Monday, July 25, 2011

Suetonius, Life of Vespasian

Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus [Suetonius]
69-130 AD
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Imperial Era)


I. Rebellione trium principum et caede incertum diu et quasi vagum imperium suscepit
firmavitque tandem gens Flavia,
[After the insurgency of three emperors, and undetermined slaughter, at last the Flavian clan took under its wing the control of the government, which had for a long time been hazy,]

obscura illa quidem ac sine ullis maiorum imaginibus,
[that one being of quite obscure origin, and lacking any public statues of their ancestors,]

 sed tamen rei p. nequaquam paenitenda;
[and despite this, one did not suffer in vain during the Republic;]

 constet licet,
[so, let us agree]

 Domitianum cupiditatis ac saevitiae merito poenas luisse.
[that it had deservedly paid the price for Domitian's cupidity and cruelty.]

T. Flavius Petro, municeps Reatinus, bello civili Pompeianarum partium centurio an evocatus, profugit ex Pharsalica, acie domumque se contulit,
[Titus Flavius Petro, mayor of Reate, either a centurion on Pompey's side during the Civil War, or a lawyer, once carried his step home from the battlefield,]

ubi deinde venia et missione impetrata coactiones argentarias factitavit.
[when, after that, once he had been granted pardon and immunity, he made a living as a tax collector.]

Huius filium, cognomine Sabinus, expers militiae (etsi quidem eum primipilarem, nonnulli, cum adhuc ordiens duceret, sacramento solutum per causam valitudinis tradunt) publicum quadragesimae in Asia egit;
[He brought his son, whose name was Sabinus and was an experienced man of war --actually, some say that he was a soldier of first rank of spears, when he, a lieutenant, used to take the lead, and was discharged with a stipend on account of his failing health--he spent 40 years as a tax collector;]

manebantque imagines a civitatibus ei positae sub hoc titulo:
[they remained there, after they had been set up by the citizens, accompanied by this inscription:]

kalos telonesanti.
καλος τελονεσαντι
["A good business"]

 Postea faenus apud Helvetios exercuit
[After that, he practised his business among the Helvetians]

ibique diem obiit superstitibus uxore Vespasia Polla et duobus ex ea liberis,
[and there, he passed away, survived by his wife Vespasia Polla and two children from her,]

 quorum maior Sabinus ad praefecturam urbis,
 minor Vespasianus ad principatum usque processit.
[the older of whom was promoted to the mayorship of the city, and the young, Vespasian, almost to the head of the empire.]

Polla, Nursiae honesto genere orta, patrem habuit Vespasium Pollionem,
[Polla, who was born and raised from a noble lineage from Nursia, had a father named Vespasius Pollio,]

ter tribunum militum praefectumque castrorum,
[who was thrice a commander of the army and head of camp,]

 fratrem senatorem praetoriae dignitatis.
[while her brother was a senator with the office among the Praetorians.]

 Locus etiam ad sextum miliarium a Nursia Spoletium euntibus in monte summo appellatur Vespasiae,
[Also, a place around 6 miles from Nursia is called by travellers going to Spoleto, Vespasiae, at it very highest point,]

 ubi Vespasiorum complura monumenta exstant,
[where a great deal of statues of Vespasian still stand,]

 magnum indicium splendoris familiae et vetustatis.
[as a great token of his family's splendor and long standing.]

Non negaverim iactatum a quibusdam Petronis patrem e regione Transpadana fuisse mancipem operarum,
[I will not've denied that Petro's father, once he had been cast out from the region across the Po River valley by certain unnamed fellows, had once been an supervisor of works,]

quae ex Vmbria in Sabinos ad culturam agrorum quotannis commeare soleant;
[I mean, works that are accustomed every year to travel from Umbria to the land of the Sabines for the cultivation of their farms;]

subsedisse autem in oppido Reatino, uxore ibidem ducta.
[in any event, the man had still made his living in the town of Reate, and he took his wife there in the same place.]

Ipse ne vestigium quidem de hoc, quamvis satis curiose inquirerem, inveni.
[I myself can say I found no evidence regarding this, to tell you the truth, although I should beg the question all the more curiously.]

Vespasianus natus est in Sabinis ultra Reate vico modico,
[Vespasian was born in the lands of the Sabines, on the other side of the Reate, that very modest country town,]

cui nomen est Phalacrinae,
[to which belongs the name, Phalacrina,]

XV. kal. Dec. vesperi, Q. Sulpicio Camerino C. Poppaeo Sabino cons.,
[in the evening of the 15th Kalends of December, in the consul years of Quintus Sulpicius Camerinus and Gaius Poppaeus Sabinus,]

quinquennio ante quam Augustus excederet;
[on the 5th anniversary before which Augustus would pass away;]

educatus sub paterna avia Tertulla in praediis Cosanis.
[He was raised under his paternal aunt, Tertulla, under the customs of Cosa.]

Quare princeps quoque et locum incunabulorum assidue frequentavit,
[Thereafter, the emperor too eagerly visited the former place of his cribs and things,]

manente villa qualis fuerat olim,
[at the time when once there was still a country estate remaining,]

ne quid scilicet oculorum consuetudini deperiret;
[lest something naturally seem missing to assessment by one's eyes;]

et aviae memoriam tanto opere dilexit,
[and he so greatly liked the memory of his grandmother,]

ut sollemnibus ac festis diebus pocillo quoque eius argenteo potare perseveraverit.
[that he spent holidays and feast days too drinking from a silver cup of hers.]

Sumpta virili toga, latum clavum, quamquam fratre adepto, diu aversatus est,
[He donned his toga of manhood, and the wide senatorial stripe, but he was cast aside for a long time, although his brother was excelling,]

nec ut tandem appeteret compelli nisi a matre potuit.
[nor could he be compelled to finally engage himself, except by his mother.]

Ea demum extudit magis convicio quam precibus vel auctoritate,
[In the end, she pushed him more by her strict punishment than by her entreaties and authority,]

dum eum identidem per contumeliam anteambulonem fratris appellat.
[and at the same time, she, out of spite, called him a "step-down from his brother".]

Tribunatum in Thracia meruit;
[He gained a position as tribune in Thrace;]

quaestor Cretam et Cyrenas provinciam sorte cepit;
[as quaestor, he received Crete and the province of Cyrene by lot;]

aedilitatis ac mox praeturae candidatus,
[and as soon as he stood as a candidate for an aedileship and then praetorship,]

illam non sine repulsa sectoque vix adeptus est loco,
[he obtained that first office, not without first refusing it, and giving up his position,]

hanc prima statim petitione et in primis;
[and obtaining the second one by an initial request;]

praetor infensum senatui Gaium ne quo non genere demeretur,
[as praetor, so that he would seem to offend Gaius, a man spiteful to the senate class, in any sort or fashion,]

ludos extraordinarios pro victoria eius Germanica depoposcit,
[he demanded for extraordinary gladiatorial shows in honor of his victories in Germany,]

poenaeque coniuratorum addendum censuit
[and he voted for additional penalties for conspirators]

ut insepulti proicerentur.
[in that they would be left to rot outside unburied.]

Egit et gratias ei apud amplissimum ordinem,
[And he gave thanks to this man to the utmost degree]

quod se honore cenae dignatus esset.
[because he had deemed him deserving of a banquet's honor.]

Inter haec Flaviam Domitillam duxit uxorem,
[As these were going on, he took a wife, Flavia Domitilla,]

Statilii Capellae equitis R. Sabratensis ex Africa delicatam olim Latinaeque condicionis,
[the choice daughter from Sabratensia in Africa of a Roman knight Statilius Capella who once had the status of being a Latin citizen,]

sed mox ingenuam et civem Rom. reciperatorio iudicio pronuntiatam,
[but over time was pronounced as native born Roman by the judge's favor,]

patre asserente Flavio Liberale Ferenti genito nec quicquam amplius quam quaestorio scriba.
[with her father wedding her to a family member, Flavius Liberalis Ferentius, although this man had achieved no higher ranking than a quaestor's secretary.]

Ex hac liberos tulit Titum et Domitianum et Domitillam.
[From this point, she born free-born children, Titus, Domitian, and Domitilla.]

Vxori ac filiae superstes fuit,
[He survived the death's of his wife and daughter,]

atque utramque adhuc privatus amisit. 
[and he lost both of them at the time when he was not on duty.]

Post uxoris excessum Caenidem, Antoniae libertam et a manu, dilectam quondam sibi revocavit in contubernium,
[After the passing of his wife, he invited Caenis into his private life, a women freed from the Antonia's possession, and one of his sweethearts,]

habuitque etiam imperator paene iustae uxoris loco.
[and even as emperor, he often treated her in a position similar to a wife.]

IV. Claudio principe Narcissi gratia legatus legionis in Germaniam missus est;
[Under the emperor Claudius, he was sent to Germany as the commander of a legion, as a favor to Narcissus;]

inde in Britanniam translatus tricies cum hoste conflixit.
[soon after he was transferred to Britain, he crossed swords with the enemy.]

Duas validissimas gentes superque viginti oppida et insulam Vectem Britanniae proximan in dicionem redegit,
[He subjugated  two of the sturdiest nations of people there, and over twenty towns, and Vectis, an island near Britain,]

partim Auli Plautii legati consularis, partim Claudi ipsius ductu.
[partly under the lead of the consular legate, Aulus Plautius, and partly under Claudius himself.]

Quare triumphalia ornamenta et in brevi spatio duplex sacerdotium accepit,
[For that, he received the honor of wearing triumphal garb and two offices among the priests in a short span of time,]

praeterea consulatum, quem gessit per duos novissimos anni menses.
[and a position as consul after that, which he performed for the last two months of the next year.]

 Medium tempus ad proconsulatum usque in otio secessuque egit,
[He spent the interim of that time as a pro-consul, until his break period and termination,]

Agrippinam timens potentem adhuc apud filium et defuncti quoque Narcissi amici perosam.
[as he began to fear Agrippina, already influential with her son and also a rival of his now-deceased patron Narcissus.]

Aurelius Victor, Illustrious Romans

Sextus Aurelius Victor [Aurelius Victor]
320-390 AD
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Late Imperial/Christian Era)

1 1 Proca, rex Albanorum, Amulium et Numitorem filios habuit,
[Proca, king of the Albans, had sons, Amulius and Numitor,]

 quibus regnum annuis vicibus habendum reliquit
[to whom he assigned his kingdom to possess in alternating years]

 [ut alternia imperarent].
[so that they could each share power.]

 Sed Amulius fratri imperium non dedit
[But Amulius did not cede control of power to his brother,]

 et ut eum subole privaret,
[and so that he could deprive him of descendunts,]

filiam eius, Rheam Silviam, Vestae sacerdotem praefecit,
[he appointed his daughter Rhea Silvia to be priestess of Vesta,]

 ut virginitate perpetua teneretur,
[so that she could be held in custody in permanent virginity,]

quae a Marte compressa Remum et Romulum edidit.
[although she, once she was seduced by Mars, gave birth to Romulus and Remus.]

2 Amulius ipsam in vincula compegit,
[Amulius locked her up in chains,]

 parvulos in Tiberim abiecit,
[and he threw the little boys into the Tiber]

quos aqua in sicco reliquit.
[but the water left them on dry land.]

 3 Ad vagitum lupa accurrit eosque uberibus suis aluit.
[A she-wolf ran up to their crying and breast-fed them with her teats.]

Mox Fauatulus pastor collectos Accae Laurentiae coniugi educandos dedit.
[Soon a shepherd<Faustulus> gathered him up, and gave them over to his wife Laurentia to raise them.]

4 Qui postea Amulio interfecto Numitori avo regnum restituerunt;
[Afterwards, they killed Amulius and restored the kingdom to Numitor;]

 ipsi pastoribus adunatis civitatem condiderunt,
[they too founded a city with the shepherds they collected,]

 quam Romulus augurio victor,
quod ipse XII, Remus VI vultures viderat, Romam vocavit;
which Romulus victoriously called Rome after his augury, that is, when he saw 12 vultures and Remus only 6.]

 et ut eam prius legibus muniret quam moenibus,
[and so that he could fortify it with laws before walls,]

 edixit, ne quis vallum transiliret;
[he declared that nobody would be allowed to cross his wall;]

 quod Remus irridena transilivit
[but Remus, in jest, jumped over it,]

et a Celere centurione rastro fertur occisus.
[and it is said that he was killed with a rake by a centurion named Celer.]

2 1 Romulus asylum convenis patefecit
[Romulus opened an safe haven for travellers]

 et magno exercitu facto,
[and after he organized a large army,]

 cum videret coniugia deesse,
[as soon as he realized that he lacked wives,]

 per legatos a finitimis civitatibus petiit.
[he made requests from the neighboring cities by sending ambassadors.]

 2 Quibus negatis ludos Consualia simulavit,
[But when these are turned down, he pretended to hold festival games in honor of the Consualia,]

 ad quos cum utriusque sexus multitudo venisset,
[at which a crowd of people, both men and women, had come,]

 dato suis signo virgines raptae sunt.
[and after he gave the signal to his men, their maidens were carried off.]

 Ex quibus cum una pulcherrima cum magna omnium admiratione duceretur,
[Then, out of these women, the one, most beautiful woman was being sought with great bewilderment of all,

 Talassio eam duci responsum est.
[the call was for her to be given to Talassius.]

 3 Quae nuptiae quia feliciter cesserant,
[Because this ceremony turned out happily,]

institutum est, ut in omnibus nuptiis Talassii nomen iteretur.
[it became custom that Talassius' name be repeated at all wedding ceremonies.]

 Cum feminas finitimorum Romani vi rapuissent,
[Since the Romans seized the women of their neighbors by force,]

 primi Caeninenses contra eos bellum sumpserunt.
[the first to fight a war against them were from Caene.]

Adversus quos Romulus processit
[Romulus faced these men head on]

et exercitum eorum ac ducem Acronem singulari proelio devicit.
[and he defeated their army and general, Acro, in a single battle.]

 4 Spolia opima Iovi Feretrio in Capitolio consecravit.
[He dedicated the rich plunder to Jove the Assailant, on the Capitol.]

 Sabini ob raptas bellum adversus Romanos sumpserunt.
[The Sabines waged war against the Romans to regain their stolen women.]

 5 Et cum Romae appropinquarent,
[And when they approached Rome,]

Tarpeiam virginem nacti,
[they seized a maiden named Tarpeia,]

 quae aquae causa sacrorum hauriendae descenderat,
[who had came out in order to draw water for holy ceremony,]

 ei T. Tatius optionem muneris dedit,
[and Titus Tatius gave her the offer of reward,]

si exercitum suum in arcem perduxisset.
[if she led their army all the way to the citadel.]

6 Illa petiit, quod illi in sinistris manibus gerebant,
[She asked for things that they were wearing upon their left arms,]]

videlicet anulos et armillas;
[meaning their rings and arm bands;]

quibus dolose repromissis Sabinos in arcem perduxit,
[but these things were paid in grievous fashion after she led the Sabines all the way to the citadel,]

 ubi Tatius scutis eam obrui praecepit;
[where Tatius ordered that she be pummelled by their shields;]

 nam et ea in laevis habuerant.
[you see, they had also been holding these things in their left arms as well.]

 7 Romulus adversus Tatium qui montem Tarpeium tenebat,
[Romulus, who was holding the Tarpeian Mount against Tatius,]

 processit et in eo loco,
[sallied out in that very place]

ubi nunc forum Romanum est
[where the Roman Forum now lies]

, pugnam conseruit:
[and he began the battle:]

 ibi Hostus Hostilius fortissime dimicans cecidit,
[there, Hostus Hostilius, after fighting as bravely as he could manage, died,]

 cuius interitu consternati Romani fugere coeperunt
[upon whose fall the Romans, now in dire straits, began flee,]

. 8 Tunc Romulus Iovi Statori aedem vovit,
[Then and there, Romulus promised a temple to Jove the Stayor,]

 et exercitus seu forte seu divinitus restitit.
[and he regained his forces, either by his courage or by divine will.]

 9 Tunc raptae in medium processerunt
[Then and there, the kidnapped woman sallied forth into the very center]

 et hinc patres inde coniuges deprecatae pacem conciliarunt.
[and they, appealing to their fathers, on one side, and their husbands on the other, gained the peace.]

 10 Romulus foedus percussit
[Romulus hammered out a treaty]

 et Sabinos in urbem recepit,
[and he welcomed the Sabines into his city,]

 populum a Curibus, oppido Sabinorum, Quirites vocavit.
[he calls them, being a people from Cures, the city of the Sabines, Quirites.]

 Centum senatores a pietate patres appellavit.
[He called his 100 senators "fathers" out of their piety.]

11 Tres equitum centurias instituit,
[He established three centuries of knights,]

 quas suo nomine Ramnes, a Tito Tatio Tatienses, a luci communione Luceres appellavit.
[which he called after his own name, Ramnes, Tatienes, after Titus Tatius, and Luceres by the light of their sacred hearth.]

 12 Plebem in triginta curias distribuit
[He divided the common folk between 30 curiae]

 easque raptarum nominibus appellavit.
[and he named these after the stolen Sabine women.]

 13 Cum ad Caprae paludem exercitum lustraret,
[When he marched his army to the swampland of Caprae,]

nusquam comparuit;
[he never stopped.]

unde inter patres et populum seditione orta Iulius Proculus, vir nobilis, in contionem processit
[from there, Julius Proculus, a noble-born man, rising among the senators and the people, by using sedition, campaigned in election]

et iureiurando firmavit Romulum a se in colle Quirinali visum augustiore forma,
[and, after making the necessary oath under law, he claimed that Romulus had appeared to him upon the Quirinal Hill in a more divine form,]

cum ad deos abiret;
[before he began to make his journey away to the gods;]

eundemque praecipere,
[and he said that he dropped down,]

ut seditionibus abstinerent, virtutem colerent;
[so that they could stay off from treason, and cherish his courageous deeds;]

futurum, ut omnium gentium domini exsisterent.
[and predicted that they would stand out as the masters of all nations.]

Huius auctoritati creditum est.
[They gave credence to this man's authority.]

Aedes in colle Quirinali Romulo constituta, ipse pro deo cultus et Quirinus est appellatus.
[A temple was built to Romulus on the Quirinal hill, and the hill was renamed the Quirinus in honor of the god.]

Post consecrationem Romuli, cum diu interregnum esset et seditiones orirentur, Numa Pompilius, Pomponii filius, Curibus, oppido Sabinorum, accitus,
[After Romulus' consecration, when there was a long intermission between kings, and seditions began to arise, Numa Pompilius, the son of Pomponius, was born in Cures, a town of Sabines,]

cum addicentibus avibus Romam venisset, ut populum ferum religione molliret,
[and when he had come to Rome, inspired by the predictions of his forefathers that he could sooften a ferocious people with religion,]

sacra plurima instituit.
[he set up a great many sacred rites.]

Aedem Vestae fecit,
[He constructed the Temple of Vesta,]

virgines Vestales legit, flamines tres, Dialem Martialem Quirinalem, Salios, Martia sacerdotes, quorum primus praesul vocatur, XII instituit,
[he chose the Vestal Virgins, three flamen priest, the chief priest for Mars Quirinalis, and he established twelve priests for Mars, the first of whom was called the Praesul,]

pontificem maximum creavit,
[he created the position of Pontifex Maximus,]

portas Iano gemino aedificavit.
[and he built the gates of the twin-headed Janus.]

Annum in XII menses distribuit additis Ianuario et Februario.
[He divided the year into twelve months after adding January and February.]

Leges quoque plures et utiles tulit,
[He also passed a great deal of useful laws,]

omnia quae gerebat, iussu Egeriae nymphae, uxoris suae, se facere simulans.
[all things which, when he executed, he pretended that he was acting under the instruction of his wife, a nymph named Egeria.]

Ob hanc tantam iustitiam bellum ei nemo intulit.
[Because of his just standing, so highly reputed, no one waged war against him.]

Morbo solutus in Ianiculo sepultus est,
[After he succumbed to an illness, he was buried in the Janiculum,]

ubi post annos arcula cum libris a Terentio quodam exarata;
[where, over the years, his tomb, along with his books, were dug by a man named Terentius;]

qui libri, quia leves quasdam sacrorum causas continebant, ex auctoritate patrum cremati sunt.
[these books were burned on the authority of the Senate, because they contained certain peculiar explanations for our sacred rituals.]

Tullus Hostilius, quia bonam operam adversum Sabinos navaverat, rex creatus bellum Albanis indixit,
[Tullus Hostilius, after he was appointed king, declared war on the Albans, because he had made much progress against the Sabines,]

quod trigeminorum certatione finivit.
[and this war turned into a three-way struggle.]

Albam propter perfidiam ducis Mettii Fufetii diruit,
[He managed to sack Alba, thanks to the devious trick of his general, Mettius Fufetius,]

Albanos Romam transire iussit.
[and he ordered the Albans to emigrate to Rome.]

Curiam Hostiliam constituit.
[He constructed the Curia Hostilia.]

Montem Coelium urbi addidit.
[He added the Caelian Hill to the city.]

Et dum Numam Pompilium sacrificiis imitatur,
[And although he followed Numa Pompilius's rituals in sacrifices,]

Elicio litare non potuit, fulmine ictus cum regia conflagiavit.
[he could not give homage to Elicius, since he set fire to the royal palace after being struck by a lightning bolt.]

Cum inter Romanos et Albanos bellum fuisset exortum,
[As soon as war had arisen between the Romans and Albans,]

ducibus Hostilio et Fufetio placuit rem paucorum certamine finire.
[it pleased the commanders Hostilius and Fufetius to finish the affair using a contest of only a few men.]

Erant apud Romanos trigemini Horatii,
[Living among the Romans, there were the triplets, the Horatii brothers,]

tres apud Albanos Curiatii;
[and among the Albans, three brothers known as the Curiatii;]

quibus foedere icto concurrentibus statim duo Romanorum ceciderunt,
[as soon as the bout started and they rushed upon each other, they managed to kill two of the Roman brothers immediately,]

tres Albanorum vulnerati.
[although all three of the Alban ones were now wounded.]

Unus Horatius quamvis integer,
[Only one Horatius was alive and well, however,]

quia tribus impar erat,
[and because he could be no match against three men,]

fugam simulavit
[he pretended to flee]

et singulos per intervalla, ut vulnerum dolor patiebatur, inaequentes interfecit.
[and he slayed each one of them, no match in man-to-man combat, at individual stages, so that each would have to suffered the grief of their wounds the longer,]

Et cum spoliis onustus rediret,
[And when he returned, laden with the spoils of victory,]

sororem obviam habuit,
[he happened to encounter his sister,]

quae viso paludamento sponsi sui, qui unus ex Curiatiis erat, flere coepit.
[who, after seeing the bloody slaughter of her husband, who was one of the Curatii brothers, began to weep.]

Frater eam occidit.
[Her brother killed her.]

Qua re apud duumviros condemnatus ad populum provocavit;
[For that act, after he was condemned to death in court of the duumviri, he appealed to the people;]

ubi patris lacrimis condonatus ab eo expiandi gratia sub tigillum missus;
[whereby, saved by the tears of his father, he was sent as a ritual to expiate himself to walk under a wooden plank;]

quod nunc quoque viae superpositum Sororium appellatur.
[and that plank, now placed upon the road, is called the Sister's Board.]

Mettius Fufetius, dux Albanorum, cum se invidiosum apud cives videret,
[Mettius Fufetius, the commander of the Albans, when he saw that he was growing unpopular among his citizens,]

quod bellum sola trigeminorum certatione finisset,
[since the war had finished only after a three-year period,]

ut rem corrigeret, Veientes et Fidenates adversum Romanos incitavit.
[so that he could rectify the situation, he provoked the cities of Veii and Fidenae against the Romans.]

 Ipse ab Tullo in auxilium arcessitus aciem in collem subduxit, ut fortunam sequeretur.
[After being summoned by Tullus as back-up, he himself fled from the battle line down the hill, hoping that fortune would follow.]

Qua re Tullus intellecta magna voce ait suo illud iussu Mettium facere.
[For that, Tullus claimed, in a loud and self-conscience voice, that Mettius did that on his command.]

Qua re hostes territi et victi sunt.
[For that reason, his enemies grew terrified and were defeated.]

Postera die Mettius cum ad gratulandum Tullo venisset,
[On the following day, when Mettius had come to congratulate Tullus,]

iussu ipsius quadrigis religatus et in diversa distractus est.
[on order, he was tied down by all four limbs to his four-horse chariot, and was torn to pieces in different directions.]

Ancus Marcius, Numae Pompilii ex filia nepos, aequitate et religione avo similis, Latinos bello domuit.
[Ancus Marcius, the grandson of Numa Pompilius on his daughter's side, and similar in his sense of moderation and religious piety, conquered the Latins in war.]

 Murcium et Ianiculum montes urbi addidit,
 [He added the Murcium and Janiculum as hills to the city,]

nova moenia oppido circumdedit.
[and he built new walls around the town.]

Silvas ad usum navium publicavit.
[He designated the forests for the construction of ships.]

Salinarum vectigal instituit.
[He established the tax of the Salinares.]

Carcerem primus aedificavit.
[He was the first to build a jail.]

Ostiam coloniam maritimis commeatibus opportunam in ostio Tiberis deduxit.
[He founded the colony of Ostia with maritime seafarers, as it was in a prime location on the port harbor of the Tiber.]

Ius fetiale, quo legati ad res repetundas uterentur, ab Aequiculis transtulit,
[He introduced Fetial Law from the Aequiculi, which men in command used for cases of corruption,]

quod primus fertur Rhesus excogitasse.
[although Rhesus is said to have been the first to think the idea up.]

His rebus confectis intra paucos dies immatura morte praereptus non potuit praestare qualem promiserat regem.
[When he had finished these accomplishments, he did not manage to designate whom he had selected to be king, as he was stolen away only a few days later by an untimely death.]

Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, Demarati Corinthii filius, eius, qui Cypseli tyrannidem fugiens in Etruriam commigravit.
[Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, the son of a Corinthian man, Demaratos, who was fleeing the tyranny of Cypselos, moved to Etruria.]

Ipse Lucumo dictus, urbe Tarquiniis profectus Romam petiit.
[His original name was Lucumo; soon as he set out from the city of Tarquinii, he headed for Rome.]

Petrarch, Letter to Cicero

Francesco Petrarch [Petrarch]
July 20, 1304 – July 19, 1374
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Renaissance Era)


Si te superior offendit epistola
[If the letter above causes any offense to you]

(verum enim, ut ipse soles dicere, quod ait familiaris tuus in Andria:
[you see, to be honest, as you are accustomed to say what your own relative declares in the "Andria":]

 "Obsequium amicos, veritas odium parit"),
["Obsequiousness gets you friends, while the truth gets you despise."]

accipe quod offensum animum ex parte mulceat,
[receive whatever might soothe a mind offended for no good reason,]

 nec semper odiosa sit veritas;
[nor let truth ever be odious;]

 quoniam veris reprehensionibus irascimur,
[since I grow angry at true critiques,]

veris laudibus delectamur.
[I find pleasure in true praise.]

 Tu quidem, Cicero, quod pace tua dixerim,
[Indeed, Cicero, it is you, since I've spoken in a peace like yours,]

ut homo vixisti,
[as you once lived like a man,]

ut orator dixisti,
[as you once spoke like an orator,]

 ut philosophus scripsisti.
[as you once wrote like a philosopher.]

 Vitam ego tuam carpsi,
[It is I who once seized your biography,]

 non ingenium aut linguam, ut qui illud mirer, hanc stupeam.
[let me not be amazed by your talent or linguistic talent, as I'm the kind of person to be impressed by that kind of thing.]

 Neque tamen in vita tua quidquam praeter constantiam requiro,
[And yet, I don't seek anything beyond consistency in your biography,]

et professioni philosophicae debitum quietis studium,
[and the eagerness for peace and quiet that is owed to the profession of philosophy,]

 et a civilibus bellis fugam.
[and an escape from civil wars.]

 extincta libertate ac sepulta iam et complorata Republica.
[Then liberty was put out and already dead and buried, and the Republic was bemoaned.]

 Vide ut aliter tecum ago ac tu cum Epicuro multis in locis,
[See that I act others in your accompaniment, and you, for your sake, alongside Epicurus  in various places,]

sed expressius in libro De Finibus agebas.
[but you acted more expressly in your book, "On Boundaries."]

Eius enim ubilibet vitam probas,
[You see, every aspect of his life you approve,]

 rides ingenium.
[you mock his ingenuity.]

 Ego nihil in te rideo,
[But I don't mock you in any way,]

vitae tamen compatior,
[and yet, I your life,]

ut dixi, ingenio gratulor eloquiove.
[as I said, I commend your intelligence and eloquence.]

 O Romani eloquii summe parens,
[O highest father of Roman eloquence,]

 nec solus ego, sed omnes tibi gratias agimus,
[not only I, but all people, thank you,]

 quicumque Latinae linguae floribus ornamur;
[I mean any of us who are adorned with the flowers of the Latin language,]

 tuis enim prata de fontibus irrigamus,
[you see, we water our meadows from your fountains,]

tuo ductu directos, tuis suffragiis adiutos.
[we are men directed by your leadership and aided by your guidance.]

 tuo nos lumine illustratos ingenue confitemur:
[by your light, we admit we have been illuminated by your genius:]

 tuis denique, ut ita dicam, auspiciis ad hanc, quantulacumque est,
[finally, as I just said, by so ever little a degree it is, for this purpose and by your auspices,]

 scribendi facultatem ac propositum pervenisse.
[it is possible to have reached this ability and purpose to write.]

Accessit et alter poeticae viae dux;
[And the another general has arrived at the poetry's road;]

 ita enim necessitas poscebat.
[so you see, necessity demands so.]

Plautus, Cistellaria

Titus Maccius Plautus {Plautus}
254-185 BC
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Republican Era)


PERSONAE [Characters]

SELENIVM MERETRIX [Selenium the courtesan]
GYMNASIVM MERETRIX [Gymnasium the courtesan]
LENA [The she-pimp]
AVXILIVM DEVS [Aulixium the god]
ALCESIMARCHVS ADVLESCENS [Alcesimarchus the young man]
SERVVS [The slave]
SENEX [the old man]
LAMPADIO SERVVS [Lampadio the slave]
MELAENIS LENA [Melaenis the she-pimp]
PHANOSTRATA MATRONA [Phanostrata the matron]
HALISCA ANCILLA [Halisca the slave woman]
DEMIPHO SENEX [Demipho the old man]


Comprimit adulescens Lemnius Sicyoniam,
[The young man Lemnius beds Sicyonia,]

Is redit in patriam, et gnatam generat nuptiis.
[and he returns to his native country and fathers a baby girl from his lawful wedded wife.]

Sicyonia aeque parit puellam.
[Sicyonia likewise begets a girl.]

hanc servolus
Tollit atque exponit,
[A young slave boy raises her, then exposes her]

 et ex insidiis aucupat.
[and relies on these drastic tricks.]

Eam sublatam meretrix alli detulit.
[A courtesan adopts and brings her down to raise her.]

Lemno post rediens ducit quam compresserat
[After returning from Lemnos, he leads back the same woman he had wedded,]

Lemnique natam spondet adulescentulo
Amore capto illius proiecticiae.
[and he betrothes his daugther to a young man from Lemnos, who's been seized by love for that castaway girl I mentioned.]

Requirens servos reperit quam proiecerat.
[The slave, after make an inquiry, discovers the girl he had beforehand cast away.]

Itaque lege et rite civem cognitam
Alcesimarchus, ut erat nactus, possidet.
[And so, Alcesimarchus, gains possession of her, now a recognized citizen,  by rights of law and custom, just as he had gained her.]

ACTVS 1 - Act I 

SELENIVM Cum ego antehac te amavi et mi amicam esse crevi,
mea Gymnasium, et matrem tuam, tum id mihi hodie
aperuistis, tu atque haec:
[As I did so love you (and your mother), even before this moment, and I made you my girlfriend, my dear Gymnasion, only then have you revealed this thing to me today, I mean you and her:]

soror si mea esses,
[if you were my sister,]

qui magis potueritis mihi honorem ire habitum,
[who more will've managed to return my honor that I once held,]

nescio, nisi, ut meus est animus, fieri non posse arbitror;
[I know not, unless--so is my own prediction--I think it not possible to happen;]

ita omnibus relictis rebus mihi frequentem operam dedistis.
[and so, you have given me relief, at the point when all my affairs have been forsaken.]

eo ego vos amo et eo a me magnam iniistis gratiam.
[For this, I do indeed love you both, and, for this, you have brought this wonderful gift by my side.]

GYMNASIVM Pol isto quidem nos pretio facile est frequentare
tibi utilisque habere:
[Well golly, really, visiting us is worth this manageable price, and having us is a useful thing to you:]

ita in prandio nos lepide ac nitide        10
accepisti apud te,
[and so, you welcomed us on a splendid and sunny lunch hour, at your place,]

ut semper meminerimus.
[as we shall always recall.]

SEL. Lubenti edepol animo factum et fiet a me,
[Yes, by god, and may I have done so when my mind was willing,]

quae vos arbitrabor velle, ea ut expetessam.
[I mean, the very things I think you both wanted were what I had long sought for.]

LENA  Quod ille dixit, qui secundo vento vectus est tranquillo mari,
ventum gaudeo
["I cheer for wind!", that's what a famous man said, a man carried across the tranquil swell of sea upon a favorable breeze]

ecastor ad ted, ita hodie hic acceptae sumus        15
suavibus modis,
[and good grief, same for you: so here today we've been welcomed in sweet overtures,]

nec nisi disciplina apud te fuit quicquam ibi quin mihi placeret.
[why, except there was not a damn thing, when it comes to you, that could place me, in that station, except for strict discipline.]

SEL. Quid ita, amabo?
[So what now, if I may ask?]

 LENA. Raro nimium dabat quod biberem, id merum infuscabat.
[All too seldomly, whatever he gave that I would guzzle down, he would stir it into the pure stuff.]

GYMN. Amabo, hicine istud decet?
[Now, please, does he really deserve something like this?]

LENA. Iusque fasque est:    19-20
[It's just and right.]

 nemo alienus hic est.
[No one's a stranger here.]

SEL. Merito vostro amo vos,        21
[On your merit, I love you all,]

quia me colitis et magni facitis.
[because you worship and make a big deal about me.]

LENA. Decet pol, mea Selenium,
hunc esse ordinem benevolentis inter se
beneque amicitia utier,
[Well geez, my dear Selenium, it's only right this be the order of well-wishers between themselves, and that I make good use of our friendly arrangement]

ubi istas videas summo genere natas, summatis matronas,
[when you behold these girls, fathered from the greatest brood of people, you call them matrons,]

ut amicitiam colunt atque ut eam iunctam bene habent inter se.
[because they honor friendly arrangements, and they hold it hard and fast between each other.]

si idem istud nos faciamus,
[All the same, if we ourselves do something like that,]

si idem imitemur,
[if we likewise copycat,]

ita tamen vix vivimus
cum invidia summa.
[even still, barely turns out how we live with the greatest ill will you can imagine.]

suarum opum nos volunt esse indigentes.
[They want us to be experts of their own goings-on.]

nostra copia nil volunt nos potesse        29-30
suique omnium rerum nos indigere,
[they don't want us to manage our own brood and mind the business that belongs to oneself,]

ut sibi simus supplices.
[all so that we can be beggars to them.]

eas si adeas,
[Go away, if you come,]

abitum quam aditum malis,
[you prefer leaving over approaching,]

ita nostro ordini
palam blandiuntur,
[they're charmed by our ranks so out in the open,]

clam, si occasio usquam est,
[secretly, if there's ever the occasion,]

aquam frigidam subdole suffundunt.   
[they pour ice water right over their scandal.]

viris cum suis praedicant nos solere, 
[They claim that we've grown familiar with their men,]

suas paelices esse aiunt,
[they say we're their mistresses,]

eunt depressum. 
[they get despondent.]

quia nos libertinae sumus,
[Since it's we who are the freedwomen,]

et ego et tua mater, ambae
meretrices fuimus:
[and I myself, and your mother, both of us used to be courtesans:]

illa te, ego hanc mihi educavi
ex patribus conventiciis.
[that woman led you out, and I led her out, for my purposes, from the abuses of your father.]

neque ego hanc superbiai        40
causa pepuli ad meretricium quaestum,
[And I declare, I didn't push her to a courtesan's career on account of pride,]

nisi ut ne esurirem. 
[not so long as I risk going hungry.]

SEL. At satius fuerat eam viro dare nuptum potius.
[But it had been more than fair to rather betroth her to a man.]

LENA. Heia,
haec quidem ecastor cottidie viro nubit,
[Ah well, by golly, this girl technically "weds a man" everyday,]

nupsitque hodie, 
[and she "got married" today,]

nubet mox noctu:
[she'll be "getting married" soon tonight:]

Tuesday, July 19, 2011

Suetonius, The Grammarians

Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus [Suetonius]
69-130 AD
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Imperial Era)


[1] Grammatica Romae ne in usu quidem olim, nedum in honore ullo erat,
[At one point, the study of grammar in Rome was indeed not a common thing, nor associated with any degree of honor,]

 rudi scilicet ac bellicosa etiam tum civitate,
[especially at that time when our city was crude and particularly fixated on fighting its wars,]

 necdum magnopere liberalibus disciplinis vacante.
[and it still greatly lacked experience with fields of higher learning.]

Initium quoque eius mediocre extitit,
[And even the beginning of this field came about rather in mediocre fashion,]

 siquidem antiquissimi doctorum, qui iidem et poetae et semigraeci erant,
[even when the very oldest examples of our wise men, who were, one and the same, poets and still linked to Grecian heritage,]

(Livium et Ennium dico,
[I speak of Livius Andronicus and Ennius,]

 quos utraque lingua domi forisque docuisse adnotatum est)
[about whom it is quite familiar knowledge that they had taught in Latin and Greek in their homes and in public]  

 nihil amplius quam Graecos interpretabantur,
[they, by no greater degree, understood anything in Greek,]

aut si quid ipsi Latine composuissent praelegebant.
[nor even these men had wrote anything in Latin, did they read it at length.]

Nam quod nonnulli tradunt duos libros de litteris syllabisque,
[You see, as to the fact that some people pass down two books on the subject of letters and syllables,]

item de metris ab eodem Ennio editos,
[and other publications by Ennius concerning meters, after that point in time,]

 iure arguit L. Cotta non poetae sed posterioris Ennii esse,
[while Lucius Cotta, by rights, argued that they did not belong to any poet prior to Ennius,]

 cuius etiam de augurandi disciplina volumina ferantur.
[whose scrolls also make a summary about the discipline of augury.]

[2] Primus igitur, quantum opinamur,
studium grammaticae in urbem intulit Crates Mallotes,
[Therefore, the first man who brought the study of grammar to the city, as I understand it, was Crates Mallotes,]

 Aristarchi aequalis,
[a contemporary of Aristarchus,]

 qui missus ad senatum ab Attalo rege inter secundum ac tertium Punicum bellum sub ipsam Ennii mortem,
[who, once he had been sent to the Senate by King Attalus between our second and third wars against Carthage, right before the death of Ennius himself,]

 cum regione Palatii prolapsus in cloacae foramen crus fregisset,
[when he had broken his leg on the Palatine Hill, having fallen into the opening of a sewer,]

 per omne legationis simul et valitudinis tempus plurimas acroasis subinde fecit
[and from then on, he spent all of his time in recovery teaching and holding a great deal of auditions,]

 assidueque disseruit,
[and spoke in public at an incessant rate,]

 ac nostris exemplo fuit ad imitandum.
[and gave us an example to model ourselves after.]

 Hactenus tamen imitati, ut carmina parum adhuc divulgata vel defunctorum amicorum vel si quorum aliorum probassent,
[And yet enough people took his example, so that they had praised his poems that had not been widely circulated, even if they belonged to his deceased companions or someone else,]

diligentius retractarent
[and they would more diligently draw them back]

ac legendo commentandoque etiam ceteris nota facerent;
[and would also make them well-known by allowing others to read and comment on them;]

ut C. Octavius Lampadio Naevii Punicum bellum,
[such was the case when Gaius Octavius gave Naevius' account of the Punic War to Lampadius,]

quod uno volumine et continenti scriptura expositum divisit in septem libros:
[which, although it was published in a single volume and unsegmented prose, he divided into seven books:]

ut postea Q. Vargunteius annales Ennii,
[likewise, after that, when Quintus Vargunteius managed Ennius' Annales,]

quos certis diebus in magna frequentia pronuntiabat;
[which he gradually published in large quantities over a fixed period of days;]

ut Laelius Archelaus Vettiasque Philocomus Lucilii satyras familiaris sui,
[and likewise when Laelius Archelaos and Vettias Philocomos handled the satyr plays of their familiar, Lucilius,]

quas legisse se apud Archelaum Pompeius Lenaeus, apud Philocomum Valerius Cato praedicant.
[which Pompeius Laenaeus claims that he had read directly to Archelaos, but Valerius Cato says, directly to Philocomos.]

Instruxerunt auxeruntque ab omni parte grammaticam L. Aelius Lanuvinus generque Aelii Ser. Clodius,
[Lucius Aelius Lanuvius and the son-in-law of Aelius, Servius Clodius, taught and expanded the field of grammar in every respect,]

uterque eques Ro. multique ac varii et in doctrina et in re p. usus.
[both of whom were Roman knights who were experienced in many different ways on the subjects of their teaching and their state.]

Aelius cognomine duplici fuit;
[Aelius was a man with two nicknames;]

nam et Praeconinus, quod pater eius praeconium fecerat, vocabatur,
[you see, he was also called Praeconinus, because his father had been a town criar,]

et Stilo, quod orationes nobilissimo cuique scribere solebat;
[and Stilo, because he used to write his speeches with the noblest type you can imagine.]

tantus optimatium fautor,
[he was such a supporter of the aristocrats,]

ut Metellum Numidicum in exilium comitatus sit.
[that he accompanied Metellus Numidicus in exile.]

Servius cum librum soceri nondum editum fraude intercepisset,
[When Servius had intercepted his father-in-law's book, which had been published, by act of fraud,]

et ob hoc repudiatus pudore ac taedio secessisset ab urbe,
[his reputation had been dashed on account of this, and he had to leave the city in a state of burden,]

in podagrae morbum incidit; 
[he then was stricken with gangrene of the foot;]

cuius impatiens veneno sibi perunxit pedes
 [and he, unable to cope with this, smeared poisoned upon his feet,]

et enecuit ita, ut parte ea corporis quasi praemortua viveret.
[and so he died, as if living with this condition of his body was de facto death sentence.]

Sallust, Letter of Pompey to Senate (possibly spurious)

Gaius Sallustius Crispus [Sallust] *Pseudo-Sallust
86-35 BC Rome
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Republican Era/Golden Age of Latin Literature)


1 Si advorsus vos patriamque et deos penatis tot labores et pericula suscepissem,
[If I had, for your sake and for our nation and guardian spirits, undergone some many labors and dangers,]

 quotiens a prima adulescentia ductu meo scelestissumi hostes fusi
et vobis salus quaesita est,
[as many times as, since the very start of my young adulthood, our most dangerous enemies have been put to flight when I've been put in command, and and as many times your salvation has been sought,]

 nihil amplius in absentem me statuissetis
[you would have made any more progress in deliberating about me in my absence,]

 quam adhuc agitis,  patres conscripti,
[as you yet still do, my fellow senators]

 quem contra aetatem proiectum ad bellum saevis sumum cum excercitu optume merito, quantum est in vobis, fame, miserruma omnium morte, confecistis.
[and I'm the one whom you've assigned, despite my age, commander over uniquely savage wars, and deservedly over our most prestigious military forces, whenever you've put endangered by the starvation and death of all our people.]

 2 Hacine spe populus Romanus liberos suos ad bellum misit?
[And with this very same hopeful spirit, didn't the Roman people send their own sons to war?]

Haec sunt praemia pro volneribus et totiens ob rem publicam fuso sanguine?
[Are these the rewards we get as a price for our wounds, and the bloods we've spilled for our commonwealth?]

Fessus scribundo mittundoque legatos omnis opes et spes privatas meas consumpsi,
[I, worn out from writing and sending delegates, consumed all my resources and my own personal hopes,]

 cum interim a vobis per triennium vix annuus sumptus datus est.
[while, meanwhile, scarcely a single finished year of work has been given by you all, for the last three years.]

Per deos immortalis, utrum censetis me vicem aerari praestare
[By the immortal gods, do you think I can take charge of the treasury]

an exercitum sine frumento et stipendio habere posse?
[or manage to run my army with, without resources of food and pay?]

4 Equidem fateor me ad hoc bellum maiore studio quam consilio profectum,
[I mean really, I do admit that I was driven out to this current war more by my zeal than by good counsel,]

quippe qui nomine modo imperi a vobis accepto,
[since, actually, it was I whose name was recently approved by you all to head the power of our government,]

diebus quadraginta exercitum paravi
[whence I drafted an army in forty days]

hostisque in cervicibus iam Italiae agentis ab Alpibus in Hispaniam submovi;
[and set it unto Spain upon the necks of our foe, who was already setting out for Italy from the Alps;]

per eas iter aliud atque Hannibal, nobis opportunius, pate feci.
[through these mountains, there was yet another Hannibal, but I exposed it, all the more fortunate for us.]

Recepi Galliam, Pyrenaeum, Lacetaniam, Indigetis
[I captured Gaul, and the lands of the Pyrenees, and Lacetania, and Indigetis]

et primum impetum Sertori victoris novis militibus et multo paucioribus sustinui
[and, from the very onset, I withstood the attack of the conqueror, Sertorius, even with freshly-recruited soldiers and in lesser supplies by far]

hiememque castris inter saevissumos hostis, non per oppida neque ex ambitione mea egi.
[and I camped the winter out among the most savage of foes, no, I did not spend it among civilized towns for my own interests.]

6 Quid deinde proelia aut expeditiones hibernas, oppida excisa aut recepta enumerem?
[So why then should I even recount the battles and winter campaigns, and the towns I felled or captured?]

Quando res plus valet quam verba:
[...especially when success fairs more worthily than words:]

castra hostium apud Sucronem capta et proelium apud flumen Turiam et dux hostium C. Herennius cum urbe Valentia et exercitu deleti satis clara vobis sunt;
[I captured the camps of our enemies in Sucro, and fought a pitched battle at the River Turia, and the general of our foes, Gaius Herennius, along with the city of Valentia, all now felled by my army, are more than distinguished enough for your sake;]

pro quis, o grati patres, egestatem et famem redditis.
[o gracious senators, for all this, you reward me with poverty and hunger.]

Itaque meo et hostium exercitui par condicio est;
[so now, the condition of my own army is exactly the same as our foes;]

7 namque stipendium neutri datur,
[what's more is that payment has been given to neither side,]

victor uterque in Italiam venire potest.
[and either side can come to Italy as the winner.]

Quod ego vos moneo quaesoque
[I, for my part, warn, and ask you this one thing:]

ut animadvortatis neu cogatis necessitatibus privatim mihi consulere
[that you pay heed and not force me to give my counsel in private, out of necessity,]

Hispaniam citeriorem, quae non ab hostibus tenetur, nos aut Sertorius ad internecionem vastavimus praeter maritumas civitates, ultro nobis sumptui onerique;
[I <or Sertorius?> laid waste to the nearer province of Spain, which is held by none of our enemies, with exception to its cities on the coast on account of its insurrection, which was by far an expense and burden to us;]

Gallia superiore anno Metelli exercitum stipendio frumentoque aluit
[the previous year before that, Gaul provided Metellus' army with payment  and food for the troops]

et nunc malis fructibus ipsa vix agitat;
[and now the same province scarcely stirs from low harvests;]

ego non rem familiarem modo, verum etiam fidem consumpsi.
[I, for my part, not only spent up the my family's resources but also, to speak frankly, its trust in me.]

Reliqui vos estis:
[All of you are what's left over:]

qui nisi subvenitis,
[except that it is you who creep behind,]

invito et praedicente me exercitus hinc et cum eo omne bellum Hispaniae in Italiam transgredientur.
[and at my side, me unwilling to accept this and giving you fair warning, the armies and entire war of Spain will venture out to unto Italy.]

Hae litterae principio sequentis anni recitatae in senatu.
[In the beginning of the following year, these words were recited in the Senate.]

Sed consules decretas a patribus provincias inter se paravere;
[But the consuls settled the matter of the provinces among themselves, once it was decreed by the senators;]

Cotta Galliam citeriorem habuit, Ciliciam Octavius.
[Cotta held Gallia Citerior, and Octavius, the province of Cilicia.]

Dein proxumi consules, L. Lucullus et M. Cotta, litteris nuntiisque Pompei graviter perculsi,
[Then, the next consuls, Lucius Lucullus and Marcus Cotta, seriously alarmed by Pompey's letters and declarations,]

cum summae rei gratia tum ne exercitu in Italiam deducto neque laus sua neque dignitas esset,
[since there would be the grace of the most pertinent success as well as no praise and honored status for an army to be led down against Italy,]

omni modo stipendium et supplementum paravere,
[settled payment and extra recompense, in all respects,]

adnitente maxime nobilitate,
[with the noble class stepping forth to the greatest extent,]

cuius plerique iam tum lingua ferociam suam et dicta factis sequebantur.
[of which quite a deal of men were already beginning, even at that time, to follow his fierce passion and words with deeds.]


St. Aelread, Spiritual Friendship

Aelread of Rievaulx [St. Aelread]
1100-1167 AD
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Medieval Era)

[Chapter 1]

Libri hujus scribendi occasio
[The opportunity to write this book]

Cum adhuc puer essem in scholis,
[Even as I was a boy still in school,]

et sociorum meorum me gratia plurimum delectaret,
[and the popularity of my peers so very much delighted me,]

 et inter mores et vitia quibus aetas illa periclitari solet,
[and among the customs and vices by which that age of one's life is accustomed to be endangered,]

 totam se mea mens dedit affectui,
[my mind allowed itself to be totally affected,]

 et devovit amori;
[and to roll along down to love;]

ita ut nihil mihi dulcius,
[So it happened that nothing could seem sweeter to me,]

 nihil iucundius, nihil utilius quam amari et amare videretur.
[nothing could seem more pleasing, more useful than to love and be loved.]

 Itaque inter diversos amores et amicitias fluctuans,
[And so, as it wavered among various love affairs and friendships,]

 rapiebatur animus huc atque illuc:
[my mind was seized about here and there:]

 et verae amicitiae legem ignorans,
[and because it was ignorant of the laws of true companionship,]

eius saepe similitudine fallebatur.
[it was often deceived by the pretense of it.]

Tandem aliquando mihi venit in manus,
[But at last, and eventually, it fell into my hands,]

liber ille quem De amicitia Tullius scripsit;
[I mean the book I speak of, the one that Cicero wrote about on friendship;]

Saturday, July 16, 2011

Suetonius, Life of Vitellius

Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus [Suetonius]
69-130 AD
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Imperial Era)


I. Vitelliorum originem alii aliam et quidem diversissimam tradunt,
[Some people tell of a different and most undetermined origin when it comes to Vitellius' family,]

 partim veterem et nobilem,
[some saying that it was long-standing and noble in class,]

 partim vero novam et obscuram atque etiam sordidam;
[while others say that it was actually new to the scene, with obscure origins, and perhaps even disreputable ones;]

 quod ego per adulatores obtrectatoresque imperatoris Vitellii evenisse opinarer,
[and that's something that I would have to occur as a result of emperor Vitellius' adulators and detractors,]

 nisi aliquanto prius de familiae condicione variatum esset.
[unless, by some degree, a previous change of fortune occurred as to his family's condition.]

 Exstat Q. Elogi ad Quintum Vitellium Divi Augusti quaestorem libellus,
[There's a small book by Quintus Elogius written to Quintus Vitellius, a quaestor of Augustus, now deified,]

 quo continetur,
[in which there is written]

 Vitellios Fauno Aboriginum rege et Vitellia, quae multis locis pro numine coleretur, ortos toto Latio imperasse;
[that the Vitellians, having risen all around Latium, had ruled under one king of the original inhabitants, Faunus, and Vitellia, who used to be worshipped in various places liked a deity;]

 horum residuam stirpem ex Sabinis transisse Romam atque inter patricios adlectam;
[the lineage of these people that was left over had journeyed over to Rome from the lands of the Sabines and was then incorporated into the class of patricians;]

indicia stirpis mansisse diu viam Vitelliam ab Ianiculo ad mare usque, item coloniam eiusdem nominis,
[and the original character of the family lineage resided for a long time along the Via Vitellia, that ran from the Janiculum all the way to the sea, and also in a settlement byhe same name,]

quam gentili copia adversus Aequiculos tutandam olim depoposcissent;
[which, with their high-ranking hordes, once upon a time, whose patrimony they had demanded in confrontation with the Aequiculi;]

 tempore deinde Samnitici belli praesidio in Apuliam misso quosdam ex Vitellis subsedisse Nuceriae,
[thenafter, a certain number of Vitellius' family settled down in Nuceria, during the time of the Samnite War, when a garrison was sent to Apulia,]

 eorumque progeniem longo post intervallo repetisse urbem atque ordinem senatorium.
[and after a long interval of time, their descendents sought to reside in the city again, as well as admission into the senatorial class.]

II. Contra plures auctorem generis libertinum prodiderunt,
[On the one hand, several people related that the founder of their family lineage was a freedman,]

Cassius Severus nec minus alii eundem et sutorem veteramentarium,
[like Cassius Severus, not least of those who say that the same fellow was also a cobbler for beasts of burden,]

Suetonius, Life of Otho

Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus [Suetonius]
69-130 AD
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Imperial Era)


I. Maiores Othonis orti sunt oppidio Ferentio,
[Otho's ancestors arose from the town of Ferentium,]

familia vetere et honorata atque ex principibus Etruriae.
[from a long-standing and greatly honored family, one sprung also from the leading men of Etruria.]

Avus M. Salvius Otho, patre equite R.,
[His grandfather, Marcus Salvius Otho, was a Roman knight,]

matre humili incertum an ingenua,
[his mother perhaps from a lowly, or at least common stock,]

per gratiam Liviae Augustae, in cuius domo creverat, senator est factus
[but through the kind favor of the emperess Livia, in whose mansion she had entered, he was appointed a senator]

nec praeturae gradum excessit.
[but he never reached any office higher than praetor.]

Pater L. Otho, materno genere praeclaro multarumque et magnarum propinquitatum, tam carus tamque non absimilis facie Tiberio principi fuit,
[His father, Lucius Otho, whose maternal lineage was greatly distinguished by many great relatives, was so beloved by the emperor Tiberius and so similar in appearance to him]

 ut plerique procreatum ex eo crederent.
[that a great many people believed that he was fathered by the man.]

Vrbanos honores, proconsulatum Africae et extraordinaria imperia severissime administravit.
[He ran administrations in offices over the City, a proconsulship in Africa, and unusually prestigious commands, all in the most severe manners one can imagine.]

 Ausus etiam est in Illyrico milites quosdam,
[He even tried his hand against several soldiers in Illyria,]

 quod motu Camilli ex paenitentia praepositos suos quasi defectionis adversus Claudium auctores occiderant,
[because they, as though defecting from Claudius, had previously killed the men he had appointed to remedy the mutiny of Camillus,]

 capite punire et quidem ante principia se coram,
[that is, he dared to sentence them to death, and indeed, before his own eyes, in the commander's quarters,]

 quamvis ob id ipsum promotos in ampliorem gradum a Claudio sciret.
[even though he knew that, as a consequence of this same action, they would be compelled to even fuller disgust of Claudius.]

 Quo facto sicut gloriam auxit,
[So it was accomplished, the very moment he increased his reputation,]

ita gratiam minuit;
[he likewise killed his popularity.]

 quam tamen mature reciperavit detecta equitis R. fraude,
[And yet, he soon cut that in half after he had detected the scandal of a Roman knight]

 quem prodentibus servis necem Claudio parere compererat.
[whom he had discovered had order his slaves to assassinate Claudius.]

Namque et senatus honore rarissimo, statua in Palatio posita, prosecutus est eum et Claudius adlectum inter patricios,
[So by that token, he was allowed the rarest honor in the Senate: his statue placed on the Palatine Hill, and Claudius followed after him and enrolled him into the order of the patricians,]

 conlaudans amplissimis verbis, hoc quoque adiecit:
[and as he praised him with the most complimentary words he could find, he also added this comment:]

 Vir, quo meliores liberos habere ne opto quidem.
["A man, for whom I truly wish to have no superior sons."]

 Ex Albia Terentia splendida femina duos filios tulit,
[From a splendid woman, Albia Terentia, he fathered two sons,]

L. Titianum et minorem M. cognominem sibi;
[Lucius Titianus and the younger one Marcus, named after himself;]

tulit et filiam,
[he fathered a daughter,]

quam vixdum nubilem Druso Germanici filio despondit.
[whom he soon married off as a young bride to Germanicus' son, Drusus.]

II. Otho imperator IIII. Kal. Mai. natus est Domitio Ahenobarbo cons.Camillo Arruntio,
[The emperor Otho was born on the 4th Kalends of May in the consul year of Domitius Ahenobarbus and Camillus Arruntius,]

  A prima adulescentia prodigus ac procax,
[From the very first stage of youth, he was a prodigy, and very talkative,]

adeo ut saepe flagris obiurgaretur a patre,
[so much so that he often used to be beaten with whippings by his father,]

ferebatur et vagari noctibus solitus atque invalidum quemque obviorum vel potulentum corripere ac distento sago impositum in sublime iactare.
[it was rumored that he used to wander around in the nights, laying his hands on any weakling or drunkard he met, and after putting him into a stretched out sack, toss him into the air.]

Post patris deinde mortem libertinam aulicam gratiosam, quo efficacius coleret, etiam diligere simulavit quamvis anum ac paene decrepitam:
[After his father's passing, he even pretended to have a crush on a charming flute-player, a freedwoman, about which he adored her too thoroughly, even though she was an old woman and almost in the last stage of her life:]

per hanc insinuatus Neroni,
[through her, he was introduced to Nero,]

facile summum inter amicos locum tenuit congruentia morum,
[with ease, he held the highest priority in his leisurely events among his friends,]

ut vero quidam tradunt,
[at least, in truth, as certain men tell it,]

et consuetudine mutui stupri.
[and from the habit of the scandals they shared.]

et consuetudine mutui stupri.
[and in the habit of the disgrace they shared.]

Ac tantum potentia valuit,
[And so great did his power thrive,]

 ut damnatum repetundis consularem virum, ingens praemium pactus,
[that he demanded an immense bribe from a man already found guilty of corruption,]

prius quam plene restitutionem ei impetrasset non dubitaret in senatum ad agendas gratias introducere.
[and no sooner had he gained gained his full acquittal than did he not even hesitate to bring into the presence of the Senate in order to give thanks.]

 III. Omnium autem consiliorum secretorumque particeps die, quem necandae matri Nero destinarat,
[However, he was a conspirator in all plans and secrets, and the one whom Nero put in charge of assassinating his mother,]

ad avertendas suspicionem cenam utrique exquisitissimae comitatis dedit;
[and in order to avert her suspicion, he gave her a feast with her as the honored guest;]

item Poppaeam Sabinam tunc adhuc amicam eius, abductam marito demandatamque interim sibi, nuptiarum specie recepit,
[and then, he received Poppaea Sabina, at that time one of her allies, with the grandeur of a wedding ceremony, even though she has been abducted from her husband and demanded back to him in the meantime,]

Suetonius, Life of Nero

Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus [Suetonius]
69-130 AD
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Imperial Era)


I. Ex gente Domitia duae familiae claruerunt,
Calvinorum et Aenobarborum.
[Two families distinguished themselves from the clan of Domitians, the Calvini and the Ahenobarbi.]

 Aenobarbi auctorem originis itemque cognominis habent L. Domitium,
[The Ahenobarbi take as their original and eponymous founder, Lucius Domitius,]

cui rure quondam revertenti iuvenes gemini augustiore forma ex occursu imperasse traduntur,
[to whom, once upon a time in the countryside, a pair of identical twins, young men of extremely prestigious stature, ordered him, as he approached]

 nuntiaret senatui ac populo victoriam,
[that he should announce something to the senate as well as the people,]

de qua incertum adhuc erat;
[about what is not exactly clear;]

 atque in fidem maiestatis adeo permulsisse malas,
[and that he so had the power to soothe over evils when entrusted to the faith of his command]

 ut e nigro rutilum aerique similem capillum redderent.
[that his hair turned from red to black, almost in the appearance of bronze.]

 Quod insigne mansit et in posteris eius,
[And that remained a sign of prestige for his posterity,]

 ac magna pars rutila barba fuerunt.
[and a large number of them had red beards.]

Functi autem consulatibus septem,
[And still, seven of them served as consuls,]

triumpho censuraque duplici
[and a pair of triumphs and offices as censor]

 et inter patricios adlecti perseveraverunt omnes in eodem cognomine.
[and once they were recruited into the class of patricians, they persevered through time with this very same name.]