Sunday, May 1, 2011

Nepos, Timoleon

Cornelius Nepos
100-24 BCE
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Republican Era/Golden Age of Latin Literature)


[1] TIMOLEON Corinthius.
[Timoleon was a Corinthian man.]

 Sine dubio magnus omnium iudicio hic vir exstitit.
[Without a doubt, he was a great man here, in the opinion of all.]

 Namque huic uni contigit,
[By which account, it falls upon a single person,]

 quod nescio an nulli, ut et patriam, in qua erat natus,
[because in some way or another, when it comes to the nation in which he was born,]

oppressam a tyranno liberaret
[but he liberated it from tyranny]

 et a Syracusanis, quibus auxilio erat missus,
[and from the Syracusans, to whom an embassy was sent to seek their aid,]

iam inveteratam servitutem depelleret
[and already did he beat out the old-aged condition of servitude]

 totamque Siciliam multos annos bello vexatam a barbarisque oppressam suo adventu in pristinum restitueret.
[and he restored all of Sicily, which had been plagued for many years and oppressed by foreigners, to its pristine state upon his arrival.]

2 Sed in his rebus non simplici fortuna conflictatus est
[But in these affairs, he was afflicted by any simple turn of luck,]

 et, id quod difficilius putatur,
[and, this is something that is pondered upon with more complexity,]

 multo sapientius tulit secundam quam adversam fortunam.
[he used his good fortune more wisely than his bad fortune.]

 3 Nam cum frater eius Timophanes, dux a Corinthiis delectus,
[You see, since his brother was Timophanes, who was elected general by the Corinthians,]

 tyrannidem per milites mercennarios occupasset
[had established a tyranny through the agency of mercenary soldiers,]

particepsque regni posset esse,
[and he was able to partake in the kingdom,]

tantum afuit a societate sceleris,
[he stood apart from the association of wicked deeds, to such an extent,]

 ut antetulerit civium suorum libertatem fratris saluti
[that he placed the liberties of his own citizens before the safety of his brother]

et parere legibus quam imperare patriae satius duxerit.
[and he took more satisfaction in obeying the laws than ruling over his nation.]

 4 Hac mente per haruspicem communemque affinem, cui soror ex eisdem parentibus nata nupta erat, fratrem tyrannum interficiundum curavit.
[With his mind focused upon the local and neighboring soothsayer, to whom his sister, born from the very same parents, was married, he took care to plan the murder of her brother, the tyrant.]

 Ipse non modo manus non attulit,
[This fellow did not refuse to put hands upon him,]

 sed ne aspicere quidem fraternum sanguinem voluit.
[but in fact, he truly did not wish to see the bloody death of his brother.]

 Nam quidam res conficeretur,
[You see, the matter was indeed carried out,] 

 procul in praesidio fuit,
[and he was far away from his bodyguard,]

 ne quis satelles posset succurrere. 
[to prevent any of his followers from being able to offer him help.]

5 Hoc praeclarissimum eius factum non pari modo probatum est ab omnibus.
[This most distinguished action of his was not approved in equal fashion by everybody.]

 Nonnulli enim laesam ab eo pietatem putabant 
[You see, some thought that a sense of filial duty was betrayed by him]

et invidia laudem virtutis obterebant.
[and they began to mar the praise of his virtue out of jealousy.]

 Mater vero post id factum neque domum ad se filium admisit neque aspexit,
[In fact his mother, after this occurance, neither opened her home to his son, or looked upon him again,]

 quin eum fratricidam impiumque detestans compellaret.
[for fear that she would she would have to, despite the fact that she detested a murder of his brother, as a impious act.]

 6 Quibus rebus ille adeo est commotus,
[Our protagonist was so deeply upset by such outcomes,]

 ut nonnumquam vitae finem facere voluerit 
[that she ever often wished to bring about an end to her life]

atque ex ingratorum hominum conspectu morte decedere.
[and, by means of death, flee the sight of people who hated her.]

[2] Interim Dione Syracusis interfecto Dionysius rursus Syracusarum potitus est.
[Meanwhile, after Dion of Syracuse was killed, Dionysius once again took control of Syracuse.]

 Cuius adversarii opem a Corinthiis petierunt ducemque,
[His enemies sought assistance and a leader from the Corinthians,]

quo in bello uterentur, postularunt.
[and which war they could be made use of, they made demands.]

Huc Timoleon missus incredibili felicitate Dionysium tota Sicilia depulit.
[Timoleon, once he was sent here, utterly cast out Dionysius from the entirety of Sicily.]

 2 Cum interficere posset, noluit, tutoque ut Corinthum perveniret, effecit,
[When he could have killed him, he did not choose to, not until he reached Corinth in safety, whereafter he did it ,]

 quod utrorumque Dionysiorum opibus Corinthii saepe adiuti fuerant,
[since the Corinthians had previously come to the aid of Dionysius' supporters often,]

 cuius benignitatis memoriam volebat exstare,
[and he wished for the memory of his kindness to stand out on display,]

 eamque praeclaram victoriam ducebat,
[and began to enjoy this distinguished victory,]

in qua plus esset clementiae quam crudelitatis,
[in which he could show more mercy than cruelty,]

 postremo ut non solum auribus acciperetur,
[so that, in the end, their ears might not only accept his words,]

sed etiam oculis cerneretur,
[but also that he could be discerned by their eyes,]

quem et ex quanto regno ad quam fortunam detulisset.
[that is, the man whom he had laid low, and had brought to such a turn of events, and from so great a kingdom.]

 3 Post Dionysii decessum cum Hiceta bellavit,
[After the fall of Dionysius, he waged war in alliance with Hiceta,]

 qui adversatus erat Dionysio;
[a man who had turned against Dionysius;]

 quem non odio tyrannidis dissensisse, sed cupiditate indicio fuit,
[he was a man who had not become disgruntled out of any hatred for tyranny, but rather the reason was his own lust for power,]

 quod ipse expulso Dionysio imperium dimittere noluit.
[since he himself refused to resign control over the state even after Dionysius was expelled.]

4 Hoc superato Timoleon maximas copias Carthaginiensium apud Crinissum flumen fugavit ac satis habere coegit,
[When this man was overpowered, Timoleon scattered the largest hordes of Carthaginians you can imagine across the River Crinissos and forced them a point of overwhelment,]

 si liceret Africam obtinere,
[if he could have obtained control over Africa,]

 qui iam complures annos possessionem Siciliae tenebant.
[and over those who had already held possession of Sicily for a great deal of years.]

 Cepit etiam Mamercum, Italicum ducem, hominem bellicosum et potentem,
[He also took Marmercus, the leader of the Italians and a war-mongering and powerful fellow, as prisoner,]

qui tyrannos adiutum in Siciliam venerat.
[as he had come to aid the party of tyrants in Sicily.]

[3] Quibus rebus confectis cum propter diuturnitatem belli non solum regiones, sed etiam urbes desertas videret, conquisivit, quos potuit, primum Siculos;
[When he had settled these matters completely, and when, on account of the very long duration of his campaign, he not only conquered the surrounding regions, but also saw to it that their cities were emptied of people,]

 dein Corintho arcessivit colonos,
[then he beckoned settlers from Corinth,]

 quod ab his initio Syracusae erant conditae.
[since, from the very beginning, Syracuse was just beginning to be constructed by these men.]

 2 Civibus veteribus sua restituit,
[He restored property to the former citizens,]

 novis bello vacuefactas possessiones divisit;
[and partitioned the possessions that had been forsaken, on account of the war, to new ones;]

 urbium moenia disiecta fanaque deserta refecit;
[he rebuilt the walls of the city that had been beat down and the shrines that had been deserted;]

 civitatibus leges libertatemque reddidit;
[he restored the rule of law and liberty to the citizens]

 ex maximo bello tantum otium totae insulae conciliavit,
[after its greatest war, he granted so great a time of peace to the entire island,]

ut hic conditor urbium earum, non illi, qui initio deduxerant, videretur.
[that this man seemed like the founder of their cities, and not those men who had previously settled there from the start.]

3 Arcem Syracusis, quam munierat Dionysius ad urbem obsidendam, a fundamentis disiecit;
[He shattered the citadel of Syracuse from the very foundations, which Dionysius had beforehand walled up in case the city was besieged,]

 cetera tyrannidis propugnacula demolitus est deditque operam,
[he set about to demolishing the other defensive bulwarks of the tyrant,]

 ut quam minime multa vestigia servitutis manerent.
[so that the many traces of their servitude could remain all the less.]

4 Cum tantis esset opibus,
[He could have gained so great a fortune,]

ut etiam invitis imperare posset,
[that he could command men who were previously unwilling,]

 tantum autem amorem haberet omnium Siculorum,
[and yet, he keep so great a love for all of the Sicilians,]

ut nullo recusante regnum obtinere, maluit se diligi quam metui.
[that, even while no one stood in the way of his obtaining the monarchy, he preferred for himself to be loved than be feared.]

 Itaque, cum primum potuit,
[Therefore, as soon as he could,]

imperium deposuit
[he set aside his control of the state]

ac privatus Syracusis, quod reliquum vitae fuit, vixit.
[and he lived as a private citizen in Syracuse, where he lived the remainder of his life.]

5 Neque vero id imperite fecit.
[In fact, he did so with no pressure upon him.]

Nam quod ceteri reges imperio potuerunt,
[You see, despite whatever the other kings managed to accomplish during their time in power,]

 hic benevolentia tenuit.
[this man did so with a sense of goodwill.]

 Nullus honos huic defuit,
[This man lacked no official honor or title,]

 neque postea res ulla Syracusis gesta est publice,
[nor, later on, was any act carried out in public in Syracuse,]

 de qua prius sit decretum quam Timoleontis sententia cognita.
[no sooner to be decreed until Timoleon's opinion and approval had been obtained.]

 6 Nullius umquam consilium non modo antelatum, sed ne comparatum quidem est;
[And now, never was any advice from anyone more preferred except when it was prepared, and verified, by him.]

 neque id magis benevolentia factum est quam prudentia.
[nor was it esteemed to be conducted with any more sense of kindness than wisdom.]

[4] Hic cum aetate iam provectus esset,
[When this man now reached an advanced age,]

sine ullo modo morbo lumina oculorum amisit.
[he lost the sight of his eyes, though without an ailment for its cause.]

 Quam calamitatem ita moderate tulit,
[He bore this misfortune so temperately,]

 ut neque eum querentem quisquam audierit,
[that neither did anyone ask him about it,]

neque eo minus privatis publicisque rebus interfuerit.
[nor did he manage his private and public affairs any less than before.]

 2 Veniebat autem in theatrum,
[And yet, when he used to come to the theater,]

cum ibi concilium populi haberetur,
[when assembly of the populace was held there,]

 propter valetudinem vectus iumentis iunctis, atque ita de vehiculo, quae videbantur, dicebat.
[he, now conveyed in a carriage by joined oxen, on account of his ill health, used to speak thusly about his contraption, I mean the ones that were seen.]

 Neque hoc illi quisquam tribuebat superbiae.
[Nor did anyone deem this a fault of arrogance against that man.]

 Nihil enim umquam neque insolens neque gloriosum ex ore eius exiit.
[You see, nothing insolent nor vain-glorious ever left from his mouth.]

 3 Qui quidem, cum suas laudes audiret praedicari,
[In fact, those men, when he heard them speaking praise to his account,]

numquam aliud dixit quam se in eare maxime diis agere gratias atque habere,
[said nothing other than that he was extremely thankful and grateful to the gods,]

 quod, cum Siciliam recreare constituissent,
[because, ever since they decided to re-affirm the existence of Sicily,]

 tum se potissimum ducem esse voluissent.
[they had thenafter favored him to be its most powerful leader.]

Nihil enim rerum humanarum sine deorum numine geri putabat.
[You see, he thought nothing of men's affairs could be carried out without the divine approval of the gods.]

Itaque suae domi sacellum Automatias constituerat
[And so, he set up in his own house a shrine to Automatia,]

 idque sanctissime colebat.
[and worshipped it in the most devout way one can imagine.]

 4 Ad hanc hominis excellentem bonitatem mirabiles accesserant casus.
[Wondrous turns of events occurred on account of the extraordinary piety of this man.]

 Nam proelia maxima natali suo die fecit omnia:
[In fact, he won all of his greatest battles on his birthday:]

 quo factum est, ut eius diem natalem festum haberet universa Sicilia.
[in that same way, it was established that all of Sicily would observe his birthday as a national holiday.]

[5] Huic quidam Laphystius, homo petulans et ingratus, vadimonium cum vellet imponere,
[A certain chap, Laphystius, a rude and ungrateful man, when he once desired to impose a security over him,]

quod cum illo se lege agere diceret,
[as soon as he began to say that he would press charges against our protagonist,]

 et complures concurrissent,
[and great amount of people began to run up,]

 qui procacitatem hominis manibus coercere conarentur,
[that is, people who began to force the capitulation of the fellow with blows of the hand,]

 Timoleon oravit omnes, ne id facerent.
[but Timoleon begged them all not to do this.]

 2 Namque id ut Laphystio et cuivis liceret,
[And by that account, he could allow it to Laphystius and anyone else]

 se maximos labores summaque adisse pericula.
[to take on the greatest of challenges, and most perilous dangers.]

Hanc enim speciem libertatis esse, si omnibus, quod quisque vellet,
 legibus experiri liceret.
[You see, anyone who wishes it should be allowed a chance at the law, for the sake of the appearance of liberty.]

Idem, cum quidam Laphystii similis, nomine Demaenetus, in contione populi de rebus gestis eius detrahere coepisset ac nonnulla inveheretur in Timoleonta,
[In like fashion, when another man similar to Laphystius, named Demaenetus, had just begun to compel to the attend a popular assembly concerning his official acts, and was inveighing against some of the deeds done by Timoleon,]

 3 dixit nunc demum se voti esse damnatum:
[he now declared that he would that he be condemned:]

 namque hoc a diis immortalibus semper precatum,
[by that token, that he had wished always by the immortal gods]

 ut talem libertatem restitueret Syracusanis,
[that he could restore this very right to the people of Syracuse,]

 in qua cuivis liceret, de quo vellet, impune dicere.
[that anyone by allowed to say, without the threat of punishment, whatever they wished about the matter.]

 4 Hic cum diem supremum obisset, publice a Syracusanis in gymnasio,
[This man, once he had lived his very last day among the Syracusans, after a public appearance in the gymnasium,]

quod Timoleonteum appellatur,
[which is now called the Timoleonteum,]

 tota celebrante Sicilia sepultus est.
[was buried with all of Sicily in attendance.]