Friday, May 27, 2011

Martial, Epigram 1.7

Marcus Valerius Martialis
1st-2nd c. AD (over 1,900 years ago)
Trans. RMBullard
Latin (Silver Age)


Stellae delicium mei columba,
Verona licet audiente dicam,
[The dove, the pet of my favorite Stella,]

uicit, Maxime, passerem Catulli.
[beats Catullus' sparrow, o Maximus.]

Tanto Stella meus tuo Catullo
quanto passere maior est columba.              
[However much greater my favorite Stella is than Catullus, is the very same amount the dove is greater than the sparrow.] 

Martial, Spectacular Sights 13

Marcus Valerius Martialis
1st-2nd c. AD (over 1,900 years ago)
Trans. RMBullard
Latin (Silver Age)


Icta graui telo confossaque uulnere mater
     sus pariter uitam perdidit atque dedit.
[Stricken by the heavy spear, and pierced through along her wound, a mother sow simultaneously lost her life, and gave it too.]

O quam certa fuit librato dextera ferro!
[O how certain was the right hand that aimed that iron!]

     Hanc ego Lucinae credo fuisse manum.
[I can say that I believe that it had been the very hand of Lucina.]

Experta est numen moriens utriusque Dianae,               5
[Dying, she experienced the two-fold power of Diana,]

     quaque soluta parens quaque perempta fera est.
[through which a parent can be delivered, and through which a beast can be slain to the ground.]

Martial, Spectacular Sights 12

Marcus Valerius Martialis
1st-2nd c. AD (over 1,900 years ago)
Trans. RMBullard
Latin (Silver Age)


Inter Caesareae discrimina saeua Dianae
     fixisset grauidam cum leuis hasta suem,
[Between the savage boundaries of Caesarea, the light-weight spear of Diana had already stuck a heavy sow,]

exiluit partus miserae de uulnere matris.
[and the offspring spilled out from the wound of its doomed mother.]

     O Lucina ferox, hoc peperisse fuit?
[O cruel Lucina, what was the point of this delivery?]

Pluribus illa mori uoluisset saucia telis,               5
[Wounded, she had began to die from even more spears,]

     omnibus ut natis triste pateret iter.
[so that she could tread her sad journey in accompaniment with all her childrens.]

Quis negat esse satum materno funere Bacchum?
[Who can deny that Bacchus was born at the very point of his mother's death?]

     sic genitum numen credite:
[so, believe in the divine power of procreation:] 

 nata fera est.
[Birth is a wild animal.]

Tuesday, May 24, 2011

Karl Marx, Age of Augustus

Karl Heinrich Marx
1818-1838 AD
Trans. RMBullard
Latin (Modern Era)

[Can the imperial reign of Augustus deservedly be counted among the happiest periods of time of the Roman Republic?]

Examinatio Maturitatis (1835)
[Examination of Maturity, 1835]

Quaerenti, qualis Augusti aetas fuerit, plura occurunt, ex quibus de ea judicari potest;
[To a person who asks, "What was the period under Augustus like?", many things bear relevance, from which one can thing can be determined concerning this matter;]

 primum comparatio cum aliis Romanae historiae aetatibus,
[first of all, a comparison with the other periods of time in Roman history,]

 nam, si ostenderis, aetatibus prioribus, quas felices appellant, similem fuisse Augusti aetatem,
[you see, if you should illustrate that the age of Auguste had been similar to the periods of time prior, which people call "happy"]

illis vero, quas aequalium et recentium judicium, versis et mutatis moribus in pejorem partem,
republica in factiones divisa, in bello etiam rebus male gestis, dissimilem, de ea ex aliis conjecturam facere potes;
[then those truly are the ones upon which you can make a guess concerning this matter, that is, the ones that had established through the judgment of fresh and equal-minded men, and whose traditions came to be overturned and warped in a worse direction, when things went south in a time of war,]

 tum quaerendum est,
[and then, one must ask]

 quae veteres de ea ipsa dixerint,
["what were the things that men of old said concerning this very matter,]

quid externae gentes de imperio habuerint,
[what did foreign nations think about his empire,]

 an id veriti sint aut contemserint,
[that is, did they fear or despise it,]

 denique vero quales artes litteraeque fuerint.
[and lastly, what truly were its specimen of arts and letters?]

Ne vero longius sim, quam necesse,
[So let me truly not be too long-winded than is necessary,]

 pulcherrimam aetem ante Augustum, quam morum simplicitas, virtutis studia, magistratuum plebisque integritas felicem fecerunt, aetas, qua Italia inferior subigebatur, illamque Neronis, qua nulla miserior, cum Augusti aetate comparabo.
[as I shall compare the most beautiful period of time, the one before Augustus, in which came about a simplicity of customs, a passion for good worth, in which the integrity of the common folk made the offices of state blessed: the age, in which lowly Italy was stood up, I shall compare to that notorious one under Nero, in which no age could be more miserable.]

Nullo tempore magis a studiis optimarum artium Romani abhorruere,
[In no period of time did the Romans flee in horror more from the passion to master the best of skills,]

 quam aetate ante bella punica,
[than in the age right before the Punic war,]

 eruditione minime aestimata,
[when education was least esteemed of all,]

 cum in agriculturam summi illarum aetatum homines praecipue studium operamque collocarent,
[and when the greatest men from these generations most of all called upon their passion and concentration, for agriculture,]

 eloquentia supervacua,
[while eloquence was deemed beyond useless,]

cum paucis verbis de rebus agendis dicerent neque orationis elegantiam, sed sententiarum vim peterent,
[since they not only spoke using a few words, whenever they need to carry out their affairs, they neither sought to gain any eloquence for their speech, nor any power to form their thoughts,]

historia vero eloquentiae non egente,
[though, in fact, their previous history did not lack examples of eloquence,]

 cum res gestas tantum referret
[although only a single man wrote down in records of their feats]

 solumque in Annalium confectione consisteret.
[and alone, he constantly worked at a finished product of their yearly records.]

Tota vero aetas patrum plesbisque lite impleta;
[So truly, their entire generation was filled with strife between the senatorial order and the common folk;]

 nam ab expulsis regibus usque ad primum bellum punicum de utriusque jure certatur
[you see, since the time when the kings were kicked out, up to the very first Punic War, a fight endured concerning the legal status of both factions]

 et magna historiae pars leges tantum refert,
[and a great portion of their history so greatly concernings their laws,]

quas tribuni aut consules, magna utrimque cum contentione, fecere.
[that is, that laws that the tribunes, or consuls, enacted, with great contention between the two sides.]

Quid eo tempore laudandum sit, jam diximus.
[I've already said why this is something to be praised in a time like that.]

Neronis aetatem si describere volumus,
[If I shall desire to describe the period of time under Nero,]

 non multa verba opus sunt,
[it will not require many words,]

 nam, optimis occisis civibus, turpi regnante arbitrio, legibus violatis, urbe cremata, ducibus cum vererentur,
[you see, the best citizens were being murdered, while people began to panic, from the filthy decision-making of their leader, and his violations of their laws, and the burning down of their city,]

 ne res bene gestae suspicionem excitarent
[fearing that should they would incite suspicion, should they do anything decent,]

neque quid ad magna facta eos commoveret, pace potius quam bello gloriam quaerentibus, quis interrogabit, qualis illa aetas fuerit?
[one shall not need to ask what motivated men like these to great deeds, and why they should glory from times of peace rather than war, and what type of generation of people that age was?]

Quin Augusti aetas huic dissimilis sit,
[Whether or not the period of time under Augustus was similar to the one aforementioned,]

nemo dubitare potest,
[no one can be in doubt,]

 nam ejus imperium clementia insigne est,
[you see, his control of the state was remarkable by virtue of its sense of mercy,]

 cum Romani, quamvis omnis libertas, omnis etiam libertatis species evanuerat,
[when the Romans, despite the fact that all notion of freedom, even the open appearance of freedom, had vanished,]

 jussis principis instituta legesque mutare valentibus omnibusque honoribus,
[which had been replaced by the degrees of their emperor, and with all of his official powers of state capable of reforming their laws,]

 quos prius tribuni plebis, censores, consules habuerant, tum ab uno viro occupatis,
[which, at which, only the tribunes of the plebs, censors, and consuls held, but now were seized by the likes of a single man,]

 tamen putarent, se regnare, imperatorem tantum aliud nomen dignitatibus,
[and yet, people began to think that only the emperor should rule using an official title connecting the duties]

quas prius tribuni aut consules tenuissent,
[which the tribunes or consuls previously had possessed,]

 neque libertatem sibi dereptam viderent.
[and did they perceive that their liberty had been taken from them.]

 Hoc vero magnum clementiae argumentum, si cives dubitare possunt, quis princeps sit, an ipsi regnent, an regnentur.
[In fact, this is great indication of his mercy, if the citizens can be in doubt whether he was their leading man, or they themselves were in control.]

Bello vero Romani nunquam feliciores, nam Parthi subiecti, Cantabri victi, Rhaeti et Vindelicii prostrati sunt:
[In fact, the Romans were never any more successful in war, than when they subjected the Parthians to defeat, conquered the Cantabres, and the Rhaetians and Vindelices were laid down:]

Germani vero, summi Romanis hostes, quos Caesar frustra pugnasset, singulis quidem proeliis et proditione et insidiis et virtute silvisque Romanos superarunt:
[The Germans, in fact, the greatest of the Romans' enemies, whom Caesar had tried in vain to combat, actually overpowered the Romans in individual battles, using both treachery, tricks, their courage and their knowledge of the woods:]

 sed omnino et Romana civitate, quam singulis Augustus praebuit,
 et armis, quae duces periti gessere, et inimicitia, inter eos ipsos excitata, multorum Germaniae populorum vis frangebatur.
[but, in every way possible, the power of many peoples in Germany was broken by the Roman city, which Augustus supplied in every case with the arms that their experienced generals wielded, and enmity which was incited between these same men,]

Domi militiaeque igitur Augusti aetas non comparanda cum Neronis pejorumque principum tempore.
[Therefore, at home and abroad, the period of time under Augustus cannot be compared with the period of ime under Nero, and the worse emperors.]

Partes litesque autem, quas aetate ante bellum punicum invenimus,
[And still, the factionalism and strife that we find in the era before the Punic War,]

 tum cessarant,
[came to an end at that time,]

 nam Augustum omnes partes, omnes dignitates, omnem potestatem in se collegisse videmus,
[you see, we see how Augustus tied all the factions, all the positions of honor, all state power to himself,]

 neque igitur imperium a se ipso dissidere potuit, 
[and so, he could not detach the control of the state from even himself,]

quod omni civitati summum affert periculum,
[because it would bring the greatest degree of danger to the entire citizenry,]

 auctoritate apud externos populos ea re dimminuta,
[should this civil authority of his be diminished among the foreign peoples,]

 et rebus publicis magis ambitionis causa quam propter civitatis salutem administratis.
[and the Republic be governed more for the sake of ambition than in support of the city's welfare.]

Tali modo vero Augusti aetas oculos ad se rapere non debet, 
[In fact, the age of Augustus ought not to draw one's eyes to itself in such a way]

ne multis in rebus illa aetate inferiorem videremus,
[that we should think it more lowly in that period of time, in many respects,]

 nam moribus, libertate, virtute aut dimminutis aut plane demotis,
[that is, when their traditions, their sense of liberty, their sense of courage were either diminished or noticeably degraded,]

 dum avaritia, luxuria, intemperantia regnant, aetas ipsa felix nominari non potest, 
[so long as avarice, excessive living, and immoderation rule the day, the era itself cannot be declared a happy one,] 

sed imperium Augusti, instituta legesque hominum, quos elexerat, ut rempublicam perturbatam meliorem redderent, valde effecerunt, ut perturbatio, a bellis civilibus evocata, decesserit.
[but the government of Augustus, his institutions, and the laws passed by the men whom he had appointed resulted in rendering a thoroughly chaotic republic better, and they very much found success in getting the atmosphere of disturbance, which had been called forth by their civil wars, to yield.]

Exempli causa Senatum, quem corruptissimi homines ingressi erant, a vestigiis sceleris expiare videmus Augustum, 
[For example, we see that Augustus purged the long-standing misdeeds of the Senate, which the most corrupt men you can imagine had previously entered]

multis ab eo expulsis, 
[once a great deal of men were cast out of, ]

quorum mores ei invisi,
[that is, whoever's code of conduct were despicable to him,]

 multis introductis, qui virtute et intelligentia excelluere.
[and many men, who excelled by the sake of their virtue and intelligence, were introduced.]

Augusto principe semper viri, virtutis et sapientiae gloria praestantes, munere reipublicae fructi erant, 
[While Augustus was the emperor, at every instance, the men who excelled from the high reputation of their good qualities and wisdom, benefitted from positions of power in their commonwealth,]

nam Maecenate, Agrippa quis viros eo tempore majores nominare potest!
[you see, who can name men greater than Maecenas and Agrippa from this period of time?]

 Principis ingenium ipsum, quamvis nunquam simulationis integumentis nudatum conspicimus,
[The very genius of the emperor, although we never see it stripped of the trappings of its dissimulation,]

ut jam diximus,
[as I've already said,]

 potestate non abutens, invisam vim mitiore specie tegens videtur,
[appears not to abuse its power, but to conceal any spiteful brute force with a gentler appearance,]

 et si respublica, qualis ante bella punica fuerit, illi tempori aptissima erat,
[and if the Republic, at least the one that used to exist before the Punic Wars, was most suited to that period of time,]

quod animos ad magnas res excitabat,
[something which began to stir spirits to tremendous accomplishments,]

 viros hostibus terribiles reddidit,
[it exposed terrible men back to their enemies,]

 pulchram inter patres plebemque aemulationem, a qua vero non semper invidia abest, evocavit, respublica, qualem Augustus instituerat, ejus temporibus aptissima mihi quidem videtur,
[he evoked the beautiful rivalry between the senators and common folk, from which indeed there is never a sense of jealousy, and the Republic, that is, the one Augustus had established, from whose dates it certainly appears to me to be most appropriate,]

 nam, animis effeminatis, simplicitate morum decessa, civitatis magnitudine aucta, imperator potius quam libera res publica populo libertatem afferre valet.
[you see, even though their minds grew ennervated, and the sincerity of their customs gave way, and the magnitude of their city increased, the emperor was better able to bring a sense of liberty to his populace than the free Republic,]

Jam ad id venimus,
[And now I come to this question,]

quale veterum de Augusti aetate judicium fuerit?
[what what was the opinion of older generations concerning the age of Augustus?]

Eum ipsum divinum apellant
[They say that he himself was divine]

 neque hominem sed deum potius putant.
[nor do they think that he was a man, but rather a god.]

 Quod non dici posset,
[Which is something that could not possibly be declared,]

 Horatio tantum teste, sed strenuus historiae scriptor, Tacitus,  semper de Augusto ejusque aetate maxima reverentia, summa admiratione, amore etiam loquitur.
[even Horace swore to it, and Tacitus, a hard-working writer of history, spoke about Augustus and his period of time always with the greatest sense of respect, utmost admiration, even with love.]

Litterae vero artesque nullo tempore magis floruere,
[Truly literature and art flourished more at no other period of time,]

ea aetate plurimis scriptoribus viventibus, a quibus fontibus quasi, omnes populi eruditionem hauriebant.
[when, in this age, all the people used to imbibe the learned wisdom from so many scores of comtemporary writers, almost as though from fountains.]

Cum respublica igitur bene instituta videatur,
[And so, since his state seems to have been established on solid foundations,]

 principe populo felicitatem ferre cupiente,
[with a leader who desired to bring happiness to his populace,]

 summis viris vero eo auctore honores tenentibus,
[and in fact, with the most important men enjoying the offices of power as a result of this men,]

cum Augusti aetas optimis historiae Romanae aetatibus non inferior,
 malis vero dissimilis videatur,
[and since the age of Augustus seems no less superior than the very best ages of Roman history,]

 cum partes litesque cessas videas,
 artes litterasque vero florentes,
[when you can see factionalism and disputes in decline,]

 Augusti principatus merito inter meliores aetates numerandus valdeque vir aestimandus,
[Augustus' rule as emperor must deservedly be counted among the very best ages of time, and the man greatly esteemed,]

 qui, etsi omnia ei licerent,
[that is, a man who, although every power was granted to him,]

tamen, assecutus imperium, reipublicae salutem tantum efficere studuit.
[still, once he began to establish his reign, he remained eager to bring about so tremendous a state of bounty for his republic.]

Monday, May 23, 2011

Martial, Spectacular Sights 11

Marcus Valerius Martialis
1st-2nd c. AD (over 1,900 years ago)
Trans. RMBullard
Latin (Silver Age)


Praeceps sanguinea dum se rotat ursus harena,
[While the bear rounds about head-first in the bloody sand of the area,]

     inplicitam uisco perdidit ille fugam.
[our hero lost his ability to flee, now tangled up in twine.]

Splendida iam tecto cessent uenabula ferro,
[And now let splendid hunts yield to covered iron,]

     nec uolet excussa lancea torta manu;
[and I hope a twirl spear does not fly after its launch;]

deprendat uacuo uenator in aere praedam,               5
[I hope the hunter takes his prey down in the empty air,]

     si captare feras aucupis arte placet.
[if it brings pleasure to catch wild beasts in the fashion of a bird catcher.]

Catullus, Poem 45

 Gaius Valerius Catullus
84-54 BCE (over 2,000 years ago)
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Golden Age/Republican Era)

ACMEN Septimius suos amores
tenens in gremio 'mea' inquit 'Acme,
[Septimius, holding the love of his life Acme in his lap, said, "My lady Acme,"]

ni te perdite amo
[I will love you till the day you die <suggestions?>]

 atque amare porro
omnes sum assidue paratus annos,
[and I'm eagerly willing to love you for all the years following that,]

quantum qui pote plurimum perire,
solus in Libya Indiaque tosta
caesio ueniam obuius leoni.'
[as much as a man can perish all the more, let me fall to my death by a lion, alone in Libya and roasting India."]

hoc ut dixit,
[As he said this,]

 Amor sinistra ut ante
dextra sternuit approbationem.
[Love extended his approval, with left hand laid before right.]

     at Acme leuiter caput reflectens
et dulcis pueri ebrios ocellos
illo purpureo ore suauiata,
[But then, Acme, playfully bending her head back and kissing the drunking eyes of her sweet boyfriend, with that rosy mouth of hers,]

'sic' inquit 'mea uita Septimille,
huic uni domino usque seruiamus,
[said, "So, light of my life, my dear little Septimius,]

ut multo mihi maior acriorque
ignis mollibus ardet in medullis.'
[you aim to make the fire in my soft little bones all the more greater, and fiercer."]

hoc ut dixit,
[As she said this,]

 Amor sinistra ut ante
dextra sternuit approbationem.
[Love extended his approval, with left hand laid before right.]

     nunc ab auspicio bono profecti
mutuis animis amant amantur.
[Now they, carried forth by happy omens, love each other, and are each other, loved.]

unam Septimius misellus Acmen
mauult quam Syrias Britanniasque:
[Poor little Septimius prefers a single girl, Acme, over Syrian girls and British girls:]

uno in Septimio fidelis Acme
facit delicias libidinisque.
[faithful Acme gives the lustful delights only to a single man, Septimius.]

quis ullos homines beatiores
uidit, quis Venerem auspicatiorem?
[Who ever saw any more blessed people, and any more auspicious Love?]

Sunday, May 22, 2011

Dante, Monarchia

Dante Alighieri [Dante]
1265-1321 AD Italy 

Trans RMBullard
Latin (Medieval Era)


I. 1. Omnium hominum quos ad amorem veritatis natura superior impressit hoc maxime interesse videtur:
[A higher nature, that inspires all men to the love of truth, seems most of all to involve this:]

ut, quemadmodum de labore antiquorum ditati sunt,
[such that, to whatever degree they were enriched by the labor of their forerunners,]

ita et ipsi posteris prolaborent,
[so too these very same men should work hard for their descendents,[

 quatenus ab eis posteritas habeat quo ditetur.
[to whatever point posterity might possess from them something that can enrich them.]

 2. Longe nanque ab offitio se esse non dubitet
[On that account, one might not doubt himself derelict of his duty, by far,]

qui, publicis documentis imbutus, ad rem publicam aliquid afferre non curat;
[whoever, once imbued with the documents of the public, does not take care to carry anything out for the sake of their commonwealth;]

 non enim est lignum,
[you see, it is not wood,]

 quod secus decursus aquarum fructificat in tempore suo,
[that bears fruit at its proper time, when separated from the downpour of water,]

 sed potius perniciosa vorago semper ingurgitans
[but rather, it is a pernicious whirlpool, always gurgling around,]

 et nunquam ingurgitata refundens.
[and gurgling, never overflows.]

 3. Hec igitur sepe mecum recogitans,
[And often recognizing things like these, along with me,]

Cicero, In Defense of Deiotarus

Marcus Tullius Cicero [Cicero or Tully]
106-43 BC
*executed by 2nd Triumvirate (specifically Mark Antony)
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Republican Era/Golden Age of Latin Literature)


[1] Cum in omnibus causis gravioribus, C. Caesar,
[When, in all the more serious legal suits, Gaius Caesar,]

initio dicendi commoveri soleam vehementius,
[I might be accustomed to become more violently emotional, as I begin to speak,]

 quam videtur vel usus vel aetas mea postulare,
[more than seems proper, or either my habits or age requires,]

tum in hac causa ita me multa perturbant,
[so then, many things so very cause me distress in this case,]

 ut, quantum mea fides studii mihi adferat ad salutem regis Deiotari defendendam,
[that, to the very degree my loyalty to passion inspires me to come the rescue of King Deiotarus' welfare,]

 tantum facultatis timor detrahat.
[the very same fear involving its ease draws me back.]

 Primum dico pro capite fortunisque regis,
[First, I'll speak in defense of the king's life and fortunes,]

 quod ipsum, etsi non iniquum est in tuo dum taxat periculo,
[something which, he himself, although it's not senseless only in your state of danger,]

 tamen est ita inusitatum,
[it is still so very unusual,]

regem reum capitis esse,
[for a man of royal status to become a defendant in a capital charge,]

ut ante hoc tempus non sit auditum;
[as, before this period, it's been unheard of;]

[2] deinde eum regem, quem ornare antea cuncto cum senatu solebam pro perpetuis eius in nostram rem publicam meritis,
[and then, there's this king here, whom I grew accustomed in previous times to give honors, in front of the entire Senate, as a reward for his perpetual good deeds in the service of our Republic,]

 nunc contra atrocissimum crimen cogor defendere.
[but now I forced to defend him against the most horrible charge.]

 Accedit ut accusatorum alterius crudelitate,
alterius indignitate conturber:
[It turns out that I am completely put in distress by one of the accusing party's cruelty, and another of their party's misbehavior.]

 crudelem Castorem, ne dicam sceleratum et impium,
[a type of cruel Castor, lest I call him wicked and impious,]

 qui nepos avum in capitis discrimen adduxerit
[a grandson who led his grandfather to the cusp of capital punishment]

adulescentiaeque suae terrorem intulerit ei,
[and instill the terrible state of his adulescence upon him,]

cuius senectutem tueri et tegere debebat,
[whose old age he ought to safeguard and protect,]

 commendationemque ineuntis aetatis ab impietate et scelere duxerit;
[and should have taken the support of his upcoming period in his life from impiety and ill deed;]

Cicero, In Defense of Caecina

Marcus Tullius Cicero [Cicero or Tully]
106-43 BC
*executed by 2nd Triumvirate (specifically Mark Antony)
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Republican Era/Golden Age of Latin Literature)


[1] Si, quantum in agro locisque desertis audacia potest,
[If, as much as boldness can do in the field, and deserted places,]

 tantum in foro atque in iudiciis impudentia valeret,
[as imprudence should prevail in the market, and in the courts,]

non minus nunc in causa cederet A. Caecina Sex. Aebuti impudentiae,
[no less, now, should Aelius Caecina feel ill to the imprudence of Sextus Aebutius,]

quam tum in vi facienda cessit audaciae.
[which, at that time, the power of boldness yielded to brute violence.]

 Verum et illud considerati hominis esse putavit,
[And however, he though that particular condition of the man ought to be considered,]

qua de re iure disceptari oporteret,
[by which matter it would have to be achieved,]

 armis non contendere,
[not by contending in battle,]

 et hoc constantis, quicum vi et armis certare noluisset, eum iure iudicioque superare.
[and by prevailing, in the court of law, over this matter consistently, for which he had beforehand not wanted to fight over through the force of arms.]

[2] Ac mihi quidem cum audax praecipue fuisse videtur Aebutius in convocandis hominibus et armandis,
[And really, in my opinion, does Aebutius seem to been especially bold in his gathering people up and arming them,]

 tum impudens in iudicio,
[at that time, rash in his judgment,]

 non solum quod in iudicium venire ausus est
[not only because he dares to come to court,]

—nam id quidem tametsi improbe fit in aperta re, tamen malitia est iam usitatum
[on that, this practice really happens quite wrongfully, in the open, although it's already been used with malice, and frequently,]

—sed quod non dubitavit id ipsum quod arguitur confiteri;
[but also that he did not doubt the act itself would have to be admitted to;]

Friday, May 20, 2011

Xenophon, On Horsemanship

430 – 354 BC Athens

Trans RMBullard
Attic Greek (Classical Period/Hellenistic Period)

[1] Ἐπειδὴ διὰ τὸ συμβῆναι ἡμῖν πολὺν χρόνον ἱππεύειν οἰόμεθα ἔμπειροι ἱππικῆς γεγενῆσθαι,
[Since I think that I've grown experienced in horsemanship, after living my life for a long period of time riding horses, ]

βουλόμεθα καὶ τοῖς νεωτέροις τῶν φίλων δηλῶσαι,
[I also want to show this to the younger generations of my friends and family,]

 ἧι ἂν νομίζομεν αὐτοὺς ὀρθότατα ἵπποις προσφέρεσθαι.
[in the way I think it most correct for them to handle themselves on horses.]

συνέγραψε μὲν οὖν καὶ Σίμων περὶ ἱππικῆς,
[And so, Simon too also wrote a treatise on horsemanship,]

 ὃς καὶ τὸν κατὰ τὸ Ἐλευσίνιον Ἀθήνησιν ἵππον χαλκοῦν ἀνέθηκε
[given that he carried out the reward of Bronze Horse for Athens, in his performance at the Eleusian Games]

 καὶ ἐν τῶι βάθρωι τὰ ἑαυτοῦ ἔργα ἐξετύπωσεν·
[and he made his deeds famous in races.]

ἡμεῖς γε μέντοι ὅσοις συνετύχομεν ταὐτὰ γνόντες ἐκείνωι,
[For my part though, I've happened upon such skills, since I learned these very things from him,]

οὐκ ἐξαλείφομεν ἐκ τῶν ἡμετέρων,
[and I'll not leave anything from my knowledge,]

 ἀλλὰ πολὺ ἥδιον παραδώσομεν αὐτὰ τοῖς φίλοις,
[but rather, with great pleasure, I'll grant these things to my friends,]

 νομίζοντες ἀξιοπιστότερα εἶναι,
[since they know that they are things of greater worth,]

ὅτι κἀκεῖνος κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἡμῖν ἔγνω ἱππικὸς ὤν·
[because this man taught me in the instruction of things like these, and he was member of the cavalry.]

καὶ ὅσα δὴ παρέλιπεν ἡμεῖς πειρασόμεθα δηλῶσαι.
[and, in fact, concerning the things he left, I for my part will am experienced enough to demonstrate them.]

Πρῶτον δὲ γράψομεν,
[But first, I shall write,]

Seneca the Younger, Soliloquoy of Phaedra

Lucius Annaeus Seneca  [Seneca the Younger]
1BC-65 AD *executed by Emperor Nero
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Imperial Period)


         Hippolytvs Ite, umbrosas cingite siluas
summaque montis iuga Cecropii!
[Hippolytus, go, bind the shady forests and the highest peaks of Cecrop's cliff!]

celeri planta lustrate uagi
quae saxoso loca Parnetho
         subiecta iacent,
[Wander your soles upon a quick gait, ones to press upon the places lying below the rocky Parthenon,]

quae Thriasiis uallibus amnis                    5
rapida currens uerberat unda;
[whose river, rushing with its swift waves, lashes against the Thriasian valleys;]

scandite colles semper canos
         niue Riphaea.
[Climb the hills that are always snowy from Riphaean snow.]

Hac, hac alii qua nemus alta
texitur alno,
[Over here, and over there, where the tall grove is covered by the elder tree,]

qua prata patent                    10
[where the meadows stretch]

quae rorifera mulcens aura
Zephyrus uernas euocat herbas,
[whose budding grasses the soothing west wind calls out with its dewy breeze,]

ubi per graciles breuis Ilisos
labitur agros piger
[where there lazy Ilisus glades through the gracile fields, briefly,]

et steriles
amne maligno radit harenas.                    15
[and grazes the sterile sands with its ill-starred river.] 

Vos qua Marathon tramite laeuo
         saltus aperit,
[Wherever Marathon reveals you to meadows along its leftward path,]

qua comitatae gregibus paruis
nocturna petunt pabula fetae;
[where bands of colts from small flocks seek the meadowlands at night;]

uos qua tepidis subditus austris                    20
frigora mollit durus Acharneus.
[and where the harsh Acharneus softens the cold spells, as it lies open to the warm southerlies.]

Alius rupem dulcis Hymetti,
~paruas alius calcet Aphidnas;
[the first treads Hymettus' cliff, the other, the small Aphidnae;]

pars illa diu uacat immunis,
[that region lies open, and unwalled, for a long time,]

qua curuati litora ponti                    25
         Sunion urget.
[that is, where Sunion pushes upon the shores of its curved sea.]

si quem tangit gloria siluae,
         uocat hunc ~flius:
[And he is one whom, if fame of the woods touches him, one callls him ??? <suggestions>]

hic uersatur, metus agricolis,
uulnere multo iam notus aper.                    30
[Here is where he runs around, the terror to our farmers, the boar already famous for inflicting so many wounds.]

         At uos laxas canibus tacitis
         mittite habenas;
[But, for your sakes, set down the reins that you've loosened from your silent dogs;]

teneant acres lora Molossos
[let your straps hold snarling Molossian hounds]

et pugnaces tendant Cretes
fortia trito uincula collo.
[and let the pugnacious Cretan dogs pull upon study chains along their well-worn necks.]

at Spartanos (genus est audax                    35
auidumque ferae) nodo cautus
         propiore liga:
[but be cautious when you tie your Spartan hounds with a tighter knot: this is a bold breed, one eager for wild game;]

ueniet tempus, cum latratu
         caua saxa sonent.
[let the time come, as soon as hollow stones echo from barking.]

Seneca the Younger, Soliloquoy of Oedipus

Lucius Annaeus Seneca  [Seneca the Younger]
1BC-65 AD *executed by Emperor Nero
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Imperial Period)


Oedipvs Iam nocte Titan dubius expulsa redit
[This is Oedipus, already the titanic Sun returns more doubtfully, as the night has been cast away,]

et nube maestum squalida exoritur iubar,
[and its gloomy pyre arises from a squalid cloud,]

lumenque flamma triste luctifica gerens
[and carrying a sad light from its mournful flame,]

prospiciet auida peste solatas domos,
[let him gaze upon the halls of his home that have grown accustomed to a virulent plague,]

stragemque quam nox fecit ostendet dies.                              5
[and let daylight show the destruction that the night has wrought.]

Quisquamne regno gaudet?
[Whoever finds happiness in his own reign?]

 o fallax bonum,
[O you deceitful blessing,]

quantum malorum fronte quam blanda tegis!
[how many evils have you covered with a charming veneer!]

ut alta uentos semper excipiunt iuga
[As the lofty peaks of mountains snatch the winds,] 

rupemque saxis uasta dirimentem freta
quamuis quieti uerberat fluctus maris,                              10
[and so long as the waves of the quiet sea beat the shore cliff that breaks the vast swells upon its rocks]

imperia sic excelsa Fortunae obiacent.
[the Goddesses of Fortune shall thusly engage in their heavenly-bethrothed powers.]

Quam bene parentis sceptra Polybi fugeram!
[How well had I done to flee the scepter of my father Polybius!]

curis solutus exul,
[As an exile, I was free from worries,]

 intrepidus uagans
[a bold and fearless wanderer]

(caelum deosque testor)
[I swear to the heavens and gods!]

 in regnum incidi;
[then I fell upon a kingdom;]

infanda timeo:
[I fear to speak things that must not be uttered:]

 ne mea genitor manu                              15
[lest my father should be slaughtered by my own hand;]

 hoc me Delphicae laurus monent,
[the laurel branches of Delphi warned me about this,]

aliudque nobis maius indicunt scelus.
[and they informed me of another, even greater crime.]

est maius aliquod patre mactato nefas?
[What is more unspeakable than to have murdered one's father?]

pro misera pietas (eloqui fatum pudet),
[Mercy, for my woe, for it brings me shame to reveal in destiny in speech,]

thalamos parentis Phoebus et diros toros                              20
gnato minatur impia incestos face.
[Apollo set to threaten the wedding chamber of my father, and the gloomy marriage bed that lay sullied by a son's impious torchlight.]

hic me paternis expulit regnis timor,
[And at that point, fear cast me right out of my father's kingdom,]

hoc ego penates profugus excessi meos:
[and it is I who, as a fugitive, destroyed my own family's gods, by this action:]

parum ipse fidens mihimet in tuto tua,
natura, posui iura.
[I, yes I, entrusting so little of myself in what was assured by you, Nature, I accepted the oaths you swore.]

cum magna horreas,                               25
[Then you shall shudder greatly,]

quod posse fieri non putes metuas tamen:
[and still you should fear whatever you suspect can never be able to, to  come about:]

cuncta expauesco
[I completely exhausted myself with panic]

meque non credo mihi.
[I could not believe that I was indeed who was I.]

      Iam iam aliquid in nos fata moliri parant.
[And now already the Fates prepare something else for me to suffer.]

Seneca the Younger, Soliloquoy of Hercules

Lucius Annaeus Seneca  [Seneca the Younger]
1BC-65 AD *executed by Emperor Nero
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Imperial Period)


Hercvles Sator deorum,
[This is Hercules speaking, o sire of the gods,]

 cuius excussum manu
utraeque Phoebi sentiunt fulmen domus,
[you whose house feel the lightning bolt on both sides of Phoebus, once hammered out in your hand, ]

secure regna:
[assure the safety of your reign:]

protuli pacem tibi,
[I've brought you peace,]

quacumque Nereus porrigi terras uetat.
[everywhere Nereus forbids the lands to reach any further.]

non est tonandum;
[You must not thunder;]

perfidi reges iacent,    
[treacherous kings now lie dead,]

saeui tyranni.
[and savage tyrants too.]

 fregimus quidquid fuit
tibi fulminandum.
[I've shattered whatever reason you've had to thunder about.]

sed mihi caelum, parens,
adhuc negatur?
[But, my father, do you still deny me access to heaven?]

parui certe Ioue
ubique dignus teque testata est meum
patrem nouerca.
[IEverywhere, I've proved myself worthy of being a son of Jove, and even my stepmother once testified that you are my father.]

 quid tamen nectis moras?     
[And yet, why do you delay my right to divine nectar?]

numquid timemur?
[It can't be that I'm afraid!]

 numquid impositum sibi
non poterit Atlas ferre cum caelo Herculem?
[Can Atlas really manage to bear me, Hercules, and the sky too upon himself?]

quid astra, genitor, quid negas?
[What is it, my sire, why do you refuse?]

 mors me tibi
certe remisit,
[In truth, death reunited me with you,]

 omne concessit malum
quod terra genuit, pontus aer inferi:                              15
[Every wicked being that the earth produced, yield to my power, in air and sea:]

nullus per urbes errat Argolicas leo,
[No lion wanders through the towns of Argos,]

Stymphalis icta est,
[I've struck down the Stymphalian creatures,]

 Maenali nulla est fera;
[Maenalus no longer claims its monstrous beast;]

sparsit peremptus aureum serpens nemus
[The serpent fell dead, and splattered its golden forest]

et hydra uires posuit
[and the Hydra split its lifeblood out]

 et notos Hebro
cruore pingues hospitum fregi greges                              20
[and I broke fat flocks of guests, famous for Hebrus' blood]

hostique traxi spolia Thermodontiae.
[and I dragged my plunder to Thermodon's foe.]

uici regentem fata nec tantum redi,
[I defeated the one who rules our destinies, and I not only returned, ]

sed trepidus atrum Cerberum uidit dies
et ille solem.
[but he saw black Cerberus dragged out to daylight, and even he saw the sun.]

 nullus Antaeus Libys
animam resumit,
[No Antaeus of Libus regains his life force,]

Catullus, Poem 44

 Gaius Valerius Catullus
84-54 BCE (over 2,000 years ago)
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Golden Age/Republican Era)

O FVNDE noster seu Sabine seu Tiburs
[O plantation, the Sabine one, or better yet, the one in Tivoli,]

(nam te esse Tiburtem autumant,
[you see, people say that you are a part of Tivoli,]

quibus non est
cordi Catullum laedere;
[that is, those who don't care to offend Catullus;]

 at quibus cordi est,
[but to those that do care,]

quouis Sabinum pignore esse contendunt),
[they contend by whatever pledge possible that you are Sabine]

sed seu Sabine siue uerius Tiburs,
[but whether you are Sabine, or more accurately, belong to Tivoli,]

fui libenter in tua suburbana
[I once enjoyed being in your country estate outside the city,]

 malamque pectore expuli tussim,
[and I cast out a terrible cold from my chest,]

non inmerenti quam mihi meus uenter,
dum sumptuosas appeto, dedit, cenas.
[which my stomach gave to me, undeserving of course, while I was ravenous for sumptuous dinners.]

nam, Sestianus dum uolo esse conuiua,
[You see, although I wish to be dinner guest in Sestius' house,]

orationem in Antium petitorem
plenam ueneni et pestilentiae legi.
[I finished reading a prosecution speech against Antius, one full of venom and pestilence.]

hic me grauedo frigida et frequens tussis
quassauit usque, dum in tuum sinum fugi,
[At that point, a freezing cold and constant coughing shook me so much, while I fleed to your lap,]

et me recuraui otioque et urtica.
[and I healed myself from nettle and taking it easy.]

quare refectus maximas tibi grates
[So that's why, I, now recovered, give you the greatest thanks of all,]

 meum quod non es ulta peccatum.
[because you have not avenged yourself against my mistake.]

nec deprecor iam,
[I no longer excuse myself,]

si nefaria scripta
Sesti recepso,
[if I ever receive the nefarious writings of Sestius,]

 quin grauedinem et tussim
non mihi,
[not because of the cough and cold I had,]

sed ipsi Sestio ferat frigus,
[but because it might bear frost upon Sestius himself,]

qui tunc uocat me, cum malum librum legi.
[that is, the man who gives me an invitation, when I finished reading a perfidious book.]

Nepos, Eumenes

Cornelius Nepos
100-24 BCE
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Republican Era/Golden Age of Latin Literature)


[1] EUMENES Cardianus.
[Eumenes was from Cardia.]

 Huius si virtuti par data esset fortuna,
[If equal good fortune were added to his virtue,]

 non ille quidem maior exstitisset,
[our protagonist would in fact not only have stood out greater,]

 sed multo illustrior atque etiam honoratior,
[but more famous by far, and bestowed with higher positions,]

 quod magnos homines virtute metimur,
 non fortuna.
[because I judge great men by their qualities, not their good fortune.]

 2 Nam cum aetas eius incidisset in ea tempora,
[You see, while this man's life had come to a point in time,]

quibus Macedones florerent,
[when the Macedonians were enjoying success,]

 multum ei detraxit inter eos viventi,
[he took a great deal for himself, while he lived among them,]

 quod alienae erat civitatis,
[which he belonged to another city,]

neque aliud huic defuit quam generosa stirps.
[nor did he lack anything, except for the high-born background.]

3 Etsi ille domestico summo genere erat,
[Although our protagonist was born from the highest local stock you could find,]

 tamen Macedones eum sibi aliquando anteponi indigne ferebant,
[the Macedonians at times still acted as though it he wa given due undeservedly,]

 neque tamen non patiebantur.
[nor still could they endure it.]

 Vincebat enim omnes cura, vigilantia, patientia, calliditate et celeritate ingenii.
[You see, he surpassed everyone in his carefulness, watchfulness, patience, intelligence and quick wit.]

 4 Hic peradulescentulus ad amicitiam accessit Philippi, Amyntae filii,
[As a full grown youth, he became the friend of Philip, son of Amyntas,]

 brevique tempore in intimam pervenit familiaritatem.
[and in short time, he gained his innermost confidence.]

 5 Fulgebat enim iam in adulescentulo indoles virtutis.
[You see, the innate nature of his courage was already beginning to shine through in his young age.]

 Itaque eum habuit ad manum scribae loco,
[And so, he took himself to task in the post of a scribe,]

quod multo apud Graios honorificentius est quam apud Romanos.
[which was by far more illustrious in the Greek world than among the Romans.]

Namque apud nos re vera, sicut sunt, mercennarii scribae existimantur;
[And actually, if I can mention, scribes are esteemed to be mercenaries in our world--as they actually are;]

at apud illos e contrario nemo ad id officium admittitur nisi honesto loco, et fide et industria cognita,
[but, by contrast, among those Greeks, no one is alllowed to this official position unless it is by consequence of his noble station, and fealty, and prestigious work ethic,]

quod necesse est omnium consiliorum eum esse participem.
[since it is required that he be a party of all official business.]

Hunc locum tenuit amicitiae apud Philippum annos septem.
[He held this position, in Philip's good graces, for seven years.]

Illo interfecto eodem gradu fuit apud Alexandrum annos tredecim.
[When the latter was assassinated, he remained in the same rank under Alexander for thirteen years.]

Novissimo tempore praefuit etiam alterae equitum alae, quae Hetaerice appellabatur.
[He even excelled a little while later on the lesser wing of the cavalry, which was called the Hetairike.]

Utrique autem in consilio semper adfuit et omnium rerum habitus est particeps.
[And yet, he was present for all instances of counsel, and he was a willing and competent participant of all of their affairs.]

Alexandro Babylone mortuo cum regna singulis familiaribus dispertirentur
[When Alexander died in Babylon, his dominion was divided among his individual minions]

et summa rerum tradita esset tuenda eidem,
[and the most important affairs to be looked after were assigned to the very same man]

 cui Alexander moriens anulum suum dederat, Perdiccae -
[I mean, to whom Alexander, on his death throes, had given his signet ring, Perdiccas,]

ex quo omnes coniecerant eum regnum ei commisisse, 
[the man out of whom they all had agreed upon that he had commissioned his reign,]

quoad liberi eius in suam tutelam pervenissent:
[since his own legitimate children had come under his tutelage:]

aberat enim Crateros et Antipater, qui antecedere hunc videbantur;
[you see, Crateros and Antipater were not present, both of whom could seem to excel him;]

mortuus erat Hephaestio, quem unum Alexander, quod facile intellegi posset, plurimi fecerat -,
[Hephaestus was dead, the sole man whom Alexander had valued so much, which one could easily perceive--]

hoc tempore data est Eumeni Cappadocia sive potius dicta:
[at this time, Cappadocia, more or less, was given to Eumenes:]

 nam tum in hostium erat potestate.
[you see, at that time, it was still under in the hands of enemy forces.]

Hunc sibi Perdiccas adiunxerat magno studio,
[Perdiccas had previously drew him under his wing with great zeal,]

quod in homine iidem et industriam magnam videbat
[because he saw in this man excellent work ethic]

Nepos, Atticus

Cornelius Nepos
100-24 BCE
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Republican Era/Golden Age of Latin Literature)


[1] T. POMPONIUS ATTICUS, ab origine ultima stirpis Romanae generatus,
[Titus Pomponius Atticus, born from the very last vestiges of Roman stock,]

perpetuo a maioribus acceptam equestrem obtinuit dignitatem.
[obtain, for perpetuity, the dignified position of a knight that had been passed down from his ancestors.]

 2 Patre usus est diligente
et, ut tum erant tempora, diti in primisque studioso litterarum.
[He had the advantage of having a father who was diligent and, as were the times back then, first among leading men in his study of literature.]

Hic, prout ipse amabat litteras, omnibus doctrinis,
 quibus puerilis aetas impertiri debet, filium erudivit.
[This man, because he loved reading so very much for his own sake, taught his son all the skills to which young boyhood ought to be endowed.]

 3 Erat autem in puero praeter docilitatem ingenii summa suavitas oris atque vocis,
[Nevertheless, besides his good manners, the ease of talent in appearance and speech in the boy was insurpassable,]

ut non solum celeriter acciperet,
[such that he was not only able to learn quickly]

 quae tradebantur,
[the things that were taught to him,]

 sed etiam excellenter pronuntiaret.
[but also articulate them in excellent fashion.]

 Qua ex re in pueritia nobilis inter aequales ferebatur
[For this reason, he was brought up as a noble in his boyhood, among his rivals,]

 clariusque exsplendescebat,
[and he shined all the more brightly,]

 quam generosi condiscipuli animo aequo ferre possent.
[as his fellow high-born students could endure him with patience.]

 4 Itaque incitabat omnes studio suo.
[And so, he impressed everyone with his diligence.]

Quo in numero fuerunt L. Torquatus, C. Marius filius, M. Cicero;
[Including in this group, were Lucius Torquatus, Gaius Marius' son, and Marcus Cicero;]

quos consuetudine sua sic devinxit,
[that is, he so won over these men with demeanor,]

ut nemo his perpetuo fuerit carior.
[that no one was dearer to them, at any time.]

[2] Pater mature decessit.
[His father passed away before his time.]

 Ipse adulescentulus propter affinitatem P. Sulpicii, qui tribunus plebi interfectus est, non expers fuit illius periculi.
[As a youngster, he himself, on account of his family relation to Publius Sulpicius, who was killed during his tenure as tribune of the plebs, did not suffer the same danger.]

Namque Anicia, Pomponii consobrina, nupserat Servio, fratri Sulpicii.
[You see, Anicia, Pomponius' neice, had previously married Servius, who was Sulpicius' brother.]

de Voragine, The Virgin of Antioch

Jacobus de Voragine/Giacomo da Varazze  [de Voragine]
1230-1298 AD
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Medieval Era)


Virgo quaedam fuit Antiochiae, cuius historiam Ambrosius in secundo libro
 De Virginibus recitat in haec verba:
[There was once a maiden from Antioch, whose life  Ambrosius recites in the second book of his work "Maidens", in the following words:]

Antiochiae nuper virgo quaedam fuit,
[there was recently one particular maiden from Antioch,]

 fugitans publici visus ostentationem.
[who fled the showiness of the public's eey.]

 Sed quo magis vitabat oculos,
[But the more she fled people's eyes,]

 incendebat affectus eo amplius impudicos.
[the more she set aflame the lusts of unchaste men.]

Pulchritudo enim audita nec visa plus desideratur duobus stimulis cupiditatum amoris et cognitionis,
[You see, her beauty, which was heard of but never seen, was desired more by the twin goads of desire, passion and fulfilment,]

dum et nihil occurrit,
[so long as nothing happens,]

 quod minus placeat,
[the less pleasure is gain,]

 et plus putatur esse, quod placeat;
[and that which is the cause of pleasure, is actually esteemed more highly.]

 quod non index oculus explorat,
[that is, something which the eye cannot explore as our guide,]

 sed animus amator exoptat.
[but a lover still completely desires in his mind.]

Itaque sancta virgo, ne diutius aleretur potiendae spes cupiditatis,
[And so, the holy maiden, in order to prevent any hope or desire that she could be won over from being encouraged any longer,]

integritatem pudoris professa,
[after professing her chastity to be intact,]

sic restrinxit improborum facies,
[thusly rejected any malfactors who appeared in her sight,]

 ut iam non amaretur, sed proderetur.
[not because she could not be loved, but because she could not be betrayed.]

 Ecce persecutio.
[And thus you see the cause of her persecution.]

Puella fugere nescia, aetate pavida.
[The girl did not know to flee, in her frightened young age.]

Ne incideret in insidiatores pudoris,
[To prevent herself from falling to the hands of people who would rob her of her chastity,]

animam ad virtutem paravit,
[she prepared a courage mindset for herself,]

 tam religiosa, ut mortem non timeret,
[she was so religious that she did not fear death,]

 tam pudica, ut mortem exspectaret.
[and so chaste that she began to expect it.]

Venit enim coronae dies.
[So came the day of her wedding crown.]

 Maxima omnium exspectatio.
[The expectation of all was at its highest point.]

 Producitur puella duplex professa certamen:
[A girl professed that she was in a two-sided struggle:]

de Voragine, St. Nicolas

Jacobus de Voragine/Giacomo da Varazze  [de Voragine]
1230-1298 AD
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Medieval Era)


Nicolaus civis Paterae urbis ex divitibus et sanctis parentibus originem duxit.
[Nicolas was a citizen of the city of Patera, and he took his origins from rich and holy parents.]

Pater eius Epiphanes, mater vero Iohanna dicta est.
[His father was Epiphanes, and his mother in fact was named Joanna.]

 Quem cum primaevo iuventutis suae flore parentes genuissent,
[That is, when his parents had raised him since his very first years, among the elite youth,]

 deinceps caelibem vitam duxerunt.
[he led a life of celibacy from then on.]

Hic prima die, dum balnearetur, erectus stetit in pelvi.
[He, on his very first day, while he was being bathed, stood upright on his pelvis.]

 Insuper quarta et sexta feria tantum semel sugebat ubera.
[From there, he could suckle on the four- and six-teated wild animals, all at the same time.]

 Factus autem iuvenis aliorum devitans lascivias ecclesiarum potius terebat limina
[And yet, once he became a young man, he, avoiding the lustful advances of the others, preferred rather to tread the steps of churches,]

et, quidquid ibi de sacra scriptura intellegere poterat,
[and, whatever he could manage to understand in those places that concerned holy scripture,]

 memoriter retinebat.
[he retained by sheer memory.]

 Parentibus vero suis defunctis cogitare coepit,
[In fact, when his parents had died, he began to ponder about]

qualiter tantam divitiarum copiam non ad laudem humanam, sed ad Dei gloriam dispensaret.
[the way he could not dispense so great an amount of riches, not to garner the praise of people, but for the glory of God.]

Tunc quidam contermineus suus satis nobilis tres filias ob inopiam prostituere cogitur,
[At that time, his own neighbor was forced to prostitute his three daughters, although noble-born, because he lacked money,]

ut sic earum commercio aleretur.
[and so that he could be fed by the business these girls conducted.]

 Quod ubi sanctus comperit,
[When the holy man found this out,]

scelus abhorruit
[he was utterly shocked at such a wicked deed]

 et massam auri panno involutam in domum eius per fenestram nocte clam iecit
[and he threw a handful of gold, wrapped in cloth, though a window at his home secretly at night,]

 et clam recessit.
[and he went away in stealth.]

 Mane autem surgens homo massam auri reperit
[However, in the morning, the man, waking up, found the pile of gold]

 et Deo gratiam agens primogenitae nuptias celebravit.
[and thanking God, he celebrated by marrying off his first-born daughter.]

 Non multo post tempore Dei famulus simile peregit opus.
[Not much time passed when this servant of God performed a similar act.]

Quod rursus ille reperiens etiam laudes immensas prorumpens de cetero vigilare proposuit,
[Once again, our protagonist, finding this out, and completely avoiding the tremendous praise for looking for another man, he proposed]

 ut sciret, quis esset, qui suae inopiae subvenisset.
[that he should know who the man actually was, who had given aid to his indigence.]

 Post paucos etiam dies duplicatam auri massam in dornum proiecit,
[A few days later, he threw a bag of money, even twice as large, upon his step,]

 ad cuius sonitum ille excitatur
[and the other man was woken up by his rumblings around,]

et Nicolaum fugientem insequitur talique voce alloquitur:
[and following Nicolas as he fled away, he addressed him with the following words:]

"Siste gradum teque aspectui ne subtrahas meo."
["Hold your step, wait, don't steal away from my sight."]

 Sicque accurrens velocius Nicolaum hunc esse cognovit.
[And so, rushing upon him all the faster, he recognized this man as, Nicolas!]

 Mox humi prostratus osculari volebat pedes eius,
[Soon the man, bowing down to the ground, yearned to kiss the other's feet,]

 quod ille refutans ab eo exegit,
[which our protagonist refused, and instead he demanded from that fellow]

 ne eum, quamdiu viveret, publicaret.
[that he not out him in public, so long as he lived.]

Post hoc Myreae civitatis defuncto episcopo
[After that, when the bishop of the city of Myria died,]

convenerunt episcopi illi ecclesiae de episcopo provisuri.
[those famous bishops of church convened to see to the matter of who would appointed the next bishop.]

 Aderat autem inter eos quidam magnae auctoritatis episcopus,
[In any event, a certain bishop of great prestige stepped forward from among these men,]

 ad cuius electionem omnium sententia dependebat.
[on whose opinion the selection of all of their members depended.]

 Cum igitur cunctos ieiuniis et orationibus insistere monuisset,
[Therefore, after he had insisted that they all attend their fasts and prayers,]

 nocte illa vocem audivit dicentem sibi,
[on that very night, he heard a voice telling him,]

ut hora matutina fores ecclesiae observaret
[that in the morning hour, he should look upon the porch of the church]

et, quem primum ad ecclesiam, cuius etiam nomen esset Nicolaus, venire conspiceret,
[and whomever he should see come to the church, whose name was also Nicolas,]

 ipsum in episcopum consecraret.
[he should ordain that guy as the bishop.]

 Hoc ergo aliis revelans episcopis admonuit,
[And so he, revealing this to the other bishops, advised,]

 ut omnes orationibus insisterent
[that they all tend to their prayers]

 et ipse pro foribus excubaret.
[and that he himself would sit down in front of the porch steps.]

Mirum in modum in hora matutinali quasi a Deo missus ante omnes se agebat Nicolaus,
[In miraculous fashion, Nicolas, as though sent by God in the morning hour, got up before all the others,]

 quem apprehendens episcopus dixit ei:
[and him to whom the bishop, catching sight of him, said:]

 "Quod tibi nomen est!"
["What is your name?"]

Ille ut erat columbina simplicitate plenus, inclinato capite:
[Our protagonist, since he fully straightforward, like a dove, and with his head cocked up, ]

 "Nicolaus", inquit, "vestrae sanctitatis servus."
[he said, "Nicolas, the servant of your Holiness."]

Quem in ecclesiam ducentes licet plurimum renitentem in cathedram collocarunt.
[They, leading him into the church, set him upon the church throne, one that was beaming quite radiantly.]

Ipse autem eandem quam prius humiltatem et morum gravitatem in omnibus sectabatur,
[And yet, among all them in, he continued that very same humility and firmness of character that he had shown before,]

 in oratione pervigilabat,
[he was must dutiful in prayer,]

corpus macerabat,
[he kept his body lean,]

mulierum consortia fugiebat,
[he avoid the company of women,]

 humilis erat in omnes suspiciendo,
[he was humble in his assumptions of everyone,]

 efficax in loquendo,
[eloquent in speaking,]

de Voragine, St. Mary Magdalene

Jacobus de Voragine/Giacomo da Varazze  [de Voragine]
1230-1298 AD
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Medieval Era)


[...] Cum autem quadam die Maria Magdalena praedicaret, praedictus princeps dixit ei:
[...when, however, Mary Magdalene was speaking publicly one day, the lead man, after being addressed, said to her:]

"Putas posse defendere fidem, quam praedicas!"
["You think you can defend the faith that you speak about!"]

 Cui illa:
[She replied to him:]

"Equidem illam defendere praesto sum,
["Why indeed, I am ready to defend it,]

 utpote quotidianis miraculis et praedicatione magistri mei Petri, qui Romae praesidet, roboratam."
[and yes indeed, it is strengthened by miracles that happen everyday, and by the leadership of my instructor Peter, who presides in Rome."]

 Cui princeps cum coniuge dixit:
[The lead man, accompanied by his wife, said to her:]

"Ecce dictis tuis per omnia obtemperare parati sumus,
["Well look, we are prepared to follow your words in every respect,]

 si a Deo, quem praedicas, nobis filium impetrabis.
[if you can provide us the son that you predict."]

 - "Propter hoc"' inquit Magdalena, "non remanebit."
[Magdalene said, "She will not remain so on account of this."]

Tunc beata Maria pro ipsis Dominum exoravit,
[And then blessed Mary prayed to the Lord for their sakes,]

ut sibi filium concedere dignaretur.
[that he deem it worthy to show his son to them.]

 Cuius preces Dominus exaudivit
[The Lord heard her prayers]

et matrona illa concepit.
[and that matron conceived a child.]

 Tunc vir eius coepit velle proficisci ad Petrum,
[And then, her husband began to desire to go and see Peter,]

ut probaret, si, ut Magdalena de Christo praedicaverat,
[so that he could test, if, just as Magdalene had predicted about Christ,]

sic veritas se haberet.
[that it was really true.]

 Cui uxor dixit:
[His wife said to him:]

 "Quid est, domine!
["What's the matter, my husband!]

Putasne sine me proficisci!
[Are you thinking of leaving without me?]

[Far from it.]

Cicero, On Prophecy (De Divinatione)

Marcus Tullius Cicero [Cicero or Tully]
106-43 BC
*executed by 2nd Triumvirate (specifically Mark Antony)
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Republican Era/Golden Age of Latin Literature)


I 1 Vetus opinio est iam usque ab heroicis ducta temporibus,
[There is an old opinion, already taken now from the times of legendary heroes,]

eaque et populi Romani et omnium gentium firmata consensu,
[and one that has been approved by the consensus of both the Roman people, and the entire world,]

versari quandam inter homines divinationem, quam Graeci mantikh/n appellant,
[that a certain practice of communicating with the gods needs be conducted, one which the Greeks call μαντικειν]

id est praesensionem et scientiam rerum futurarum.
[to be more specific, the divining and knowledge of future events.]

Magnifica quaedam res et salutaris, si modo est ulla,
[A magnificent and beneficial thing it would be, if there is any way now,]

 quaque proxime ad deorum vim natura mortalis possit accedere.
[by which nature a mortal man can possible manage to approached, in any degree, the power of the gods.]

 Itaque ut alia nos melius multa quam Graeci, sic huic praestantissimae rei nomen nostri a divis, Graeci, ut Plato interpretatur, a furore duxerunt.
[And so, the Greeks, who know many things much better than ourselves, the Greeks, as Plato is interpreted to have said, took the name that we most readily assign to this kind of affair by the gods, from their word for "fury".]

 2 Gentem quidem nullam video
neque tam humanam atque doctam neque tam immanem tamque barbaram,
[I can find no race of people, neither so humane and wise, or so uncivilized and barbaric,]

 quae non significari futura et a quibusdam intellegi praedicique posse censeat.
[that they do not conclude that the future has no sense and cannot be understood or predicted by specific practices.]

 Principio Assyrii, ut ab ultimis auctoritatem repetam, propter planitiam magnitudinemque regionum quas incolebant,
[In the beginning, the Assyrians, as I shall reiterate their importance in my very last words, used to worship, account of the wideness and sizes of their domain,]

cum caelum ex omni parte patens atque apertum intuerentur, traiectiones motusque stellarum observitaverunt,
[they frequently gave significance to the paths and motions of the stars, since they could watch an open and clear sky from end to end,]

quibus notati, quid cuique significaretur memoriae prodiderunt.
[from which things they could know why or to whom something pertained, and record it for memory's sake.]

Thursday, May 19, 2011

Scriptores Historiae Augustae Probus

Augustan Histories [Historia Augusta]
Scriptores Historiae Augustae
117-284 AD
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Imperial Era)


I. 1 Certum est,
[It is certain,]

quod Sallustius Crispus quo<d>que Marcus Cato et Gellius historici sententiae modo in litteras rettulerunt,
[that Sallust Crispus and Marcus Cato, and Gellius only established something of a historical truth in their writing,]

omnes omnium virtutes tantas esse,
[that everyone's virtues were only as great]

qua<n>tas videri eas voluerint eorum ingenia,
[as the talents of these men wanted them to seem,]

qui unius cuius<que> facta descripserint.
[that is, those who wrote the deeds of each and every man down.]

 2 inde est quod Alexander Magnus Mac[h]edo, cum ad Achillis sepulchrum venisset, graviter ingemescens 'felicem te', inquit,
[Hence is the case when Alexander the Great of Macedon, when he had arrived at the tomb of Achilles, moaning in a grave tone, said, "Lucky you,"]

 'iuvenis, qui talem praeconem tuarum virtutum repperisti',
['my chap, since you found such a great crier for your feats of courage,']

 Homerum intellegi volens,
[Willingly, I've read Homer through,]

 qui Achillem tantum in virtutum studio fecit,
[but he only made Achilles as great by virtue of his heroic feats,]

quantum ipse valebat ingenio.
[by the same measure he himself prevailed by virtue of his genius.]

 3 Quorsum haec pertineant, mi Celsine, fortassis requiris.
[What the hell do these matters pertain to, you, my friend Celsinus, might by chance ask.]

Suetonius, Life of Pliny the Younger

Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus [Suetonius]
69-130 AD
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Imperial Era)


PLINIUS SECUNDUS Novocomensis equestribus militiis industrie functus procurationes quoque splendidissimas et continuas summa integritate administravit,
[Pliny the Second, a native of Novum Comum, after serving industriously in the military cavalry, also administered the most splendid and continuous government functions, with the highest degree of integrity,]

et tamen liberalibus studiis tantam operam dedit,
[and yet he devoted such a tremendous amount of effort to his liberal studies,]

 ut non temere quis plura in otio scripserit.
[that no one could easily be found to have written more in their leisure.]

Itaque bella omnia, quae unquam cum Germanis gesta sunt, XX voluminibus comprehendit,
[And so, he wrote compilations in 20 volumes on all the wars that were at any time waged in Germany,]

itemque "Naturalis Historiae" XXXVII libros absolvit.
[and at the same time, he wrote off the 37 books of Natural History.]

Periit clade Campaniae;
[He died during the catastrophe of Campania;]

 cum enim Misenensi classi praeesset
[you see, when he was commanding the fleet in Misenum]

et flagrante Vesubio ad explorandas propius causas liburnica pertendisset,
[and he had to aim his own boat towards the flaming Vesuvius, in order to investigate its cause from a nearer distance,]

 nec adversantibus ventis remeare posset,
[he could not manage to steer back against the headwinds,]

 vi pulveris ac favillae oppressus est,
[and he was overwhelmed by the sheer force of the dust and cinders,]

 vel ut quidam existimant a servo suo occisus,
[or rather, some judge that he was killed by his own slave,]

quem aestu deficiens ut necem sibi maturaret oraverat.
[whom he, suffering from the heat, had begged to speed his death.]

Wednesday, May 18, 2011

Roman Epitaph B 397

Remains of the Appian Way in Rome, near Quarto Miglio [photo: Wikipedia, Appian Way]

 B 397

Rapta sinu matris iacet hic miserabilis infans
[Here lies the young baby daughter taken from the arms of her mother,]

ante novem plenos lunae quam viveret orbes.
[before she could live to the full stages of the moon.]

hanc pater et mater maesti flevere iacentem
[Her grieving father and mother weep for her, who lies here,]

parvaque marmoreo clauserunt membra sepulchro.
[And they sealed her tiny limbs in this marble tomb.]

Suetonius, Life of Domitian

Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus [Suetonius]
69-130 AD
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Imperial Era)


I. Domitianus natus est VIIII. Kal. Novemb. patre consule designato inituroque mense insequenti honorem,
[Domitian was born on the 8th Kalends of November, when his father was designated consul, and was about to take his office in the following month,]

regione urbis sexta ad Malum Punicum,
[in the region's sixth region, in Malum Punicum,]

domo quam postea in templum gentis Flaviae convertit.
[in a house which he later converted into the Temple of the Flavian clan.]

Pubertatis ac primae adulescentiae tempus tanta inopia tantaque infamia gessisse fertur,
[Its said that the time of his young male life, and the first stages of adulthood, were spent in such great poverty, and wanton state of hunger,]

ut nullum argenteum vas in usu haberet;
[that he didn't even have a single single pot at his disposal;]

satisque constat Clodium Pollionem praetorium virum,
[and it's agreed that Clodius Pollio, a man of praetorian rank,]

 in quem est poema Neronis quod inscribitur Luscio,
[to whom Nero's poem is addressed, the one that's written by Luscius,]

 chirographum eius conversasse et
nonnumquam protulisse noctem sibi pollicentis;
[and had made him his personal secretary, and at various times, had spent the night with the man, who made various promises to him;]

nec defuerunt qui affirmarent, corruptum Domitianum et a Nerva successore mox suo.
[nor is there a lack of fellows who would declare that Domitian was also corrupted by Nerva, soon to be his own successor.]

Bello Vitelliano confugit in Capitolium cum patruo Sabino ac parte praesentium copiarum,
[During the war against Vitellius, he fled with his uncle Sabinus and a portion of the troops present there to the Capitol,]

sed irrumpentibus adversariis et ardente templo apud aedituum clam pernoctavit,
[but he secretly spent the night in at the temple assistant's home, when while the adversaries were breaking in and the temple burning,]

 ac mane Isiaci celatus habitu interque sacrificulos variae superstitionis,
[and in the morning, hidden in a custom of a foreigner, and among the sacrificial attendants of different superstitions,]

 cum se trans Tiberim ad condiscipuli sui matrem comite uno contulisset,
[when after he had stole himself across the Tiber to the mother of his fellow student, in accompaniment with a companion,]

ita latuit,
[so he hid,]

ut scrutantibus qui vestigia subsecuti erant,
[so that while there were those who were following her tracks among the bounty-hunters,]

deprehendi non potuerit.
[he still was not taken into custody.]

 Post victoriam demum progressus et Caesar consalutatus,
[After finally going forth after the victory, and he was hailed officially as Caesar,]

honorem praeturae urbanae consulari potestate suscepit titulo tenus
[he took upon himself the office of city praetor, more as a title than in respect to its official power]

(nam iuris dictionem ad collegam proximum transtulit);
[you see, he transferred the diction of the law to his next collegue]

 ceterum omnem vim dominationis tam licenter exercuit,
[and he exercised the farthest limits of his violent hegemony so unrestrainedly]

 ut iam tum qualis esset ostenderet.
[that already at that time, he began to show what kind of man he was.]

Ne exsequar singula,
[Let me know pass detail by detail,]

 contrectatis multorum uxoribus,
[when the wives of many men were acquisitioned]

Domitiam Longinam Aelio Lamiae nuptam etiam in matrimonium abduxit,
[he also officially married Domitia Longina, who had been bethrothed to Aelius Lamia,]

 atque uno die super XX. officia urbana aut peregrina distribuit,
[and in a single day, he he assigned over 20 city and overseas offices of government,]

 mirari se Vespasiano dictitante,
[when even Vespasian had to declare himself impressed,]

 quod successorem non et sibi mitteret.
[given that, at the time, he did not assign him as his successor.]

Juvenal, Satire II

Decimus Junius Juvenalis [Juvenal]
1st-2nd c. AD
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Imperial Era)


Vltra Sauromatas fugere hinc libet
[I want to escape from here to the lands beyond the Sarmatians,]

 et glacialem
[and the icy Ocean,]

quotiens aliquid de moribus audent
[every time they dare to say anything about our traditions]

qui Curios simulant et Bacchanalia uiuunt.
[that is, men who pretend to be the Curii, but live out Bacchanalias.]

indocti primum, quamquam plena omnia gypso
Chrysippi inuenias;
[First of all, they are dummies, although you might all kinds of things marked with Chrysippus' chalk;]

 nam perfectissimus horum,               5
[you see, he's the most accomplished of these kinds of fellows,]

si quis Aristotelen similem uel Pittacon emit
[if a guy buys Aristotle, or Pittacus,]

et iubet archet pluteum seruare Cleanthas
[and orders one to keep a Cleanthes intact on the shelf]
frontis nulla fides;
[There's no point believing a man's face;]

 quis enim non uicus abundat
tristibus obscenis?
[I mean, what street corner does overflow with pitiful obscenities?]

 castigas turpia, cum sis
inter Socraticos notissima fossa cinaedos?               10
[And can you criticize sick acts, when you're the most notorious ass-crack among those Socratic degenerates?]

Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Suetonius, Life of Vergil

Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus [Suetonius]
69-130 AD
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Imperial Era)


P. VERGILIUS MARO Mantuanus parentibus modicis fuit
[Publius Vergilius Maro was born to parents of middle means,]

ac praecipue patre, quem quidam opificem figulum, plures Magi cuiusdam viatoris initio mercennarium,
mox ob industriam generum tradiderunt,
[and notably from a father whom certain people said was a sculptor of clay, but most think he was, in the beginning, a mercenary hired by a road engineer named Magus, but soon became his son in law, out of sheer hard work]

egregieque substantiae silvis coemendis et apibus curandis auxisse reculam.
[and that he had grown an estate of considerable fortune from bee-farming and forestry.]

Natus est Gn. Pompeio Magno M. Licinio Crasso primum conss. Iduum Octobrium die in pago qui Andes dicitur
[He was born in the consul year of Gnaeus Pompey the Great and Marcus Licinius Crassus, on the 1st Ides of October, in the district called Andes,]

et abest a Mantua non procul.
[and he was not far from Mantua.]

Praegnas eo mater somniavit enixam se laureum ramum,
[His mother pregnant with him dreamed that she was holding on to a laurel branch,]

quem contactu terrae coaluisse
[which she had then planted down, touching the earth]

 et excrevisse ilico in speciem maturae arboris
[and all of sudden, the appearance of a full-grown tree sprung out]

 refertaeque variis pomis et floribus,
[one with an assortment of fruits and blossoms,]

ac sequenti luce cum marito rus propinquum petens ex itinere devertit
[and as the dawn following, she, searching the neighboring countryside at the side of her husband, turn off the normal path of their journey,]

 atque in subiecta fossa partu levata est.
[and raised herself to the ditch beneath her to deliver their baby.]

 Ferunt infantem ut sit editus neque vagisse
[They say he, as an infant, as soon as he came into the world, never cried once]

 et adeo miti vultu fuisse,
[and had such a calm demeanor,]

 ut haud dubiam spem prosperioris geniturae iam tum daret.
[that even at that time, he gave certain hope of his good fortune to come.]

 Et accessit aliud praesagium,
[And another omen happened,]

 siquidem virga populea more regionis in puerperiis eodem statim loco depacta ita brevi evaluit tempore,
[that indeed, by the custom of the region, a stick from a poplar tree, once it was plucked down into the ground from its very first years, it sprouted in so brief a period of time]

 ut multo ante satas populos adaequavisset,
[that it had by far equaled fully grown poplar trees,]

quae arbor Vergilii ex eo dicta atque etiam consecrata est summa gravidarum ac fetarum religione suscipientium ibi et solventium vota.
[which is now called Vergil's tree, ever since that point, and has even been consecrated by the most devout sacrifice of pregnant animals, and in that place, that receive and accomplish their prayers.]

Initia aetatis Cremonae egit usque ad virilem togam,
[He spent the beginning of his life in Cremona until he donned his manly toga,]

quam XV anno natali suo accepit iisdem illis consulibus iterum duobus,
[which he received on his fifteen birthday, on the consul of the very same men,]

quibus erat natus,
[in which he was born,]

 evenitque ut eo ipso die Lucretius poeta decederet.
[and it happened that the poet Lucretius died on that very same day.]

 Sed Vergilius a Cremona Mediolanum et inde paulo post transiit in urbem.
[But after that, Vergil moved from Cremona to Mediolanum, and shortly after that, to the big city.]

Corpore et statura fuit grandi,
[He was a man of great stature and girth,]

aquilo colore, facie rusticana, valetudine varia;
[with a parched hue, a yeoman's appearance, and uneasy health;]

nam plerumque a stomacho et a faucibus ac dolore capitis laborabat,
[you see, he struggled mostly from stomach and throat problems, as well as headaches,]

sanguinem etiam saepe reiecit.
[and often he even coughed up blood.]

Cibi vinique minimi;
[He tolerated only the smallest amounts of food and wine;]

libidinis in pueros pronioris,
[he tended to be more turned on to boys,]

quorum maxime dilexit Cebetem et Alexandrum,
[of whom he liked Cebetus and Alexander the most,]

 quem secunda "Bucolicorum" egloga Alexim appellat,
[whom he calls Alexis in the second eclogue of his Bucolics,]

 donatum sibi ab Asinio Pollione,
[after he was given to him by Asinius Pollio,]

utrumque non ineruditum, Cebetem vero et poetam.
[and both of these boys were quite educated, in fact, Cebetus was even a poet.]

Vulgatum est consuesse eum et cum Plotia Hieria.
[And it was publicly known that he had attached himself to him, and at Plotia Hieria's side.]

Monday, May 16, 2011

Claudian, Panegyric on the 6th Consulship of Emperor Honorius

Claudius Claudianus [Claudian]
4th-5th c. AD
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Late Imperial/Christian Era) 



Me quoque Musarum studium sub nocte silenti
Artibus adsuetis sollicitare solet.
[The passion of the Muses also accustoms me to worry beneath the silent night sky, even when my limbs have made themselves comfortable.]

Namque poli media stellantis in arce videbar
Ante pedes summi carmina ferre Iovis;
[You see, I imagine myself playing songs beneath the feet of the greatest god, Jove, right in the middle of the starry heaven's citadel;]

Vtque favet somnus, plaudebant numina dictis               15
Et circumfusi sacra corona chori.
[Such that when sleep comes to the aid, men esteem the powers of the gods with declarations and the sacred wreath of a gathered chorus of singers.]

Enceladus mihi carmen erat victusque Typhoeus:
[Enceladus and the defeated Typhon were subjects of my song:]

Hic subit Inarimen, hunc gravis Aetna domat.
[On this side, Inarimen collapses, on the other, heavy Etna overpowers him.]

Quam laetum post bella Iovem susceperat aether
Phlegraeae referens praemia militiae!               20
[What happily had the upper skies support Jove, after the wars, as it brought him the spoils of the Phlegraean army!]

Additur ecce fides nec me mea lusit imago,
[And look, loyalty is added, nor did my own image fool me,]

Inrita nec falsum somnia misit ebur.
[Nor did any false path of ivory send me illegitimate dreams.]

En princeps, en orbis apex aequatus Olympo!
[Behold, you prince, behold, summit of the world, equal to Olympus!]

En quales memini, turba verenda, deos
Fingere nil maius potuit sopor,
[Behold the types of gods--an awe-inspiring lot-no greater slumber could fashion,]

Suetonius, The Rhetors

Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus [Suetonius]
69-130 AD
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Imperial Era)


[1] Rhetorica quoque apud nos perinde atque grammatica fere recepta est,
[The art of speaking too was received by us, and to some extent, the study of grammar thereafter,]

paulo etiam difficilius,
[and this came with somewhat more difficulty,]

quippe quam constet nonnunquam etiam prohibitam exerceri.
[as, in fact, it happened that, at times, it was not possible to be employed.]

 Quod ne cui dubium sit vetus S. C. item censorium edictum subiiciam:
[Which, lest there be any old doubt about the senatorial decree, I will likewise mention the edict of the censors:]

C. Fannio Strabone M. Valerio Messala cons. M. Pomponius praetor senatum consuluit.
[In the consul years of Gaius Fannius Strabo and Marcus Valerius Messala, Marcus Pomponius the praetor convened the Senate.]

Quod verba facta sunt de philosophis et rhetoribus,
[Let's mark the words that were said about philosophers and orators,]

de ea re ita censuerunt,
[on which matter, people agreed about the following,]

ut N. Pomponius praetor animadiverteret
[when the praetor Naevius Pomponius paid heed,]

curaretque, ut si ei e re p. fideque sua videretur,
[and took care to see that if he could appear to serve the republic with his loyalty,]

 uti Romae ne essent.
[that is, to make sure that these kind of people were not present in Rome.]

 De eisdem interiecto tempore CN. Domitius Aenobarbus, L. Licinius Crassus censores ita edixerunt:
[In the interim, the censors Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Lucius Licinius Crassus so decreed about these very men:]

Renuntiatum est nobis,
["We have both officially announced,]

 esse homines qui novum genus disciplinae instituerunt,
[there are people who have instructed a new field of discipline,]

 ad quos inventus in ludum conveniat;
[to whom it befits to become a matter of mockery;]

eos sibi nomen imposuisse Latinos rhetoras;
[we've decreed to impose the title of Latin rhetors upon them;]


 Maiores nostri, quae liberos suos discere et quos in ludos itare vellent, instituerunt.
[Our forefathers instructed how they wanted their books to teach and be prepared for schools.]

 Haec nova, quae praeter consuetudinern ac morem maiorum fiunt,
[These new things, which went beyond the tradition and custom of the ancestors,]

neque placent neque recta videntur.
[neither became popular nor seemed to be appropriate.]

 Quapropter et iis qui eos ludos habent,
[And wherefore, for those men who possess these kinds of schools,]

 et iis qui eo venire consuerunt,
[and for those who are accustomed to frequent them,]

videtur faciundum
[it seems obligatory to make it]

ut ostenderemus nostram sententiam, nobis non placere.
[that I should reveal my opinion, that is, that I don't approve of them.]

Paulatim et ipsa utilis honestaque apparuit,
[And gradually, this appeared useful, and honest,]

multique eam et praesidii causa et gloriae appetiverunt.
[and many people sought this, in order to gain higher standing and glory.]

 Cicero ad praeturam usque etiam Graece declamitavit,
[Even Cicero spoke rhetorically, in Greek, during his office as praetor,]

 Latine vero senior quoque
[and in fact, as a older fellow, in Latin took]

et quidem cum consulibus Hirtio et Pansa,
[and indeed, in accompaniment with the consuls Hirtius and Pansa,]

 quos discipulos et grandis praetextatos vocabat.
[whom he used to call his students, and greatly distinguished.]

 CN. Pompeium quidam historici tradiderunt sub ipsum civile bellum,
[Certain historians say talk about Gnaeus Pompey, during the civil war itself,]

 quo facilius C. Curioni promptissimo iuveni, causam Caesaris defendenti, contradiceret,
[whereby he spoke against only of the most educated young men around, Gaius Curio, who was Caesar's defense lawyer,]

repetisse declamandi consnetudinem;
[and he had invoked his practice of speaking rhetorically;]

 M. Antonium, item Augustum ne Mutinensi quidem bello omisisse.
[in fact, in order, to not miss out on Mark Antony Antony, and Augustus too, during the war against Mutina.]

Nero Caesar primo imperii anno, publice quoque bis antea, declamavit.
[Nero Caesar, in the very first year of his reign as emperor, spoke as an orator, and also two years ago in the presence of the public.]

 Plerique autem oratorum etiam declamationes ediderunt.
[And yet, most of the orators also gave rhetorical presentations too.]

 Quare magno studio hominibus iniecto,
[Whereby, after a great passion fell upon people, ]

magna etiam professorum ac doctorum profluxit copia,
[a tremendous group of oratory teachers and instructors flooded forth too,]

adeoque floruit,
[and there practice flourished so very much]

 ut nonnulli ex infima fortuna in ordinem senatorium atque ad summos honores processerint.
[that some leapt from the worst lot in life all the way to the order of the Senate, as well as the greatest positions of power.]

Sed ratio docendi nec una omnibus, nec singulis eadero semper fuit,
[But the practice of teaching was not the same thing for all people, nor was it always called such for each and every individual,]

quando vario modo quisque discipulos exercuerunt.
[while each of them trained their students in a variety of ways.]

Nam et dicta praeclare per omnes figuras, per casus et apologos aliter atque aliter exponere, et narrationes cum breviter ac presse tum latius et uberius explicare consuerant;
[You see, they were accustomed to make speech distinguished through all kinds of rhetorical figures, to expound in one way or another through improvisation and defenses, and to lay out their anecdotes, both with brevity and gravity, and as widely and richly as possible;]

 interdum Graecorum scripta convertere,
[at other times, to translate the writings of Greeks,]

 ac illustres laudare vel vituperare;
[and to praise, or condemn, famous men;]

 quaedam etiam ad usum communis vitae instituta turn utilia et necessaria, tum perniciosa et supervacanea ostendere;
[also to demonstrate specific knowledge for the good of life in the community, as useful and necessary, and at other times, as pernicious and beyond useless;]