, treatise

somniculose sleepily, drowsily somniculosus sleepy, drowsy

somnio to dream, (+ acc.) somnio to dream, + imagine foolishly

 somnium a dream, fancy, foolish nonesense

somnium dream, fancy, day-dream, foolishness, nonsense

somnus sleep

sonitus noise, sound


sono to cry out, utter

sono to make a noise, sing, celebrate, (of words)

sonor-noise, sound

sons sontis- guilty


sonus- sound

 sophia wisdom

sophisma sophism

sophismata falso conclusions, logical fallacies

sophus sagacious, sage, wise

sopio ire-put to sleep

sopio penis


sopor deep sleep

soporo to still

soporus-sleep bearing

sorbeo-sup or suck in


sorbum-berry, apple

sordeo to be dirty, appear vile

sordes filth, meanness, stinginess

sordesco to become dirty

sordidus- dirty [sordidatus]



soror sister

sors lot, allotment, share, fortune

sortilegus soothsayer

sortior - cast lots

sortitio-casting of lots

sortito-by lot

sortitus casting lots, deciding by lot

sospes unharmed, safe and sound

sospitas health

spargo to scatter, hurl

spargo to [crines] to cut hair

spartum [sparton]-broom


spatior-spread about

sparulus- bream



 spatior to stoll, walk around, take a walk, amble

spatiosus ample

spatium interval

specialis secret, confidential, initimate or special friend

specialissimus very strange, peculiar, individual

specialitas special quality, speciality

specialitas special friendship, peculiarity

species mien, splendor, quality specimen ideal

specillum-sound, probe

 speciosus beautiful, handsome, imposing, specious plausible


spectacle, show

spectare consider, deem, look, look at, regard, view

specto to look at, watch, see/aim at, tend towards

specto to behold, regard, await, expect




spectator- looker-on

spectatus- tested , proved



specula-slight hope [or lookout]

speculabundus-lookout, watch


speculatio observation


speculor-observe, watch

speculum mirror

specus cave, cavern, grotto, den


spensa storehouse

spera ( hopes

sperare hope sperma sperm

sperma seed, semen, sperm

sperno to scorn

sperno sprevi

spretum to scorn, despise, spurn

spero to hope for, hope

spero to hope

spes hope

sphera -ball, globe

spica ear spiculum sharp point, sting, spear, dart

spiceus-of corn or grain

 spiculum arrow

spicum ear

spicus ear

spina thorn, back, spine

spinetum-thorn thicket



spintria-male whore

spinus-blackthorn tree

spira-coil, fold , eddy

spirabilis-respirable, vital


spiramentum-pore, vent

spiritus breath, breathing, life, spirit

spiro to blow


spissus-thick, crowded

splendens brilliant

splendeo to gleam [splendesco]

splendidus splendid, magnificent


spoliatio plundering, looting, stripping, robbing


spoliatus-spoiled, stripped

spolio to strip, plunder, despoil, rob, loot

 spolium spoils, plunder, booty

sponda bed

spondaulium [spondalium]- song, hymn

spondeo to betroth, promise, pledge

spondeus [spondius]-spondee

spongia [spongea]-sponge

spons spontis-free will, accord


sponsalia betrothal gift

sponsio-promise, surety

sponsor-bondsman, surety

sponsum-agreement, engagement


sponte willingly, of one's own accord, unaided

sporta- basket

sportella-luncheon basket

sportula-little baskey (dole)



spumesco-foam up




spurcamen filth


spurcus filthy




squaleo-be stiff, rigid

squalidus-rough, dirty

squalus-sea fish

squalor foulness

squama scale


st! - hush!

stabilimen-support, prop

stabilio-make firm , establish

stabilis firm, stable, steadfast

stabilitas steadfastness, firmness, stability, durability


stabulum-stable, pasture

stadium-stadium, race - course

stagno-stagnate  , become a pond

stagnum-lake, pond

stamen inis- thread

stamineus-full of  threads

 stannum tin stare stand



statera-balance [steelyard]

 statim firmly, steadfastly, on the spot, at once

statim instantly, immediately

 statio assembly

stativus-set, fixed


 statua statue

 statua statue, image

statumen-support, prop

statuo to cause to stand, establish, place, set up

statuo to hold, to establish

 statuo to give a ruling, make an arrangment, decide

status stage

statutum tempus * appointed, established

stella star stella lightning, planet, star, sun


stelliger starry

stellio [stelio]- newt

stemma garland, pedigree



stercus oris-dung, manure

sterilis barren, useless, unproductive, vain, + gen. depr

sternax-lying down

sterno to throw to the ground



sterto ere- snore

stigma-brand mark

stigmatias-branded slave

 stilla a drop (of liquid)

 stillicidium dripping moisture, rainwater from the eaves

stilus a pike, pale, a stylus for writing, writing

 stimulo goad stimulus incentive

stimulus-prick, goad

stinguo-put out, extinguish

 stipatio a crowd of attendants, a following

stipator an attendant of a nobleman

 stipatores following, retinue, attendants, bodguard

stipendarius-tributary, contributing

stipendium-tax, tribute

stipes log, stump, tree trunk, branch, post, club

stipo to compress, to press around, gather around atte

stipula-stalk, stem


stipulor-engage, stipulate

stips coin

strips [stripes] - stem, stalk

stiria-ice drop, icicle



sto to stand one's ground, stand upright

stola-matron's gown

 stolide stupidly

stolidus dull, obtuse, dull-witted, dumb

stolidus slow of mind, stolid

stomachatus vexed at, irritated with, fume [stomachosus]

stomachor-fume, be angry

stomachus stomach

storea [storia] straw mat

strabo onis- cross-eyed

strages massacre, bloodbath, carnage, debris


stragulus-for spreading

stramen inis-straw

stramentum-covering, saddling

stramineus-of straw

strangulo-choke, stifle


stratum-covering, saddle

stratus-prostate , lying down

strenue actively

strenuus brisk, active, vigorous, turbulent, restive

strepito-blare out , chatter

strepitus din

strepo-blare out



strictus-drawn together, tight, close

strideo-blare out

stridor-noise, blare


strigilis- scraper


stringo to reduce, inhibit, diminish, narrow

strix strigis-owl



structor-builder , mason

structura- building

strues piles, heaps, masses

struma- tumor, swelling

strumosus-scrofulous, strumous , swollen

struo to devise, fit out

studeo to be diligent, strive after studio (+ dat.) to study, pursue eagerly, be eager for

studiose eagerly

studiosus zealous

studium eagerness, zeal

stulte foolishly

stultus foolish, stupid

stultus foolish, a fool

stupefactus stunned stupendum astounding

 stupeo to be astounded stupidus struck senseless [stupesco]

stupidus- senseless, stupid [stupens]

 stupor astonishment

stuppa-flax, rope

stuppeus [stupeus]- of flax

 stupro to ravish

stuprum debauchery

Stymphalis-lake of Arcadia, fabled haunt of monstrous birds

Styx-river of the Underworl

Suada-goddess of Persuasion [Suadela]

suadeo [+ dat] to speak in favor of suadeo to recommend, advise (a person)



suasoria persuasive discourse


suavior (savior) kiss

suavis gentle, soft, sweet, tender

suavis agreeable sub below, beneath, under

sub (+ acc. or dat.) under, up under, close to, beneath, below

subactus subjected

subaudio hear a little

subcribo to write beneath, sign, prosecute

subcriptio subscription, signature, register

subdido to subject

subditus subject

subdo subjugate, subject subdolus sly

subduco to take away by stealth

 subeo to [stealthily] approach, submit to

subicio to subordinate

subiecto to put down, to put under

subinde-presently, immediately

subigo to [-egi, -actus] put down, conquer compel subinfero to add

subito all of a sudden, suddenly subito adv. suddenly, unexpectedly

 subitus sudden, unexpected

 subiungo to yoke beneath, join, attach, subdue, subjugate

subjectio forgery, falsehood

subjungo to join, yoke

subligo to bind below, bind on

sublime on high, aloft

sublimis lofty, raised, elevated,


sublimitas loftiness, height, elevation, sublimity

 sublimiter loftily

sublimo to exalt

subluceo to gleam faintly, glimmer, glow

subluo to wash beneath, (rivers)

sublustris faintly glimmering, faintly gleaming

subnascor to grow out of

 subnecto to bind on beneath, to tie

subnecto to bind

subnego faintly deny, partially refuse

subnixus relying on, supported by


subnisus propped up, supported

subnoto to mark beneath, notice secretly write underneat

 subnuba a rival s

ubnubilus partly cloudy, somewhat cloudy

subo to be in heat

 subobscenus risque, faintly obscene

subobscurus somewhat obscure

subodiosus rather unpleasant

suboleo (3 persons only) to give off a smell, to make onself noticed

suboles offspring, offshoot

 suboles shoot, sprout, offspring, progeny

subolesco to grow up, mature

suborior to arise in succession

suborno to furnish, equip, provide, instigate secretly s

subrepo surrepo to creep up or crawl up from below

subrideo subrisi subrisum to smile

subrigo, subrexi

subrectum to raise up, elevate

 subringor to make a face

subruo subruti subrutum to undermine, overhtrow, destroy

subsannatio mockery subsanno to mock

 subscalpo to needle

subseco to cut away, pare

subsentio to notice secretly

subsequens P.P. of sequor, ensuing, following

subsequor to follow after

subservio to be subject to, comply with

 subsidarius in reserve

subsidium reserve troops, auxiliary troops subsidium support, help, assistance

subsido stay remain, lie in ambush

subsido to crouch down, settle, sink, subside

subsilio toleap up, spring up

subsisto to stand, withstand, stop, halt, cease, stay rem subsisto to be there

substantia substance, essence, means of subsistence propert

 substantivum noun, substantive

 substerno to spread out beneath, lay under, set out provid

 substo to stand form

substrictus narrow, contracted, small

 substringo to draw together, bind up

 substructio base, foundation

 substruo to build beneath, lay a foundation

 subsulto to spring up, leap up

subsum subesse to be near, close at hand, be under, be subject

subter below, beneath, under

subter supter below, beneath, underneath

subterfugio to escape

subterlabor to glide away, flow under, slip away, escape subtilis precise

subtilitas precision

subtraho to carry off by stealth

subucula- underwear


 subveho to carry, esp carry upstream

subvenio to come to the aid,succor, relieve, help, assist

subvenio to come up to aid, relieve

 subvenio to come to [in adiutorium] to ones assistance su

subversio to overthrow subvertio to destroy, overthrow

 subverto to overturn, destroy.

subvexus-sloping upward

succedo to approach, submit, etc. etc

succendo to kindle, set afire from below

succenseo to be irritated

successio succession

successio succeeding, succession, descent, descendant

successus success

succresco to grow up after

succumbo to surrender

succurro to assist

succurro to run up under, aid, assist, help


suco (succo) onis- sucker

sucus- juilce


sudis f- pole

sudo to toil. labor, sweat

sudor- sweat

sudus-cloudless, bright-skied

suesco-accustom oneself

suetus [+ inf] accustomed to sufficiens adequate, affluent, availing

sufficienter affluently, adequately

sufficientia affluence, sufficiency

sufficio to be affluent, avail for, to afford, supply fur

sufficio to be sufficient, suffice, be


suffigo-fix, fasten


suffio-scent, perfume

 suffoco to strangle, choke, suffocate

suffoco to choke, stifle

suffragium vote, franchise, approval support, aid, assistance

 suffragium intercession by saint with god, church province

suffragium succor, support aid, incitement, maintenance res

suffrago to support



suffulcio to prop up, bolstered


suffusus imbued

suggero to bring up, supply, provide, add, attach. place

suggero to excite, prompt, suggest, assign, bring to mind


suggestus platform, raised place

suggrandis- huge

suggredior-approach, attack


sugillo-bruise, beat

sugo-ere -suck

sui himself, herself, itself

 sui juris one's own master

suilus-of / for swine


sulfur-sulfur, brimstone

sullaturio-imitate Sulla


 sulum each, every

sum fui futurus to be, exist

sumen-breast, udder

 summa amount, sum

summa the highest part, whole, sum


summisse humbly, softly, calmly, modestly

 summissus (from summitto) let down, lowered, gentle, mild

 summittere to lower

summitto to let down, lower, subject, subordinate

summitto to send as help, to send secretly

summitto (se) to condescend, submit, raise, rear, make grow

summoneo to give a hint

summopere very much, exceedingly

summopere very much

summum-at most

summus-highest, top ,greatest

sumo to take, choose, obtain, buy., take for granted

sumo to choose, take up, apply, employ

sumptio-taking (assumption)



sumptus expense, cost

sumptus expenses suo to stitch, join

suo ere- sew


supellex supellectilis household furniture, goods

super above, over

super (adv.) over, above, besides, beyond, moreover remaining super (prep.) (+ abl.)

superabundo-avi to be very abundant

superare conquer


superbia pride, arrogance

superbiens arrogant, domineering

superbus overbearing, arrogant, haughty, proud supercilium haughtiness


superficies surface, top

superfluo flow over, overflow, be superfluous

supergredior to step over

 supermitto to pour upon

superna northeast by north wind

superna supernal superne from above, above

supernus above, superior

 supero to vanquish, outstrip

supero to be above, have the upper hand, surpass conque

supersilium haughtiness

superstes survivor of another's death

superstes surviving, present, standing

supersto to survive

supersum to be superfluous, to remain

superus higher

 superus superior supremus or above, upper, high

supervacuus superfluous, unnecessary, extra

supersum esse-remain

superus-upper, higher , pl elders (gods)

supervenio to overtake, arrive

supervenio to arrive, come up, arrive unexpectedly


supino-bend over

supinus-backwards, bent over

suppar is- nearly equal

supparum garment


suppedito to give in abundance



suppeto-suffice [be present for]

supplanto to trip up

suppleo-fill up

supplex kneeling, entreating, suppliant

supplex [a] suppliant suppliciter supplicatingly


supplicium punishment

 supplicium torment

supplico-implore, supplicate



suppono subpono to put in place of, substitute, forge

suppono subpono to put under, subject, put next to, add

supporto-set or put under , support



suppudet-to be ashamed somewhat

supputo-reckon, think

supra (+ acc.) above

supremum-for the last time

sura-calf [of the leg]

surculus shoot, sprout

surdaster- hard of hearing

surditas- deafness


surena-military commander, general

 surgo to arise

surgo surrexi surrectum to get up, arise

 surrideo to smile

surripio to pilfer

surrogo to to put in another's place

 sursum /seorsum-upwards

sursum deorsum up and down

sus swine, pig, hog

suscenseo/succenseo-grow angry or indignant

susceptor guardian

susceptum-undertaking [susceptio]

suscipere to undergo, receive, take up, sponsorship at bapt

 suscipio to raise up, maintain, support, accept, receive

suscipio take up, support, raise, accept, undertake, begin

suscito to stir up, arouse, excite

 suscriptor the signer of a document

susicivus left over, to spare, extra, superfluous

suspectus suspected, n. suspect


suspendo to suspend, hang

suspendo to vault

suspensus-raised, hung


suspicio to look upward at, esteem, respect, to suspect

suspicor to suppose [suspito]


suspiciosus/suspitiosus- suspicious

suspirium-sigh [suspiratus]

suspiro to sigh, draw a deep breath, long for yearn afte

susque deque-up and down

sustentaculum-support, prop

sustentatio-delay, forebearance

sustento to maintain, sustain

sustineo to hold up, sustain, endure

sustituo to put next, put under, put in place of

sustollo-lift, raise

susurro to whisper, buzz


suta pl -mail, armor


sutor- cobbler

sutorius-for shoemaking

sutrinus-for shoemaking


suus her, his, its, their


syllaba- syllable

symbola / sumbola -share shot (contribution)

symphonia- harmony , concord (musical)

sympohoniaci- musicians

synagoga synagogue

synedrus-senator, counsellor

Syracusae Syracuse

 Syria Syria

synodus-bream (sea fish)

syrma-robe (worn in tragedies)

Syrtis - sand bank in the sea / place in Cyrenaica

tabella writing tablet

tabellae letter, document


tabeo-melt away

tabernus booth, hut, cottage, hove, small shop, inn, tavern

tabernarius- shopkeeper

tabes- waste, decay

tabesco to melt, waste away, pine, be spoiled

tabidus melted away, melting away


tabula board, plank

tabula board, plank, gaming board, painted panel

tabularium-public registry

tabulatum/tabulatio-floor, story, boardwork

tabum-gore , corruption


taceo to be silent, say nothing, pass over

taceo tacuitacitum to be silent, leave unmentioned

Tacita-goddess of Silence



 tactus sense of feeling, touch

taeda pitch-pine torch

taeda pine, pine tree

 taedet se to be disgusted at

taedium, tedium disgust, weariness, boredom

taenia- ribbon

taeter (teter) taetra taetrum loathsome

tagax-light-fingered, thievish

talaris-reaching the ankles

talarius having to do with dice or dice-playing

Talassius-wedding greeting

talea rod, stick, stake, bar, cutting, slip

talentum pound, talent, endowment, aptitude

talio retaliation in kind talio retribution

talio reddo to return like for like, retaliate

talis of such a kind, such talpa mole

talus the ankle, ankle bone

tam adv, so, to such a degree

tam to such a degree, so, so far

tam .. quam as .. as possible

 tamdiu for such a long time

tamen however, but

 tamen nothwithstanding, nevertheless, yet, still for a

tamen but, however, nevertheless, yet

tametsi even if, although

tamisium sieve, sifter (Herman, p. 308)

tamquam /tanquam as, just as, like as, just as if

 tandem at last, finally

tandem at last, finally, ultimately

tandem at length

tango to touch, besprinkle

tango-tetigi-tactum touch, touch upon, to speak of ak of

 tanquam adv, just as, as if, like as

tanquam / tamquam as if, as though, in a way

tantillum such a trifle

 tantillus so little, so small

tantisper-for so long a time

tantopere-so greatly

tantulum- so little adv

tantulus-so little

tantundem-just as much

tantum only

tantummodo only just, just so long as

tantundem adv, just so much, just as far as

tantus so large, so great, of such a size

tapes etis- / tapetum- carpet, cloth

tarditas- slowness, lateness

tardiusculus- rather stupid or slow

 tardo to impede

tardus sluggish

tardus slow

tardus slow, late, tardy

Tarpeius-Tarpeian Rock near Capitol ,from which criminals were thrown to their deaths


taurus bull
 taxare appraise, estimate, rate

taxatio-valuation, appraisal

taxillus- yew tree

 te (abl.) you
 te (acc.)

techina (techna) skill, wile



tectorium-for decoration


tectus- roofed

teges etis- covering

tegmen tegumenta covering

tego to conceal


 tela a web, that which is woven, cloth, tissue

tellus region, country, land

 tellus earth, land, soil

telum armament, arms, weapon, spear

telum javelin, spear, arrow, bolt, dart

 temerarius imprudent, bold

temeritas rashness, temerity, boldness

 temeritas rashness, boldness

 temero to profane, desecrate



temo onis-pole

 temperantia/temperies/temperatio  moderation, self-control, temprance

temperator- organizer

temperatus-moderate [temperans]

tempero be moderate, control oneself

tempero to mix properly, temper, regulate, mitigate

 tempero (+ dat.) to control, use with moderation, spare

tempero (+abl. or with ab) to keep from, refrain from

tempestas storm, weather

tempestivas- storminess


tempestuosus stormy

temporalis- temporary


tempore temperi/tempori- early , on time


temptamen-attrempt [temptamentum]

templum sacred precinct, temple, sometimes church sanctu

templum temple

temporalis-e transitory

temptare (tentare) - try

 temptatio trial, temptation tempus time

 tempus temporis time, stage, epoch, era [or side of the head]



tenax grasping, stingy, cligning, frugal, obstinate

tendicula-noose , snare

 tendo to strive, go, heighten, aggravate

tendo to direct, try, attempt, stretch, extend, present

tenebrae- darkness



 teneo to grasp, know, understand

teneo to occupy, keep, hold

 teneo to keep on, persist, persevere, endure

teneo to hold, keep, possess, maintain

teneo iter to hold one's course, conceive

tener tender tener tenera

tenerum tender, delicate, soft, young



tenere hang onto, hold

tenor sense, contents, uninterrupted course, a holding


 tentatio trial, attack, duration, temptation, judgement

tentigo inis-tension

tento to try, test

tentorium tent

tenuis thin, slight, feeble, slim, slender

tenura holding, tenure, feudal holding, by feudal tenure

tenus until

tepesco to cool, grow lukewarm, decrease

tepidus lukewarm

tepidus warm, luke-warm, tepid

tepor- warmth

ter three times, thrice

ter three times

terebinthus- tree (turpentine)

terebro to bore through, perforate

teredo-moth, worm

teres rounded, polished, smooth, fine, elegant

terga dare to flee, retreat, run awar

tergeo tergo tersi tersum to wipe, scour, clean

tergiversatio backwardness, reulctance, evasion

tergo (a tergo ) in the rear, fom behind

tergum skin, hide/back, rear

tergus the back, skin, hide, leather

termes a tree branch (especially olive)

terminatio termination, determination, setting of boundaries

termino restrict, define, close, set a limit to

terminus a boundary mark, limit, end, border

terni-3 each

tero-rub , grind

terra earth, ground, land, country, soil

terra earth, land, soil

terrenus earthly, temporal

terreo to frighten, terrify, scare away, deter

terrestris - of the earth


terribilis dreadful


terrigena-earth born

terrigenus indigenous, born from the earth, human being

territo to fighten, terrify, intimidate

territo to scare, frighten, intimidate

territo to affright


terror friight, fear, terror

tersus clean, neat, correct



tertius third

tesqua (tesca)- trifle, farthing


tessera-die (watchword, password)

testa-pot shard (head, in vulgar and Late Latin)

testamentarius- willmaker

testamentum-last will, testament, will

testatio-calling to witness

testatus-public, evident

testificor to call to witness

testimonium proof, evidence, witness, indication

testis martyr (also, testicle)

testis one who gives evidence, witness, spectator testi

testor ari-witness

testu -pot

testudo tortoise

testula-potshard, vote

Thetys- the sea (goddess of ..




texo the main verb for weaving of cloth

texo to weave, twine together, plait, construct, build

textilis woven fabric, piece of cloth

textor textrix weaver

textrinum-weaver's shop

textus woven

textum cloth, web

thalamus bedroom

thalassinus sea-green

Thalia- Muse of comedy

theatrum theater theca case, envelope, covering

thema subject, topic, theme

thema thematis theme

theologus theologian

theorice philosophic speculation

theoricus meditative, speculative, contemplative

thermae warm springs, warm baths

thesaurus treasure, horde, store-room, treasury

thesis proposition, thesis

thiasus- Bacchic dance


thorax corselet, breastplate

Thysias- Bacchante

thymbra the herb savory

thymum the herb thyme

thynnus tuna,

tuna-fish, tunny

tiara (tiaras) - turban , tiara

Tiber Tiber

tibi you, to you tibi (dat.)

tibia- flute (or shin bone)

tibicen inis- fluter player m

tibicina-flute player f


tigilllum-beam, bar

tignarius- of beams

tignum-log, pole, stick

tigris tiger

tilia lime-tree, linden-tree

timeo to fear, be afraid, dread

timidus faint-hearted, fearful, timid

timor fear, dread, alarm, object causing fear

tincta-dyed clothes

tinctilis-used for infecting

tinea (tinia) - moth , worm

tingo ere - wet, moisten

 tinnio to ring



tiro new recruit, young recruit

tirocinium-military experience

tirunculus- beginner, rookie


titubo to waver titulo to call

titulus label, title, placard

titulus token


tofus-stone (tufa)

togata-Roman play (or prostitute)

togatus-wearing the toga

togula-little toga


tolero to tolerate, bear, endure, sustain

tolleno onis- swing beam

tollo to lift up, take away tollo to lift

tollo sustuli sublatum to lift up, raise, elevate, carry away.


tomentum-stuffing , filling


tondeo totonsi tonsum shave, shear, clip, mow, reap, browse


tono are- thunder

 tonsor barber

tonsorius- of the barber


topiaria- gardening

topiarius m- gardener

topiarius-of garden work

toral-couch covering

toreuma-embossed relief

tormentum-siege engine (torment)

tormina-gripes, bad bowels

torminosus-suffering from colic

torosus-lathe , wheel


 torpeo / torpesco to be sluggish, inert, numb, inactive, immoveable



 torqueo to turn, turn awry, brandish

torqueo to twist, curl, rack, torture, torment, distort

torquis- necklace

torrens-hot, burning

torreo to roast

torridus-hot , dry


tortilis- twisted

tortitudo wickedness, insincerity

tortuosus- coiled, twisting

tortus- twisting

torus-swelling (marriage bed)

torvus savage, wild

tot so many

tot (indecl.) so many

totidem just as many

totiens-so many times, so often

toto all togther, completely towards

totus entire, overall, whole

totus whole, entire, complete, all

toxicum poison

traba/trabes a beam of wood, a timber, tree-trunk, ship, table

trabalis-of a beam, quick

trabea- robe


tractare to handle, manage, perform

tractabilis- tangible, manageable

tractatio-handling, management

tractatus-handling, management


tracto to ponder, compass + gen

tracto to drag, handle, treat, discuss, deal with

tractus course, progress, movement tractus space, time, lapse, extension, length

tractus a dragging, drawing, pulling, territory, tract

traditio betrayal


trado to bequeath, deliver, surrender, commit

traduco in passive to be borne

tradux-vine branch



tragoedus-tragic actor



trahes-sledge, drag

traho-drag, pull

traicio-throw across




tranquillo-make calm

tranquillus- calm

 trans (+ acc.) across t

ranscendo to surpass

transcurro to treat briefly


 transeo to go over, pass over, cross over, go past

transeo to pass through, go across

transfreto to cross a strait, to be taken across a strait

transgredior to pass beyond

 transilio to leap over

transitivum transitive

transitus crossing, passing over, transit, changing, altera

translatio transfer of the body of a saint celebration of t

translato to transfer

transmaritanus beyond the seas, overseas, outre-mer

transmeo to go across

transmitto to send, carry, or convey across

transporto send, carry, or convey across


transveho to convey

transverbero to pierce through

travectio-conveyance, transportation

trebuchettum a trebuchet, a siege engine

trechedipna-Greek slippers

 tredecim thirteen

tredecim (indecl.) thirteen

tremebundus- trembling



tremesco (tremisco) - tremble

tremo to tremble, shake, shudder

tremor trembling

tremulus quivering, quaking


trepide with trepidation, in confusion

trepido to tremble

trepidus alarmed

tres three

tres tria three

tresviri- board of 3 (priest's assistants)

Treverim Triers

triangulum- triangle

triangulus-3 cornered

triarii-soldiers, reserves

tribuarius- of the tribe

tribulatio tribulation tribuo to bestow



tribunal-raised seat (court)

tribunatus-office of tribune

tribunus- tribune, representative, commander

tribuo to give out, divide, allot, assign, grant, give

tribus- tribe

tributarius subject to tribute

tributim-tribe by tribe


 tributum payment, tribute

tributus-formed into tribes

tricae- perplexities

triceps - three- headed

trichila-estate house

tricies (triciens) - 30 times

triclinium- dining room

tricor ari- dally, shuffle around

tridens-three-pronged (trident)

 triduana lasting three days

triduanus three days' duration, lasting three days

triduum a period of three days

triennia- triennial festival

triennium-for 3 years, 3 years

triens-third , 3rd

trientabulum-public debt

trierarchus- captain

trieris-with 3 banks of oars

trietericus-for 3 years

trieteris- for 3 years

trifariam-on three sides

trifaux-triple throated

trifidus-three forked



triginta thirty

trigon-playing ball

trilibris-weighing 3 pounds

trilix-of 3 cords

trilustralis lasting for fifteen years

trimeter-3 metered

trimodus trimodal

trimus-for 3 years

Trinacria Sicily

trini ae a- 3 each


 trinus triple

Triones- constellation of the Bear

tripedalis- 3 footed

tripartitus- threefold

tripes- edis- threefold

triplex- triple

triplus- triple

tripudio to celebrate

tripudio to leap, jump, dance (as in a religious procession

tripudium transport of joy

tripudium joy, rejoicing

tripus podis- tripod

triquetrus- triangular

triremis- trireme, warship

triscurrium- buffoonery

 triste sorrowfully, dolefully

tristifico to make sad, cause sadness, sadden

tristis disconsolate, sad

 tristis sad, mournful, sowerful


tristor to be sad, be grieved

triticeus sown in wheat

tritico thresh


triticus wheat

Triton-sea god and son of Neptune

Tritonia- Minerva

Tritonis- -of Lake Triton (ship Argo)

tritura-chafing, rubbing

tritus- wearing away n , adj, worn away

triumphalis triumphal

triumphus triumphal procession, triumph

Tros Trojan


trucido to kill cruelly, slay, butcher, massacre, slaught

truculenter (adv.) wildly, savagely, fiercely, cruelly, roughly

trudis-pike , pole

trudo to thrust

trulla-scoop, ladle

trunco maim, mutilate, mangle, imperfect, not whole mis

truncus-stem, stock, trunk , adj- mutilated, maimed

trusito-shove over and over


trutina-balance, scales

trutino to balance, weigh

trux ferocious

tu you

tuba war-trumpet

tuber eris- lump, bump


tubilustrium-purificatory festival

 tubineus cone shaped

tueo-care for, maintain

tueor to uphold, guard, protect

tugurium-hut, cot

 tui your, yours


tuli-pf fero

tum then

tum at that time, then, thereupon, in the next place

tumba grave, tomb

tumbarius keeper of a tomb

tumefacio-cause to swell

tumeo to puff up, swell, to be pompous

tumesco to swell up with anger, swell, swell up

tumet- tu

tumidus elated, arrogant, swollen

tumor commotion, swelling

tumulo to bury, inter

tumulosus hilly


 tumultuarius raised hastily

tumultuor to be in an uproar, raise a tumult, [make a] bust

tumultuosa full of bustle, turbulent

tumultus uprising, disturbance, riot, tumult

tumultus bustle, uproar

tumulus mound, grave, heap of earth

tumulus grave, tomb


tunc then, at that time, next, and then

tundo-beat, strike

tunica-tunic, shirt

tunicatus-wearing a tunic

turba mob

turba uproar, disturbance, mob, crowd, multitude

turba crowd, heap, mass, multitude, pile


turbatio disturbance, confusion


turbatus angered, exasperated, disturbed, restless troubl

turbidus-confused, wild

turbineus-cone shaped

turbo hurricane. tornado, that which spins

turbo whirling motion, whirlwind, whirlpool

turbo to disturb, upset, throw into disorder, confuse

turbo to agitate, disorder

turbulentus- disturbed



turgeo-swell out

turgesco-swell up

turgidulus-puffed up, swollen



turicremus-for burning incense



turgidus swollen

turma throng

turmalis-member , equestrian

turpe a disgrace

turpiculus-shameful , deformed

turpificatus- shameful

turpis foul, ugly, disgraceful, morally corrupt

turpis unseemly, dishonorable

turpiter in an unseemly manner

turpitudo baseness

turpo are- defile


turris-tower, turret

turritus-castled, turreted

turtur uris- dove

tus turis- incense

Tuscus-Tuscan, Etruscan

tussio to cough

tussis a cough tutela care, safeguard[ing]

tutamentum/tutamen -defense, protection

tutela protection, guard, charge, guardianship, tutelage

tutemet (tutimet) - you (emphasis)

tutis protected, safe, secure


tutor defender

tutor ari-defend , safeguard

tutus safe, salutary, wholesome, expedient, serviceable

tuus adj-your


typicus symbolic

typus type

tyrannus tyrant

tyrannus tyrant, absolute ruler

tyrotarichos- ragout of cheese

 ualeo to be able to, to succeed in (doing something)

uber productive, fertile, abundant, rich

uber udder

uber eris fruitful

uberrime most luxuriantly, most abundantly, most fruitfull

ubertas plenteousness, richness, fertility

ubertas bounty, plenty, abundance

uberte abundantly


ubi when, as soon as, wherein, whereby, whereas

ubi where


ubinam-where on earth?




udus-moist, wet

ueraciter more veracious, more truly

ueratius more true

ulcero-make sore

ulcerosus-full of sores

ulciscor to take vengeance for, avenge, take vengeance on

ulciscor to take revenge on, get back at

ulcus ulcer, sore

uligo inis- moisture

 ullatenus in any respect whatever

 ullus any

ulmus- elm tree

ulna-elbow , measure

ulterior-ius- farther, more advanced, more remote


ultimus-farthest, last, ultimate

ultio ultionis avenging, punishment, revenge

ultor avenger

 ultra (+ acc.) beyond, on the far side of

 ultrix avenging

ultro/ultra- beyond, on the other side

ultroneus of one's own accord

ulula- owl

ululatus howling


ulva-swamp grass

umbella-umbrella, awning

umbilicus-navel , center

umbo-knob, boss (of a shield)

umbra shade, shadow

umbraculum-shady place, arbor




umeo-grow wet or damp

umerus humerus shoulder, upper arm

umesco-grow wet

umidulus- damp

umidus-moist, wet humid


umor-liquid, fluid

 umquam ever, at any time una one una (adv.) in one, together


 unanimus of one mind

uncia a twelfth, an ounce

unciarius- of a 12th

unciatim little by little

uncinatus-barbed, hooked

unciola-mere twelfth




unctura- anointing

unctus- oiled, anointed

uncus- hooked, bent , subs. hook, barb

unda billow, water

unde whence, from where, how, from whom

undecim eleven

undeviginti nineteen

undeni- 11 each

undique from all sides, everywhere, on all sides, altoget

undique secus from every quarter, in every part of the world

undisonus resounding, loud with waves

undo to surge, wave, undulate, to flood

undosus-surging, billowy, wavy

ungo (unguo) annoint

unguen inis- ointment

unguentatus-perfumed, annointed

unguentum salve, balm, ointment


ungula-hoof, claw

unicolor-of one color

unicus-only, sole, single


unigena-only, sole (sibling)

unimanus-with a single hand

universa entire, complete universe generally, in general

universe all together

universitas the whole, total, universe, world, university universum

universe, the world

universus combined in one, whole, entire

unum one

unus one, only one, at the same time, single, alone u

unus one

upilio shepherd

upilio opilio shepherd

Urania- Muse of Astronomy

uranicus heavenly

urbanitas-city life, urbanity

 urbanus urban, urbane, pertaining to the city

 urbs city, town

urbs urbis city

urceolus-water pot

 uredo a plant blight

uredo blight of plants

 urgeo (urgueo) to drive, beset, urge

urina urine

urinator- diver

urino to dive

urinor a diver

urna- urn

urnula-water pot

ursus bear

urtica nettle

urus- ox

usio use

usitas customary, usual


usitor to be in the habit of using


usquam anywhere

usque all the way, up to), even (to)

usquequaque always ustilo


ustulo to burn, scorch, singe (Hermann, p. 308)

usucapio-gain possession of

usucapio subs- acquisition

usura using, enjoying, profiting, using money lent int

usurpo to appropriate unlawfully

usurpo to obtain, acquire, get possession of

usurpo to take for oneself, use, employ, enjoy, perceive

usus use, experience, skill, advantage, profit

ususfructus profit, the use of something

ut (+ indic.) when, as

 ut (+ subj.) (result)

ut (+ subj.) (purpose)

 ut (+ subj.) (command)




uter utra utrum- which one , which of two

utercumque whichever of the two

uterlibet whichever of the two you wish

uterque (gen. utriusque) both, each side, each party

uterus uterus, womb

uterus womb, belly, lower stomach



utilis beneficial

 utilis useful, advantageous, helpful

utilitas utility

 utilitas utility, usefulness

utinam [wish] that were true! Would that it were the ca

utique at any rate, certainly, at least

utor to take advantage of, benefit or profit from, use

utor with traits of character, yield to

utor to associate with, find

utpote seeing that, inasmuch as, since nam

utrarius- water bearer

utriculus uterus, womb

utrimque from both sides, on both sides

utro in which direction

utrobique (utrubique) on both parts

utroque to both sides, in both directions, at each point

utrum whether whether .. or

utut-in whatever manner that

uva- grape


uvidus [uvidulus] adj- wet, damp

 uxor wife, spouse uxor wife

uxorius adj-averse to marriage , ruled by a wife

vacans-empty, vacant


 vacca cow

vaccinium- berry

vacillo to fall into confusion

vaco to be free from work, of a master, of property

vacuefacio-empty, clear, free

vacuitas-freedom, absence

Vacuna-goddess of rural fertility

vacuus empty, void
vacuus without, useless vacuus empty, devoid of, free from

vadere go

vadimonium- bail, surety

vado go, hasten, rush

vador-bind over for appearance

vadosus-full of shoals or shallows

vadum ford, shallows

væ woe

vafer crafty

 vagari roam, wander

vagina vagina

vagio-cry, scream

 vagitus squalling

vagor-wander, roam

 vagus vagrant, wandering

valde adj, great, exceedingly

 valde intensely, very much, extremely, greatly

 valde strongly, powerfully, very, exceedingly

 valde intensely

valedico bid farewell

valens stong, powerful, healthy, able, worthwhile

valens strong

valentia vigor

 valeo to have strength, have power, be effective

 valesco to grow strong


valetudo condition, good health

valetudo health, good health, bad health

validus strong, robust, able

validus mighty, powerful, exceeding

validus vigorous

vallaris-for the rampart

vallis (valles) valley

vallo to surround, defend

vallum palisade, earthen wall, entrenchment, rampart

vallum palisaded rampart, ditch, moat

vallus- wall, palisade

valvae-double doors




vanitas- emptiness



vanus-empty , vain

vappa- dull wine


vaporium-steam room

vaporo- steam

vapulo- be beaten

vapulus flogged, beaten, knocked about

varietas changeableness

variatio- difference

varicosus- with dilated veins

varicus-with feet apart


varietas variety, differences, diversity


varium- fickle thing

 varius various, varied

varius changing, changeable

varix-vein , vericose vein

varus-bent, crooked

vas vadis - bail, surety

vas vasis vessel, glass, cup

 vasallus servant

vasarium-equipment money (outfit)

vascularius-goldsmith , smith


vastatus ravaged

vastatio ravaging vastatio devastation, ravaging


vastitas - empty space, desert

vastus- empty , deserted

vates bard, prophet


vaticinius - prophetic



vatillum= batillum

-ve- or

ve-= very


vecors-senseless, silly

vectigal tax

vectigal revenue

vectigalis tributary vegetabilis invigorating



vecto-transport , carry

vector-passenger, carrier

vectorius- for transport


vegetabiliter vigorously

vegeto to invigorate

vegetus lively, fresh, vigorous

vegrandis diminutive, small, tiny vehemens

vehement vehemens violent, furious, impetuous

vehementer impetuously

vehementer violently, forcefully, strongly, exceedingly

vehere carry, wear

vehiculum conveyance, vehicle

veho to sail, convey, carry

veho (in the passive) to sail, ride, drive, etc

veho vexi vectum to carry, convey

Veiovis (Vediovis) - Anti-Jove , Apollo

vel even

vel vel .. vel either .. or vel or, (adv.)

Velabrum-Roman street for oil and cheese vendors

velamen covering, garment

velamenta-supplicatory olive branch


velati- back up troops

veles itis light-armed troops

velico to pluck, twitch, criticize, taunt

velifer-sail bearing

velificatio-sailing, sail making

velificor-set sail, make sails

velitatio skirmish, bickering, dispute, wrangling

velitarius- for skirmishing

velites- skirmishers

velivola winged with sails


vello-pluck, pull out

vellus eris-wool

velo-cover , veil

velocitas- speed

velociter quickly, rapidly, swiftly

velox fleet, quick, rapid, swift, fast

velum sail

velum sail, covering, awning, curtain velut / veluti adv. just as, like, even as

vemens-vehemens *

vena vein, stream, vein of ore, streak


venalia venial sins, supplies

venalicium market

venalis to be sold, up for sale, a slave

venaticus-for hunting

venaliter by bribery, corruption

venatio hunting, game, the chase

venator/ venatrix  hunter, huntsman venatus game

venatorius-for hunting

venatus-hunt (ing)

vendere dispose of, sell, vend

vendibilis-on sale , vendible

venditio/venditatio sale, closing of a bargain vendo to sell, offer for sale, advertise, betray

vendito-sell, traffic


venditum- sale


veneficium-poisoning, sorcery

veneficus poisonous, magical, witch, wizard caster of spel

venenatus-poisonous, magical

venenifer poisonous


venenum drug, poison, potion

venenum poison

veneo ire -sell


venerabundus-full of respect


veneratio respect, reverence, honor, veneration


Venerius-of Venus

veneror- revere


venia favor, favour

venia grace, indulgence, favor, pardon, forgiveness

venio to come, happen, come about, come to pass, arise

venio to get into a certain state, to fall into

venire come

venire contra to come to


veno [dative] for sale

venor to hunt

ventagium winnowing

venter stomach, abdomen, belly, tummy

ventilo to fan, to wave something

ventilo to toss in the air

ventio a coming

ventito to come often, to visit frequently

ventorium winnowing fan.

ventosus  conceited

ventosus full of wind, windy, breezy ventulus breeze, soft wind


ventulus- breeze

ventus wind

ventus wind, rumor, favor

venum [acc] for sale

venustas loveliness

venustas loveliness, charm, attractiveness, beauty

venustus lovely, charming

veprecula-thorn patch

vepres thorn-bush, briar

ver spring ver spring, springtime

verbena-branch, bough

verber lashing

verbera (in pl.) blows, a beating, thrashing

verberantia a flogging

verbero to lash, beat, whip, flog

verbex-vervex, wound, welt

Verbigena he who was born of the word (Christ)

verbis suis, meis, etc in his own name


verbum word

verbum verb, word

vercundus bashful, modest

vere in fact, real, true vere truly, really, actually, rightly

verecundia feeling of shame, shame, bashfulness

verecundor to feel diffident, ashamed

verecundus shamefaced

verendus reverend

vereor to respect, fear, be in dread of, to be afraid

vereor to fear

veretrum-private parts

vergo to bend, incline, verge, to draw to an end veridicus truth-telling






veritas truth

veritas truthfulness veritas reality, truth

veritus pp vereor

vermiculatus-inlaid with mosaic

vermis worm

verna-slave woman

vernaculus-native , domestic (of slaves)


verno to bloom vernula servant

vernula-slave girl

vernus- vernal , spring

vero in truth, indeed, to be sure, however

verpa penis

verpus- uncircumcised man , slave

verres- boar , swine



verruca wart

verrunco-turn out well

versabilis-fickle, changing



versicolor-of various colors , colorful

versiculus- mere line or so

verso to whirl.

versor to remain, be engaged in versus line, verse


versura/vorsura- conversion, borrowing of debt

versus-verse, line (vorsus)

versutia ingenuity


vertex/vortex- whirlpool, turning


vertigo/vortigo-whirling, turning

vertere turn, turn around, turn round

verto to turn into, tranform

verto to flee, interpret, understand, upset, overthrow verto to turn, turn around, turn up, to put to flight

verto [+ yerga, tergam] turn, retreat, exchange

verto/vortoj in prosperum to turn out well, ascribe, refer

Vertumnus-god of change and seasons

veru us -spear

verum-i truth, truly, in fact

verumtamen verumptamen notwithstanding, nevertheless

verus true, real, proper, right

verus true


vervex/verbex -blow, welt



vesco, vescor to feed, to eat

vesica bladder, bubble

vesica bladder, bladder-like tumor

vespa wasp

vesper eriis evening star, evening vesper eris evening

vespera evening prayer, vesper

vesperasco- grow dark

vespertinus - of the evening, western

vespillo undertaker

Vesta-goddess of the hearth (and flocks/household), daughter of Saturn

vester ra rum- your

vestibulum-entrance, vestibule

vestigium footstep, trace, mark. soles of the feet

vestigo-track, trace

vestimentum garment

vestio to clothe, garb, dress

vestire clothe, dress

vestis clothing, garment, covering, blanket, carpet, tap

vestitus clothing

vestrum vestri your, yours

vetare forbid, prohibit

veter of a former time

veteranus-veteran , old

veterator-crafty fellow (orator)

veteratorius- clever




vetulus-elderly , old

vetus veteris old

vetustas- old age

vetustus old

vexamen shake-up, upheaval.


vexator - troubler, harasser

vexillarius-standard bearer, ensign

vexillum flag, banner, standard, troop, company small uni

vexo to vex, annoy, irritate, shake, toss, harrass via road, route, way

via road, way, street

viaticus pertaining to a journey, a journey, money prize (cf. voyage)

viator traveller, messenger



vicanus-villager , peasant

Vica Pota- Goddess of Victory

vicarius vicar

vicatim-from street to street

vice/vicem - cf. vicis

vicensi adj- twenty each

vicensima-tax (1/20th)

vices per vices -- by turns, successively

vicesimarius- tax (1/20th)



viciens/vicies- 20 times

vicina neighbor



vicinitas- neighborhood

vicinus neighbor, (med.)

vicis file, line, rank, row, turn

vicis time, occasion, opportunity, event

vicis concor reciprocal service

vicissim in turn, on the other hand

vicissitudo alternation

vicissitudo change, alteration


victimarius-sacrificial attendant

victito-live , survive

victor victor/victrix, winner

victoria victory

victoriatus-silver coin with Victory

Victoriola-figurine of Victory

victualia supplies, foodstuffs, provisions

victus living, manner of life, nourishment, food

victus victuals, sustenance


vicus estate, farm, property, ranch, district

vicus village, neigborhood, quarter (or a city), street

videlicet it is clear, (adv.)

videlicet (adv.) (ironically)


video vidi visum to see, observe, understand, comprehend

videor to be seen, seem, appear

videre see

viduata deprived, widowed, bereft

viduatus widowhood

viduitas celibacy

viduo to deprive

viduus-widowed , bereaved

vieo to weave together, stitch, plait

vietus shriveled, withered, shrunken vigens vigorous

vigeo to flourish, bloom

vigerius verger, provost


vigesco to become vigorous

vigil-watchful, restless

vigilans, watchful- restless

vigilantia- watchfulness, restlessness

vigilax-watchful , restless

vigilia-watch, wake

vigilo to be awake, watch, be vigilant to keep vigil

viginti twenty

vigintiviri- Caesar's Commission of 20 (appointed to distribute land)

vigor vigor, liveliness

vigoratus stout, heale, hearty vigoro to animate

vilica-overseer's wife

vilico-oversee , supervise

vilicus, villicus pertaining to an estate, overseer, steward

vilis cheap, worth little

vilis mean, cheap

vilis cheap, inexpensive

vilitas cheapness, low-price, worthlessness

villa country house, country estate, (med.)

villa estate, farm, property, ranch, house villa

villa, village, hamlet, court, hof

villanus villager, inhabitant of vill or farm customary t


villula-tiny estate or villa

villum-a sup of wine

villus-wool , fleece

vimen inis- wicker

viminalis-of wicker

vimineus-of wicker

vin- vis-ne*

vinaceus-of wine or grapes

Vinalia-wine festival of April 22 or Aug. 19

vinarius-of or for wine

vinarium-wine pot

vincere defeat, win over

vincibilis-easily gained or won

vincio-fetter, fasten , bind

vinco to vanquish, overmatch, excel

vinco vici victum conquer, overcome, master, win, surpass, excel

vinculum tie, chain

vinculum/vinclum bond, fetter, tie


vindemiola-vintage , profit

vindemitor/vindemiator-harvester, harbinger of vintage

vindex avenger vindicat se de to revenge oneself on

vindiciae- declaration or assertion of legal right, legal claim

vindico to avenge, punish, liberate, deliver, protect vindico to claim

vindico to liberate, deliver, punish, avenge, claim assu

vindico (vindicatum) claim, arrogate, assume, appropriate

vindicta-rod (manumission) OR revenge

vinea f, vineyard


vinitor vine-dresser (a man who prunes grape vines)

vinolentia-intoxication, drunkenness

vinolentus-drunken, full of wine

vinosus-wine-full, drunken

vinum wine , vine

viola violet


violarium-bed of violets





violenter violently, by force

violentus boisterous

violo to injure

vipera serpent, snake, viper

vipereus viper-like vir man, hero, man of courage

vir fellow, man

virago-heroine, strong woman

virecta/vireta-green place, garden

vireo-turn or be green

vires-pl of vis

viresco-turn green


virga a green twig, rod, stick, wand, broom, streak st

virga twig

virgo maiden, virgin, young girl

virgeus-of rods or twigs




virgo maiden

virgo virgin

virgula-twig, wand, stick

virgulta-bush, thicket

virguncula-young girl

viridarium-plantation, garden

viridis green viriliter manfully

viriditas- greenness




viritim-one by one


virtus valor, prowess, moral virtue, virtuousness manhood

virtus virility

virtus manliness, excellence, character, worth, courage

virus virus, slime, poison vis force

vis force, strength, vigour

vis (sing.) violence, a large number, quantity, a force natu

vis vires (pl.) force, power, strength, might, influence



visceratio-public charity of food


viscum mistletoe

viscus flesh, internal organs, bowels, entrails, heart


visio likeness, face, visage

viso ere- look at, go to see, visit

vispilio a thief by night, robber

visus-look, sight, vision

visum vision, view, sight

vita life, way of life

vita life

vitabilis-worthy of shunning

vitabundus-evading, shunning


vitare avoid, evade


vitellus calf

viteus-of the vine

viticula-vine shoot

vitio-spoil, mar

vitiositas- faultiness

vitiosus-defective, faulty


vitisator-wine or vine grower

vitiosus vicious, full of vice, corrupt

vitium fault, vice, crime

vito to avoid, shun

vitreus- glassy

vitricus step-father


vitta-band, fillet

vittatus- wreathed


vitulina veal


vituperabilis blameworthy


vituperator- blamer, censor

vituperium insult

vitupero to disparage viva voce aloud

viva vox an oral statement

vivarium-fishpond, preserve

vivax lively vivere be alive

vivifico to quicken

vivificus live-giving, life-restoring


vivo to live, to sustain, support life

vivo vixi victum to live, be alive

vivus- alive

vix scarcely, hardly, with difficulty, barely


vobis (abl.)

vobis (dat.) you

vocabulum- word, name

vocalis- speaking, vocal

vocare call, summon


vocatus-calling, summons

vociferatio outcry

vociferor to cry aloud, shout

vocito-call out


voco to call, summon, name invite

voco to summon voco in dubium to call into question

vocula- voice, speech

volare fly

volaticus winged, flying, inconstant, unreliable, flighty

volatilis wuged, flying, swift, rapid, fleeting, transitory

volator fowler, hunter of birds volatus velocity

volatus- flight

volemus/volaemus-large (subs pear)

volens wishing, willing, favorable

volito to rush back and forth, flutter, flit about hurr

volo to wish, want, will, ordain, suppose maintain th

volo to fly, speed, move rapidly

volo (sibi velle) to mean, signify, denote

volpecula-little fox

volpes vulpes - fox

volsus pp volo, velle

volticulus/vulticulus- glance

volturius (vulturius ) vulture

voltus (vultus) face , countenance

volubilis rolling, revolving, turning around, changeable

 volubilis (of speech) rapid, fluent,

voluble volubiliter fluently

volucer bird

volucris flying creature, winged, winged creature

volumen- roll, coil

voluntarius voluntary

voluntarius willing

voluntas will, purpose voluntas wish, will, inclination, good will

voluntas last will, testament, meaning, sense

volup agreeably, pleasantly voluptarius pleasant, one devoted to pleasure


voluptas pleasure voluptas sensual delight

voluptuosus luxurious, pleasure-seeking

voluptuosus delightful, pleasurable

volutabrum pigsty, slough

volutabundus-wallowing adj


volva uterus, womb

volvo to meditate upon, roll on or onwards

vomare throw up, vomit

vomer penis

vomer ploughshare

vomer plowshare

vomica ulcer, sore, boil, plague, curse



vomitus- vomiting

vomito tovomit, vomit forth, throw up


vorago chasm, pit, abyss

vorax gluttonous, voracious

voro to eat greedily, swallow up, consume gorge onese

vos you (pl)

vos you

vota vows, wishes

votum prayer, wish, desire, vow, promise to God

voveo to vow vox cry, voice, jurisdiction, authority

Vulcanus fire-god Vulcanus Vulcan

vulgare adv- in ordinary or common fashion

vulgaris common, ordinary, usual

vulgariter in the common way, ordinary manner

vulgator-blabber, divulger

vulgatus- public, common

vulgivagus wandering, vagrant, intinerant

vulgo to spread, publish, impart, make accessible

vulgus the common people, mob, rabble, mass, multitude

vulnerare hurt, wound

vulneratio- wounding

vulnero to wound, injure, hurt, harm vulnus wound vulpes fox

vulnus eris- wound

vulticulus look, aspect, appearance vultuosus grimacing, affected

vultur vulture-- vultus expression of the face, countenance, look, aspect

vultus face vultus a face, appearance, shape, form

xerampelinae - dark clothes

* xiphias sword-fish

xystus colonnade

ymber (imber) rain shower, rain storm, pelting rain

ymo (immo) on the contrary, by no means, by all means

zelotypia jealosie

zelotypus jealous

zelus jealousy -

zephyr west wind

*zodiacus zodiac

*zona belt

*zonarius belt maker