Gaius (or Marcus) Velleius Paterculus
19 BC-31 AD
Latin (Augustan Era/Imperial Era)
C. VELLEI PATERCULI HISTORIAE ROMANAE LIBRI DUO
AD M. VINCIUVM COS. [To the Consul, Marcus Vincius]
LIBER PRIOR [Book 1]
 [Epeus] tempestate distractus a duce suo Nestore Metapontum condidit.
[Epeos, driven apart in a storm by his general Nestor, founded Metapontus.]
Teucer, non receptus a patre Telamone ob segnitiam non vindicatae fratris iniuriae, Cyprum adpulsus cognominem patriae suae Salamina constituit:
[Teucer, since he was not welcomed by his father Telamon, on account of not having been industrious in achieving vengeance for an insult to his brother, and after striking out for Cyprus, gave the namesake of his own nation in Salamina.]
Pyrrhus, Achillis filius, Epirum occupavit, Phidippus Ephyram in Thesprotia.
[Pyrrhus, Achilles' son, took control of Epiros, while Phidippos did the same of Ephira in the country of Thresportia.]
2 At rex regum Agamemnon, tempestate in Cretam insulam reiectus, tres ibi urbes statuit,
[But the ruler of these kings, Agamemnon, once he was cast back by a storm to the island of Crete, founded three towns there,]
duas a patriae nomine,
[two by the name of his own nation,]
unam a victoriae memoria, Mycenas, Tegeam, Pergamum.
[and one as a memorial of his victory: so, Mycenae, Tegea, and Pergamum.]
Idem mox scelere patruelis fratris Aegisthi, hereditarium exercentis in eum odium, et facinore uxoris oppressus occiditur.
[At the same time, he was soon killed by the wicked scheme of his brother Aegisthos, who bore a familial rivalry against him, and also was Agamemnon felled by the ill deed of his wife.]
3 Regni potitur Aegisthus per annos septem.
[For seven years did Aegisthos rule over the kingdom.]
Hunc Orestes matremque, socia consiliorum omnium sorore Electra, virilis animi femina, obtruncat.
[Orestes killed this fellow and his mother, with his sister Electra coming up with all of the planning, for she was a woman with the mind like a man's.]
Factum eius a diis comprobatum spatio vitae et felicitate imperii apparuit;
[His action, after it was approved in unison by the gods, showed itself from the long span of his lifetime and good fortune of his reign;]
quippe vixit annis nonaginta, regnavit septuaginta.
[why in fact, he lived for 90 years and reigned for 70.]
Quin se etiam a Pyrrho Achillis filio virtute vindicavit;
[Indeed, even Achilles avenged himself through agency of his son's sense of duty, that is, throuhg Pyrrhus;]
nam quod pactae eius Menelai atque Helenae filiae Hermiones nuptias occupaverat, Delphis eum interfecit.
[you see, because he had usurped the marriage of agreement involving Menelaos and Helen's daughter, Hermiona, Delphis killed him.]
4 Per haec tempora Lydus et Tyrrhenus fratres cum regnarent in Lydia,
[Around this period of time, when Lydos and Tyrrhenos, two brothers, used to rule in Lydia,]
sterilitate frugum compulsi sortiti sunt,
[they cast lots, compelled by a lack of food,]
uter cum parte multitudinis patria decederet.
[whereupon one or the other had to leave his country with a portion of the population.]
Sors Tyrrhenum contigit.
[The lots favored Tyrrhenos.]
Pervectus in Italiam et loco et incolis et mari nobile ac perpetuum a se nomen dedit.
[After he sailed across to Italy, he give his own noble and eternal name to the area, and inhabitants, and sea.]
Post Orestis interitum filii eius Penthilus et Tisamenus regnavere triennio.
[After the death of Orestes, his sons Penthilos and Tisamenos ruled for three years.]
 Tum fere anno octogesimo post Troiam captam,
[Then almost 80 years after Troy was captured]
centesimo et vicesimo quam Hercules ad deos excesserat,
[and the 120th one after Hercules flew off to the gods]
[the descendents of Pelops]
quae omni hoc tempore pulsis Heraclidis Peloponnesi imperium obtinuerat,
[which had take over control of the Peloponnesos for the entire time after the Heraclidae were driven out]
ab Herculis progenie expellitur.
[it was they are were cast off by the descendents of Hercules]
Duces recuperandi impeii fuere Temenus, Cresphontes, Aristodemus,
[The military leaders able to recover this ?control? were Temenos, Crespontes, and Aristodemos]
quorum abavus fuerat.
[men whose forefather was Hercules.]
Eodem fere tempore Athenae sub regibus esse desierunt,
[Almost at the same time did Athens find itself being ruled by kings,]
quarum ultimus rex fuit Codrus, Melanthi filius, vir non praetereundus.
[whose very last king was Codros, son of Melanthios, and a man not easily excelled.]
Quippe cum Lacedaemonii gravi bello Atticos premerent
[In fact, when the grave Spartans pressed the Athenians in with war]
[the Pythian god had previously proclaimed]
quorum dux ab hoste esset occisus,
[that whoever's general would be killed by his foe]
eos futuros superiores,
[would be the future victors]
deposita veste regia pastoralem cultum induit,
[so Codrus dressed up as a shepherd, setting aside his royal robes]
immixtusque castris hostium,
[and infiltrating the camps of the enemies]
de industria rixam ciens,
[and stirring up a quarrel about their work ethic]
imprudenter interemptus est.
[and he was unwisely murdered.]
2 Codrum cum morte aeterna gloria, Atheniensis secuta victoria est.
[When after Codrus died with eternal fame, the victory went to Athens.]
Quis eum non miretur,
[Who was not amazed by this man,]
qui iis artibus mortem quaesierit,
[who did not ask about his death with limbs,]
quibus ab ignavis vita quaeri solet?
[with which lazily does one pursue his life?]