Friday, April 29, 2011

Nepos, Hannibal

Cornelius Nepos
100-24 BCE
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Republican Era/Golden Age of Latin Literature)


[1] HANNIBAL, Hamilcaris filius, Carthaginiensis.
[Hannibal was a Carthaginian, the son of Hamilcar.]

Si verum est, quod nemo dubitat,
[If this is true, and it is something nobody doubts,]

 ut populus Romanus omnes gentes virtute superarit,
[that the Roman people could conquer any nation by virtue of their courage,]

 non est infitiandum Hannibalem tanto praestitisse ceteros imperatores prudentia,
[is not so much something to be ignored that Hannibal excelled the entirety of our commanders in his judgment,]

quanto populus Romanus antecedat fortitudine cunctas nationes.
[by the very same measure that the Roman people excel all nations in their strength.]

2 Nam quotienscumque cum eo congressus est in Italia,
[You see, as many times as he made his incursions in Italy]

semper discessit superior.
[he always left as the superior.]

 Quod nisi domi civium suorum invidia debilitatus esset,
[Except that he had been weakened at home by the jealously of his own citizens,]

Romanos videtur superare potuisse.
[it seems likely that he could have conquered the Romans.]

 Sed multorum obtrectatio devicit unius virtutem.
[But the infighting of many fellows, in the end, beat out the strength of a single one.]

3 Hic autem velut hereditate relictum odium paternum erga Romanos sic conservavit,
[Nevertheless, this man, as though through his genes, saved up his father's disgust of the Romes so much,]

 ut prius animam quam id deposuerit,
[that before he could even cast it into his heart,]

 qui quidem, cum patria pulsus esset et alienarum opum indigeret,
[indeed, it was he, when he had been driven out of his nation, and gotten his hands on the fortunes of another one,]

 numquam destiterit animo bellare cum Romanis.
[he never quit a moment in his mind from waging war against the Romans.]

[2] Nam ut omittam Philippum,
[You see, as I shall skip over Philip,]

quem absens hostem reddidit Romanis,
[whom he, off the scene, returned as an enemy to the Romans,]

 omnium his temporibus potentissimus rex Antiochus fuit.
[the most powerful king during this period of time was Antiochus.]

 Hunc tanta cupiditate incendit bellandi,
[Such a desire to make war inflamed this man]

 ut usque a rubro mari arma conatus sit inferre Italiae.
[that he tried to transport his military equipment to Italy all the way from the Red Sea.]

 2 Ad quem cum legati venissent Romani,
[And when Roman ambassadors traveled to this man,]

 qui de eius voluntate explorarent darentque operam,
[and they began to make their complaints known, and to argue against this man's designs,]

 consiliis clandestinis ut Hannibalem in suspicionem regi adducerent,
[such that, by secret designs, they led Hannibal to always be suspicious of the king,]

 tamquam ab ipsis corruptus alia atque antea sentiret,
[as though he, corrupted by the same ones, could sense other things, and ones from the past,]

 neque id frustra fecissent
[and lest they had done this thing in vain,]

idque Hannibal comperisset
[and lest Hannibal had gained knowledge of this,]

 seque ab interioribus consiliis segregari vidisset,
[and had seen that he had been left out from their inner circle,]

 tempore dato adiit ad regem,
[he approached the king, once he was allotted an appointment,]

3 eique cum multa de fide sua et odio in Romanos commemorasset,
[and since he had already informed him about the extent of his loyalty and his hatred for the Romans,]

 hoc adiunxit:
[he added the following:

`Pater meus' inquit `Hamilcar puerulo me, utpote non amplius VIIII annos nato, in Hispaniam imperator proficiscens Carthagine, Iovi optimo maximo hostias immolavit.
["My father," he said, "Hamilcar, when I was just a little boy, probably no more than 8 years old, conquered his foe when he was our commander, leaving Carthage for Spain, and thanks to the most powerful and greatest god, Jove.]

4 Quae divina res dum conficiebatur,
[Which thing, while it began to be concluded to be a divine one,]

 quaesivit a me,
[he asked from me,]

vellemne secum in castra proficisci.
[whether I wished to travel alongside him to our camps.]

 Id cum libenter accepissem
[When I had happily agree to do so,]

atque ab eo petere coepissem,
[and had begun to ask about this matter,]

 ne dubitaret ducere,
[lest he should have any doubts of taking me,]

tum ille `Faciam', inquit `si mihi fidem, quam postulo, dederis.'
[he then said, "I shall find out, if you have given the loyalty I demand to me."]

 Simul me ad aram adduxit,
[At the same time, he led me to the altar,]

 apud quam sacrificare instituerat,
[and into that place where he had before had conducted sacrifices,]

 eamque ceteris remotis tenentem iurare iussit numquam me in amicitia cum Romanis fore.
[and when everyone else was moved off from the place, he ordered me to swear that I would never fall into any alliance with the Romans, so long as I possessed this.]

 5 Id ego ius iurandum patri datum usque ad hanc aetatem ita conservavi,
[And for my part, up to this very moment in time, I have upheld this sworn oath, given by my father,]

ut nemini dubium esse debeat,
[such that there should be no doubt to any man,]

quin reliquo tempore eadem mente sim futurus.
[that, in the time I have left, I will, unto the future, be of the exact same mind.]

6 Quare, si quid amice de Romanis cogitabis,
[And so, if you should ponder anything of friendship when it comes to the Romans,]

 non imprudenter feceris,
[you will've not done unwisely,]

 si me celaris;
[should you hide this fact from me;]

cum quidem bellum parabis,
[when, in fact, ever you shall prepare war,]

te ipsum frustraberis,
[you will only do yourself injustice,]

 si non me in eo principem posueris.'
[if you shall not have appointed me as your commander in it."]

 Hac igitur, qua diximus, aetate cum patre in Hispaniam profectus est.
[Therefore, at this point in his life, he left alongside his father to Spain.]

[3] Cuius post obitum, Hasdrubale imperatore suffecto, equitatui omni praefuit.
[After whose death, when Hasdrubal had been selected to be supreme commander, he took command of the entire cavalry forces.]

Hoc quoque interfecto exercitus summam imperii ad eum detulit.
[When the former too was killed in battle, the military passed down its top command to him.]

 Id Carthaginem delatum publice comprobatum est.
[This was something that was publicly approved in Carthage.]

2 Sic Hannibal, minor V et XX annis natus imperator factus,
[And so, Hannibal was appointed supreme commander, no more than 25 years old,]

proximo triennio omnes gentes Hispaniae bello subegit;
[and he conquered all the nations of Spain in battle, after his third year;] 

 Saguntum, foederatam civitatem, vi expugnavit;
[He took the city of Saguntum by force, an allied city.]

tres exercitus maximos comparavit.
[He organized three of the greatest armies you can imagine.]

3 Ex his unum in Africam misit,
[He sent the first of these to Africa,]

alterum cum Hasdrubale fratre in Hispania reliquit,
[while he left the second with his brother Hasdrubal in Spain,]

 tertium in Italiam secum duxit.
[he led at his side to Italy.]

Saltum Pyrenaeum transiit.
[He crossed the jump over the Pyrenees.]

 Quacumque iter fecit,
[He made his journey by all means possible,]

cum omnibus incolis conflixit:
[while he stoked encounters with all the inhabitants he ran into:]

 neminem nisi victum dimisit.
[he left not a single man undefeated.]

4 Ad Alpes posteaquam venit,
[Afterward, he came to the Alps,]

 quae Italiam ab Gallia seiungunt,
[which separated Italy from Gaul,] 

 quas nemo umquam cum exercitu ante eum praeter Herculem Graium transierat,
[these were mountains that no one crossed with a military force before him, except for Hercules the Greek,]

quo facto is hodie saltus Graius appellatur,
[from which deed, the pass is called the Greek Pass today,]

 Alpicos conantes prohibere transitu concidit;
[and it drops off and prohibits men from trying to cross the Alps straightway.]

 loca patefecit, itinera muniit, effecit,
[He marked out the places, supplied his journey, and acted]

 ut ea elephantus ornatus ire posset,
[so even his armed elephants were able to go through,]

qua antea unus homo inermis vix poterat repere.
[where, in the time before, a single unharmed men could find a way.]

Hac copias traduxit in Italiamque pervenit.
[In this way, he brought his forces over, and reached Italy.]

[4] Conflixerat apud Rhodanum cum P. Cornelio Scipione consule
[He had previously clashed with the consul Publius Cornelius Scipio in Rhodanum,]

eumque pepulerat.
[and had beaten him back.]

Cum hoc eodem Clastidi apud Padum decernit
[At the same time, he faced Clastidius in the Po Valley,]

sauciumque inde ac fugatum dimittit.
[and from there, he sent him away, wounded and in flight.]

 2 Tertio idem Scipio cum collega Tiberio Longo apud Trebiam adversus eum venit.
[Likewise, in a third instance, Scipio, alongside his colleague Tiberius Longus, faced him in Trebia.]

Cum his manum conseruit, utrosque profligavit.
[He drew his band together, against these men, and prevailed against them both.]

Inde per Ligures Appenninum transiit, petens Etruriam.
[From there, he crossed the Appennines through Liguria, and headed for Tuscany.]

3 Hoc itinere adeo gravi morbo afficitur oculorum,
[On that journey, he was stricken with such a grave ailment in his eyes,]

ut postea numquam dextro aeque bene usus sit.
[that afterward, he was no longer able to use his right one as equally well as the other.] 

 Qua valetudine cum etiam tum premeretur
[And with that strength of mind, even when he was being overwhelmed at that time]

 lecticaque ferretur C. Flaminium consulem apud Trasumenum
[and it happened that the consul Gaius Flaminius was being carried by litter to Trasimene]

 cum exercitu insidiis circumventum occidit
[he had him killed, once he had been surrounded by an ambush with his army]

 neque multo post C. Centenium praetorem cum delecta manu saltus occupantem.
[and not much after that, with a band of chosen men, he sprung upon the praetor Gaius Centenius, who was occupying the glen at the time.]

 Hinc in Apuliam pervenit.
[From there, he reached Apulia.]