Friday, March 4, 2011

Livy, History of Rome from the City's Foundation (Book 1)


Titius Livius
59 BCE-17 CE
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Golden Age of Latin Literature-Imperial Era)


facturusne operae pretium sim si a primordio urbis res populi Romani perscripserim nec satis scio nec, si sciam, dicere ausim, [2] quippe qui cum ueterem tum uolgatam esse rem uideam, dum noui semper scriptores aut in rebus certius aliquid allaturos se aut scribendi arte rudem uetustatem superaturos credunt.

(Whether I should have established a price for my work, if I wrote about all the events of the Roman people's capital city, I'm not really sure, nor would I dare to say what it could be, if I knew, since naturally I not only see our history as an ancient one, but a well-known one, while younger historians always believe that they will come up with something more accurate about the events, or that they will overcome the sheer oldness of history with their writing ability.)

utcumque erit, iuuabit tamen rerum gestarum memoriae principis terrarum populi pro uirili parte et ipsum consuluisse;

(Whatever is the case, it would still be helpful for a man to find insight from the memory of the accomplishments of the leading people of the world, being to the advantage of his manhood.)

et si in tanta scriptorum turba mea fama in obscuro sit, nobilitate ac magnitudine eorum me qui nomini officient meo consoler.

(And if my own fame falls in obscurity among such a great crowd of historians, I would satisfy myself with the nobility and greatness of these guys, that is, the ones on eclipse my own reputation.)

res est praeterea et immensi operis, ut quae supra septingentesimum annum repetatur et quae ab exiguis profecta initiis eo creuerit ut iam magnitudine laboret sua;

(And besides, history requires a great effort; consequently, it is one that has been given attention once again after more than 700 years, and one that will have grown so much, after being carried forth from its established beginnings, that it now labors under its own magnitude.)

et legentium plerisque haud dubito quin primae origines proximaque originibus minus praebitura uoluptatis sint, festinantibus ad haec noua quibus iam pridem praeualentis populi uires se ipsae conficiunt:

(And no, I'm not doubting that the very beginnings, and later events, will be afforded to most of the readers out of desire; for these guys rushing to new events in history, the famous and powerful strength of our greatly valiant people has already established itself long ago:)

ego contra hoc quoque laboris praemium petam, ut me a conspectu malorum quae nostra tot per annos uidit aetas, tantisper certe dum prisca [tota] illa mente repeto, auertam, omnis expers curae quae scribentis animum, etsi non flectere a uero, sollicitum tamen efficere posset.

(Despite this point, I might still seek a price for my work; for a while I've been recalling for sure all those events of old, that is, the ones which my life has seen in the course of so many years; it was a life, free from all worry, that could still make a writer's mind anxious even now, though it could never stray from the truth.)

quae ante conditam condendamue urbem poeticis magis decora fabulis quam incorruptis rerum gestarum monumentis traduntur, ea nec adfirmare nec refellere in animo est.

(As for the events before the city was founded, or was destined to be founded, that are related more as honors linked to legends in literature than by the indestructible monuments of triumphal accomplishments, it's not up to my mind to confirm or debunk these events.)

datur haec uenia antiquitati ut miscendo humana diuinis primordia urbium augustiora faciat;

(This privilege is allowed for antiquity, that is, that it makes man-made foundations of cities holier by blending them into divine events.)

et si cui populo licere oportet consecrare origines suas et ad deos referre auctores, ea belli gloria est populo Romano ut cum suum conditorisque sui parentem Martem potissimum ferat, tam et hoc gentes humanae patiantur aequo animo quam imperium patiuntur.

(And if it is suitable for a people to be allowed to sanctify their own beginnings and equate their founders to gods, this glory of war belongs to the Roman people; consequently, since the people believe that Mars, the father of its founder, was all-powerful, then the races of men endure this god's existence in just as much measure as they endure human rule.)

sed haec et his similia utcumque animaduersa aut existimata erunt haud in magno equidem ponam discrimine:

(On second thought, whenever I notice and consider them, I never really put these events, and those similar to them, in a great distinction:)

ad illa mihi pro se quisque acriter intendat animum, quae uita, qui mores fuerint, per quos uiros quibusque artibus domi militiaeque et partum et auctum imperium sit;

(To my disadvantage, each man fiercely concentrates his mind on these events for his own advantage, that is, what the customs were, through what men, and by what hefty arms, at home and on campaign, the empire was born and sired.)

labente deinde paulatim disciplina uelut desidentes primo mores sequatur animo, deinde ut magis magisque lapsi sint, tum ire coeperint praecipites, donec ad haec tempora quibus nec uitia nostra nec remedia pati possumus peruentum est.

(Thereafter, just as little by little our discipline begins to follow the traditions seeping down from our original philosophy, consequently they fell into place afterwards more and more; then they began to go headlong forth, until history came all the way down to these current times, that is, when we can neither tolerate our own vices and remedies.)

hoc illud est praecipue in cognitione rerum salubre ac frugiferum.

(Therefore, that fact is healthy and fruitful in the investigation of historical events.)

omnis te exempli documenta in inlustri posita monumento intueri;

(By example, it's necessary for you to investigate the evidence that has been established in illustrious example of history's entiriety.)

inde tibi tuaeque rei publicae quod imitere capias, inde foedum inceptu foedum exitu quod uites.

(So, you should take an example from your republic for own advantage; likewise, try to avoid shame from the beginning, and shame all the way to the end.)

ceterum aut me amor negotii suscepti fallit, aut nulla unquam res publica nec maior nec sanctior nec bonis exemplis ditior fuit, nec in quam [ciuitatem] tam serae auaritia luxuriaque immigrauerint, nec ubi tantus ac tam diu paupertati ac parsimoniae honos fuerit.

(Either the passion of the business that has been undertaken has deceived me, when I was otherwise sure, or there has been never been republic greater, holier, or richer in good examples of men; avarice and luxury have neither entered into this city from the outside so lately, nor has such a great and long-lasting honor been devoted to poverty and frugal living.)

adeo quanto rerum minus, tanto minus cupiditatis erat:

(There was such a smaller economy size, that it was equal to how much smaller their desirous lust was.)

nuper diuitiae auaritiam et abundantes uoluptates desiderium per luxum atque libidinem pereundi perdendique omnia inuexere.

(Lately, wealthy fortunes have introduced avarice, and overpowering desires have brought pure lust to destroy and annihilate everything through luxury and depravity.)

sed querellae, ne tum quidem gratae futurae cum forsitan necessariae erunt, ab initio certe tantae ordiendae rei absint:

(But, from the beginning, let my complaints be surely absent from such an important affair to be commenced, for fear that future times might not be pleasing and even necessary.)

cum bonis potius ominibus uotisque et precationibus deorum dearumque, si, ut poetis, nobis quoque mos esset, libentius inciperemus, ut orsis tantum operis successus prosperos darent.

(Since it is better with the good omens and vows and prayers of the gods and goddesses, it is also my custom, that we could begin more freely than the poets, and so that they only could only bestow prosperous successes after the works have commenced.)

[1] Iam primum omnium satis constat Troia capta in ceteros saevitum esse Troianos, duobus, Aeneae Antenorique,

[First of all, it has been sufficiently agreed that, after Troy had been seized, a slaughter was waged against all other Trojans, except for two, Aeneas and Antenor,]

et vetusti iure hospitii et quia pacis reddendaeque Helenae semper auctores fuerant, omne ius belli Achiuos abstinuisse;

[And because the old code of hospitality and the fact that these two had always advocated returning Helen, the Argives steered their warfare away from them;]

casibus deinde variis Antenorem cum multitudine Enetum,

[From the various happenings, Antenor, along with the tribe of Eneti,]

qui seditione ex Paphlagonia pulsi et sedes et ducem rege Pylaemene ad Troiam amisso quaerebant, venisse in intimum maris Hadriatici sinum,

[and these men, after they were driven out of Paphlagonia, sought a leader, after their king Pulemenes had been taken captive to Troy, and are said to come to the innermost bay of the Adriatic sea,]

Euganeisque qui inter mare Alpesque incolebant pulsis Enetos Troianosque eas tenuisse terras.

[and after driving the Euganei tribes out, the Eneti lived between the coast and the Alps, and the Trojans are said to have occupied the very same lands.]

Et in quem primo egressi sunt locum Troia vocatur
[And the place to which they first left out, was called Troy]

 pagoque inde Troiano nomen est:
[and henceforth, the name was belonged to Trojan territory:]

 gens universa Veneti appellati.
[the entire population were called the Venetians <Veneti>]

 Aeneam ab simili clade domo profugum
[Aeneas was a refugee from his homeland by a similar case of disaster]

sed ad maiora rerum initia ducentibus fatis,
[but, because the fates were guiding him, it turned out for even greater foundations of historical events]

primo in Macedoniam venisse,
[when first he came to Macedonia]

 inde in Siciliam quaerentem sedes delatum,
[and later on he founded a residence while exploring Sicily]

ab Sicilia classe ad Laurentem agrum tenuisse.
[and he steered toward the fields of Laurentium with his fleet from Sicily.]

Troia et huic loco nomen est.
[And the name of this area is Troy.]

Ibi egressi Troiani,
[From there left the Trojans]

 ut quibus ab immenso prope errore nihil praeter arma et naues superesset,
[and what happened was these men no longer owned no possessions besides their arms and ships, after their enormous wanderings,]

 cum praedam ex agris agerent,
[and when they began to steal plunder from the countryside]

 Latinus rex Aboriginesque qui tum ea tenebant loca ad arcendam vim advenarum armati ex urbe
atque agris concurrunt.
[the Latin king and the native folks, who used to own these areas at the time, came rushing from their city and fields in arms in order to repel the violence of the pilgrims.]

 Duplex inde fama est.
[There are two traditions to the story.]

Alii proelio victum Latinum pacem cum Aenea,
 deinde adfinitatem iunxisse tradunt:
[some men say that Latinus was defeated and formed a peace agreement with Aeneas, and later tied him to his family:]

alii, cum instructae acies constitissent,
[others say, when the battlelines had been drawn up,]

priusquam signa canerent processisse Latinum inter primores
ducemque advenarum euocasse ad conloquium;
[but before the war trumpets could sound, Latinus had walked up among the first ranks, and had bid the leader of the invaders to talk;]

 percontatum deinde qui mortales essent,
[then he asked them at that point whether they were mortal men,]

 unde aut quo casu profecti domo quidue quaerentes in agrum Laurentinum exissent,
[and to where, and from where, they were heading, and for what reason they had left their homeland to seek after the fields of Laurentium,]

 postquam audierit multitudinem Troianos esse,
[after which he learned that their crowd were Trojans,]

ducem Aeneam filium Anchisae et Veneris,
[and that Aeneas was the son of Anchises and Venus,]

 cremata patria domo profugos,
[and that they were refugees fleeing their home, since their nation had been burned to the ground,]

sedem condendaeque urbi locum quaerere,
[and that they were seeking a home and a place to found a city,]

et nobilitatem admiratum gentis virique et animum vel bello vel paci paratum,
[and the intentions of this nation, and its leader, was prepared for either war or peace,]

 dextra data fidem futurae amicitiae sanxisse.
[and that he had entrusted his faith in their future alliance, once he extending his right hand.]

Inde foedus ictum inter duces,
[From then one, a peace treaty was hammered out between the leaders,]

inter exercitus salutationem factam.
[and an official greeting was made between their armies.]

 Aeneam apud Latinum fuisse in hospitio;
[Aeneas was taken as a guest in Latinus' palace;]

 ibi Latinum apud penates deos domesticum publico adiunxisse foedus filia Aeneae in matrimonium data.
[and there, Latinus, by giving his daughter in marriage to Aeneas, linked his private accord to his household gods, in public.]

Ea res utique Troianis spem adfirmat tandem stabili certaque sede finiendi erroris.
[In any event, this event finally settled the hope of the Trojans' wandering, to a place with an assurded, stable place.]

 Oppidum condunt;
[They founded a town]

 Aeneas ab nomine uxoris Lavinium appellat.
[Aeneas called it Lavinium, after his wife's name.]

Brevi stirpis quoque virilis ex novo matrimonio fuit,
[And briefly, a young boy was born from this new matrimony,]

cui Ascanium parentes dixere nomen.
[to whom they gave the name, Ascanius.]

[2] Bello deinde Aborigines Troianique simul petiti.
[Then after, both the native inhabitants and the Trojans were called to battle.]

Turnus rex Rutulorum, cui pacta Lavinia ante adventum Aeneae fuerat,
[Turnus, king of the Rutulians, to whom Lavinia had been bethrothed before Aeneas' arrival,]

 praelatum sibi advenam aegre patiens simul Aeneae Latinoque bellum intulerat.
[and taking it as a personal insult that a foreigner was put before himself, he declared war against Aeneas and Latinus both.]

 Neutra acies laeta ex eo certamine abiit:
[Neither side of the battle left from this conflict happy:]

 victi Rutuli:
[the Rutulians were defeated:]

victores Aborigines Troianique ducem Latinum amisere.
[the natives and Trojans saw the loss of their leader Latinus.]

 Inde Turnus Rutulique diffisi rebus ad florentes opes Etruscorum Mezentiumque regem eorum confugiunt,
[From there, Turnus and the Rutulians, lacking aid, fled to flourishing resources of the Etruscans, and their king, Mezentius,]

qui Caere opulento tum oppido imperitans,
[who at that time ruled from his opulent city, Caere,]

iam inde ab initio minime laetus novae origine urbis
 et tum nimio plus quam satis tutum esset accolis rem Troianam crescere ratus,
[and from its very beginning, he was quite displeased by the foundation of the new city, and at that time,

 haud gravatim socia arma Rutulis iunxit.
[and he enthusiastically joined arms in an alliance with the Rutulians.]

 Aeneas adversus tanti belli terrorem ut animos Aboriginum sibi conciliaret
[Aeneas, despite feeling terror for such a tremendous war, felt that he could reconcile the minds of the native peoples to his own side]

 nec sub eodem iure solum sed etiam nomine omnes essent,
[that they all could not only exist under the same rule of law, but also under the same name,]

Latinos utramque gentem appellavit;
[and called both nations, Latins.]

 nec deinde Aborigines Troianis studio ac fide erga regem Aeneam cessere.
[But after that, the Aborigines did not yield to the Trojans despite the passion and goodwill they felt toward King Aeneas.]

 Fretusque his animis coalescentium in dies magis duorum populorum Aeneas,
[And Aeneas, banking on these intentions of the two peoples coming together in the following days,]

 quamquam tanta opibus Etruria erat
[and although Tuscany was so great in its resources]

 ut iam non terras solum sed mare etiam per totam Italiae longitudinem ab Alpibus ad fretum Siculum fama nominis sui implesset,
[that it had already filled up not only the lands but even the sea, along the entire length of Italy, from the Alps down to the straight of Sicily, with the reputation of its name,]

tamen cum moenibus bellum propulsare posset in aciem copias eduxit.
[still, if he could manage to take his war to the walls of their cities, he led his troops to the battle lines.]

Secundum inde proelium Latinis, Aeneae etiam ultimum operum mortalium fuit.
[From then one, there was a second battle with the Latins, and this time, it was the very last of Aeneas' acts alive.]

Situs est, quemcumque eum dici ius fasque est super Numicum flumen:
[He was buried, and it is both divine and common law for, that is, for all men, no matter who, that it be declared "above the River Numicus".]

Iovem indigetem appellant.
[people now call him "Jove of the native land".]

[3] Nondum maturus imperio Ascanius Aeneae filius erat;
[Aeneas' son Ascanius was not yet of age when he came to power;]

 tamen id imperium ei ad puberem aetatem incolume mansit;
[and yet, his control over the state remained intact until he reached his manhood;]

 tantisper tutela muliebri—tanta indoles in Lavinia erat—res Latina et regnum avitum paternumque puero stetit.
[So, the Latin state laid under the watch of a wife--so much potential was possessed in Lavinia--and the king of his father and ancestors was assured for the boy.]

 Haud ambigam—quis enim rem tam veterem pro certo adfirmet?
[I won't waver either--you see, you can actually confirm so ancient a matter for certain?]

—hicine fuerit Ascanius
[as to whether this boy mentioned was Ascanius]

 an maior quam hic, Creusa matre Ilio incolumi natus comesque inde paternae fugae,
[or the one older than him, that is, the son from the Troy mother Creusa, who escaped safe and sound, and from then on, was a partner on his father's escape,]

quem Iulum eundem Iulia gens auctorem nominis sui nuncupat.
[and the same one, Julus, whom the Julian family claims to be the founder of their family name.]

 Is Ascanius, ubicumque et quacumque matre genitus—certe natum Aenea constat—
[This fellow Ascanius, wherever and from whatever mother he was born, is undoubtedly the son of Aeneas,]

abundante Lavinii multitudine florentem iam
[and was already beginning to flourish among the abounding population of Lavinium,]

 ut tum res erant
[such as things were at the time,]

atque opulentam urbem matri seu novercae relinquit,
[and he left behind this opulent city to mother, or step-mother, if you will,]

novam ipse aliam sub Albano monte condidit
[and for his part, founded another new city, under Alban Mount,]

quae ab situ porrectae in dorso urbis Longa Alba appellata.
[which was called Alba Longa, from its site upon the ridge of the city as it stretched along.]