Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus [Suetonius]
Latin (Imperial Era)
SVETONI TRANQVILII VITA TIBERI
 Patricia gens Claudia--fuit enim et alia plebeia, nec potentia minor nec dignitate--orta est ex Regillis oppido Sabinorum.
[The patrician clan of the Claudians--you see, there was a plebeian one with no less power and dignaty--emerged from the Sabine city of Regilli.]
Inde Romam recens conditam cum magna clientium manu conmigrauit auctore Tito Tatio consorte Romuli,
[From the beginning, it moved to Rome, freshly established, with a large following, under their founder Titus Tatius, Romulus' co-ruler,]
uel, quod magis constat, Atta Claudio gentis principe, post reges exactos sexto fere anno;
[or, as it is more accepted, when Atta Claudius was the sire of the clan, after the monarchy had been abolished for six years;]
atque in patricias cooptata agrum insuper trans Anienem clientibus locumque sibi ad sepulturam sub Capitolio publice accepit.
[and the clan was included among the patrician ones over the domain of Anienes' territory, and received a place of burial in public beneath the Capitol.]
Deinceps procedente tempore duodetriginta consulatus, dictaturas quinque, censuras septem, triumphos sex, duas ouationes adepta est.
[After the time passed, he gained the consulship 32 times, 5 dictatorships, the position of censor 7 times, 6 triumphs, and 2 public ovations.]
Cum praenominibus cognominibusque uariis distingueretur, Luci praenomen consensu repudiauit,
[Although he was distinguished by various family names and nicknames, he abhorred the name Lucius,]
postquam e duobus gentilibus praeditis eo alter latrocinii, caedis alter conuictus est.
[after which one Lucius was convicted of robbing two noblemen, and another of homicide.]
Inter cognomina autem et Neronis assumpsit, quo[d] significatur lingua Sabina fortis ac strenuus.
[At any event, he even assumed the name of Nero among his nicknames, which from the Sabine family means strong or strenuous.]
 Multa multorum Claudiorum egregia merita, multa etiam sequius admissa in rem p.
[There were many famous and worthy acts made by members of the Claudian family, and many acts committed contributed to the republic.]
quod in conferta multitudine aegre procedente carpento palam optauerat,
[because, in the crowd that was packed together, and in her sedan as it passed by in public, she had wished,]
ut frater suus Pulcher reuiuisceret
[that her brother Pulcher was still alive,]
atque iterum classem amitteret,
[and could once again send a fleet away,]
quo minor turba Romae foret.
[so that there could be less rabble in Rome.]
Praeterea notatissimum est,
[Furthermore, it is undoubtedly famous,]
[that all of the members of the Claudians,]
excepto dum taxat P. Clodio,
[except for the sole example of Publius Clodius,]
qui ob expellendum urbe Ciceronem plebeio homini atque etiam natu minori in adoptionem se dedit,
[who turned himself into a plebeian citizen in order to have Cicero exiled from the city, and so that he could be adopted as a younger son,]
optimates adsertoresque unicos dignitatis ac potentiae patriciorum semper fuisse
[that they were members of the Optimates, the highest class, and unique fosterers of our class structure, and always supportive of the patricians' power,]
atque aduersus plebem adeo uiolentos et contumaces,
[and were so very violent and ill-wishing towards the common people,]
ut ne capitis quidem quisquam reus apud populum mutare uestem aut deprecari sustinuerit;
[that not even one of them deserving of execution would rather bear to change his class garb in support of the people, or seek their help;]
nonnulli in altercatione et iurgio tribunos plebi pulsauerint.
[a great deal of them attacked the tribunes of the plebs, in physical altercations, and quarrels.]
Etiam uirgo Vestalis fratrem iniussu populi triumphantem ascenso simul curru usque in Capitolium prosecuta est,
[One time, a Vestal Virgin had to follow her brother, who was celebrating a triumph in a raised chariot all the way to the Capitol, and not by the order of the people,]
ne uetare aut intercedere fas cuiquam tribunorum esset.
[in order to prevent it from becoming a custom for any of the tribunes to veto or intercede.]
 Ex hac stirpe Tiberius Caesar genus trahit,
[Tiberius Caesar took his lineage from this family tree,]
e[t] quidem utrumque:
[and actually, on both sides:]
paternum a Tiberio Nerone, maternum ab Appio Pulchro, qui ambo Appi Caeci filii fuerunt.
[his father's side from Tiberius Nero, and mother's side from Appius Pulcher, both of whom were sons of Appius the Blind.]
Insertus est et Liuiorum familiae adoptato in eam materno auo.
[He was member of the Livian family too, since his maternal grandfather was adopted in this family.]
Quae familia, quanquam plebeia, tamen et ipsa admodum floruit octo consulatibus,
[This family, although of plebeian status, still flourished greatly from its eight consuls,]
censuris duabus, triumphis tribus, dictatura etiam ac magisterio equitum honorata;
[two censors, three triumphs, and even honored by a member who was a dictator and Master of the Horse;]
clara et insignibus uiris ac maxime Salinatore Drusisque.
[it was distinguished both from its famous men, and most of all from Salinator, and the Drusi.]
Salinator uniuersas tribus in censura notauit leuitatis nomine,
[Salinator marked all the tribes with a funny title, during his tenure as censor,]
quod, cum se post Priorem consulatum multa inrogata condemnassent,
[because, even when, after holding a previous consulship, many legal petitions had sought have him condemned,]
consulem iterum censoremque fecissent.
[people still appointed him consul for a second time, and censor too.]
Drusus hostium duce Drauso comminus trucidato sibi posterisque suis cognomen inuenit.
[Drusus gained his nickname from killing, in hand to hand combat, a general named Drausus, which was passed down to his descendents.]
Traditur etiam pro praetore ex prouincia Gallia ret[t]ulisse aurum Senonibus olim in obsidione Capitolii datum nec, ut fama est, extortum a Camillo.
[He's also reputed, in his position as praetor in the province of Gaul, to have brought back the gold that was, once upon a time, granted to the Senones in their seige of our Capitol, and not, as the legend goes, stolen off by Camillus.]
Eius abnepos ob eximiam aduersus Gracchos operam patronus senatus dictus filium reliquit,
[His great grandson, being appointed as head of the senate, abandoned his son's side on account of the latter's opposition against the former's reprisals against the Gracchi,]
quem in simili dissensione multa uarie molientem diuersa factio per fraudem interemit.
[although a different faction ended up imbroiling him in scandal, once he began to be pressed in by similar dissention from various sides.]
 Pater Tiberi, Nero, quaestor C. Caesaris Alexandrino bello classi praepositus, plurimum ad uictoriam contulit.
[Tiberius' father, Nero, a quaestor of Gaius Caesar that had been appointed over the fleet during the war in Alexandria, did much to contribute to the victory.]
Quare et pontifex in locum P. Scipionis substitutus et ad deducendas in Galliam colonias, in quis Narbo et Arelate erant, missus est.
[Why in fact, he also replaced Publius Scipio as the pontifex, and he was commissioned to establish settlements in Gaul, in the places Narbonne and Arles lie.]
Tamen Caesare occiso, cunctis turbarum metu abolitionem facti decernentibus, etiam de praemiis tyrannicidarum referendum censuit.
[And yet, after Caesar was assassinated, and when the entire group of men began to perceive the unpopularity of the act from the utter panic of the masses, then he argued for a vote by the people regarding bounties for the capture of assassins.]
Praetura deinde functus, cum exitu anni discordia inter triumuiros orta esset,
[Thenafter, he served as praetor, even while discord had risen between the triumvirs at the very end of that year,]
retentis ultra iustum tempus insignibus L. Antonium consulem triumuiri fratrem ad Perusiam secutus,
[and he chased the consul Lucius Antony, the triumvir's brother, to Perugia, after he had held his office beyond what was the allotted term,]
deditione a ceteris facta, solus permansit in partibus ac primo Praeneste,
[and he alone, even after surrender had been given by the others, in the surrounding regions, and before that, in Praenestum,]
inde Neapolim euasit
[and after that, he escaped to Naples]
seruisque ad pilleum frustra uocatis in Siciliam profugit.
[and he fled to Sicily, after he, in vain, had tried to beckon his servants to his aid.]
Sed indigne ferens nec statim se in conspectum Sexti Pompei admissum et fascium usu prohibitum, ad M. Antonium traiecit in Achaiam.
[But bearing a grudge, and not being immediately allowed in the sight of Sextus Pompey, but instead disallowed of any use of his military power, he joined Mark Antony in Greece.]
Cum quo breui reconciliata inter omnis pace Romam redit
[When, after a brief spell and peace was reconciled among all parties, he returned to Rome,]
uxoremque Liuiam Drusillam et tunc grauidam et ante iam apud se filium enixam petenti Augusto concessit.
[and being requested, he granted Augustus the rights to his wife Livia Drusilla, who at the time was pregnant and had already given birth to a son.]
Nec multo post diem obiit,
[He died not many days after,]
utroque liberorum superstite, Tiberio Drusoque Neronibus.
[and was survived by both of his sons, Tiberius and Drusus Nero.]
 Tiberium quidam Fundis natum existimauerunt secuti leuem coniecturam,
[Certain people thought that Tiberius was a son of a man, Fundo, but they follow this disreputable theory]
quod materna eius auia Fundana fuerit
[because his maternal grandmother was Fundana]
et quod mox simulacrum Felicitatis ex s. C. Publicatum ibi sit.
[and because, soon after, there was a statue of Felicity commissioned by decree of the Senate.]
Sed ut plures certioresque tradunt, natus est Romae in Palatio XVI. Kal. Dec. M. Aemilio Lepido iterum L. Munatio Planco conss. Per bellum Philippense.
[But most others say that he was born in Rome, on the Palatine HIll, on the 16th Kalends of December, during the second consul year of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and that of Lucius Munatius Plancus during our war against Philip.]
Sic enim in fastos actaque in publica relatum est.
[You see, the accounts are thusly verified by the official calender and public records.]
Nec tamen desunt,
[And yet, there is no lack of men]
qui partim antecedente anno, Hirti ac Pansae, partim insequenti, Seruili Isaurici [L.]que Antoni[i] consulatu, genitum eum scribant.
[who write that either he was born on the year before Hirtius and Pansa's consulship, or the one after, during the consulship of Servilius Isauricus and Lucius Antony.]
 Infantiam pueritiamque habuit laboriosam et exercitatam,
[He had drudging and rigorous childhood and boyhood,]
comes usque quaque parentum fugae;
[as he was ever the companion of his parents' flight from here and there;]
quos quidem apud Neapolim sub inruptionem hostis nauigium clam petentis uagitu suo paene bis prodidit,
[that is, parents whom he, on two occasions, when under the inspection of their nemesis who had secretly searched their ship in Naples, almost got them captured by his whining,]
semel cum a nutricis ubere,
[the first time when he was breast-feeding from his nursemaid,]
ite[ru]m cum a sinu matris raptim auferretur ab iis,
[and again when he was snatched from his mother's bosom by men]
qui pro necessitate temporis mulierculas leuare onere temptabant.
[who were attempting to lighten the burden from their woman to speed up their escape.]
Per Siciliam quoque et per Achaiam circumductus ac Lacedaemoniis publice,
[After he was led around Sicily and Greece, and publicly in Sparta,]
quod in tutela Claudiorum erant,
[because they took care to protect the members of the Claudian family,]
[he was hunted down,]
digrediens inde itinere nocturno discrimen uitae adiit flamma repente e siluis undique exorta
[and as he making his escape, he immediately had to don a woman's veil in his flight through the night, as he wander aimlessly about the woods]
adeoque omnem comitatum circumplexa,
[and he was so completely hidden by his slew of familiars]
ut Liuiae pars uestis et capilli amburerentur.
[that part of Livia's dress and hair were used to cover him.]
Munera, quibus a Pompeia Sex. Pompei sorore in Sicilia donatus est, chlamys et fibula,
[There were gifts with which he was rewarded from Sextus Pompey's sister, Pompeia, in Sicily, a cloak and clasp,]
item bullae aureae, durant ostendunturque adhuc Bais.
[as well as a locket made of gold, which survive and are still put on display in Baiae.]
Post reditum in urbem a M. Gallio senatore testamento adoptatus hereditate adita mox nomine abstinuit,
[After his return to the big city, he was adopted into the will of Marcus Gallius as his heir, but soon he renounced his title,]
quod Gallius aduersarum Augusto partium fuerat.
[after Gallius had become a member of the rival faction against Augustus.]
Nouem natus annos defunctum patrem pro rostris laudauit.
[Now nine years old, he spoke words of praise on the public rostra for his deceased father.]
Dehinc pubescens Actiaco triumpho currum Augusti comitatus est sinisteriore funali equo,
[From there, as he reached manhood, he accompanied Augustus' chariot in his triumph celebrating the victory of Actium, sitting upon the draped horse on his left side,]
cum Marcellus Octauiae filius dexteriore ueheretur.
[while Marcellus, Octavia's son, was carried on the right side.]
Praesedit et asticis ludis
[He sat in the seat of honor during the Astian Games,]
et Troiam circensibus [lusit] ductor turmae puerorum maiorum.
[and was the leader of the crowd of older chaps who set about a mock battle of Troy in the Circus.]
 Virili toga sumpta adulescentiam omnem spatiumque insequentis aetatis usque ad principatus initia per haec fere transegit.
[After he donned the toga of manhood, he nearly passed the entire extent of his young male life between that point and the beginning of his rule as emperor.]
Munus gladiatorium in memoriam patris et alterum in aui Drusi dedit,
[He threw gladiatorial games in memory of his father, and more games in honor of his grandfather Drusus,]