Saturday, March 19, 2011

incertus auctor, Caesar's Spanish War

*attributed to Gaius Julius Caesar [but likely written by an unknown author, incertus auctor]
(uncertain dating)
Trans RMBullard

[1] Pharnace superato, Africa recepta, qui ex his proeliis cum adulescente Cn. Pompeio profugissent, cum … et ulterioris Hispaniae potitus esset, dum Caesar muneribus dandis in Italia detinetur, … quo facilius praesidia contra compararet, Pompeius in fidem uniuscuiusque civitatis confugere coepit.
[After King Pharnaces was defeated and Africa retaken, the enemies fled from the battlefield, including the teenager Gnaeus Pompey, and when he took up base in the western region of Spain, while Caesar was detained by all honors he was bestowed in Italy, wherefore Pompey built up his garrisons all the more easily against him and began to rely on the loyalty of each particular city.]

Ita partim precibus partim vi bene magna comparata manu provinciam vastare.
[Thus, after raising a large following, he began to destroy the province, in part through promises, and in part through violence.]

Quibus in rebus non nullae civitates sua sponte auxilia mittebant, item non nullae portas contra cludebant.
[Various cities sent backup forces by their own initiative in these affairs, but several denied him access to their ports;]

Ex quibus si qua oppida vi ceperat, cum aliquis ex ea civitate optime de Cn. Pompeio meritus civis esset, propter pecuniae magnitudinem alia qua ei inferebatur causa, ut eo de medio sublato ex eius pecunia latronum largitio fieret.
[Regarding these cities, if he had seized any by force, since any citizen from that city would be most deserving of Gnaeus Pompey's leadership, for any case brought against him on the magnitude of the cost to themselves,  consequently, a donation was made to that person in the course of confiscations from penalties paid for by convicted thieves.]

Ita pacis commoda hoste +hortato+ maiores augebantur copiae.
[Thusly, when the enemy had begun to urge for the benefits of peace, their numbers began to swell increasingly.]

+Hoc crebris nuntiis in Italiam missis civitates contrariae Pompeio+ auxilia sibi depostulabant.
[After frequently sending scores of messengers to Italy, the cities that were opposed to Pompey began to requested that he send them aid.]

[2] C. Caesar dictator tertio,
[I, Gaius Caesar, in my third year as dictator,]

 designatus dictator quarto multis +iterante diebus coniectis+
[had to wait to be officially designated for my fourth year as dictor, leaving me time to travel only after several days,]

cum celeri festinatione ad bellum conficiendum in Hispaniam cum venisset,
[and when, with a hasty sense of urgency, I had come to command the war against Spain,]

 legatique Cordubenses, qui a Cn. Pompelo discessissent,
[and ambassadors from Cordoba, who had previously left Gnaeus Pompey's side,]

 Caesari obviam venissent,
[had met me along the way, ]

 a quibus nuntiabatur nocturno tempore oppidum Cordubam capi posse,
[they announced that the city of Cordoba could be a captured in the fall of night,]

 quod nec opinantibus adversariis eius provinciae potitus esset,
[which was something not possible to to those who were adversaries of this province,]

 simulque quod tabellariis, qui a Cn. Pompeio dispositi omnibus locis essent,
[and they also said that when it came to the recordkeepers that had been assigned to every location by Gnaeus Pompey,]

qui certiorem Cn. Pompeium de Caesaris adventu facerent…
[and who could inform Gnaeus Pompey of my arrival]

multa praeterea veri similia proponebant.
[, that these men meanwhile were considering possible plans.]

Quibus rebus adductus quos legatos ante exercitui praefecerat Q. Pedium et Q. Fabium Maximum de suo adventu facit certiores,
[By these accounts was I led, so I made sure to inform the commanders whom I had assigned to my forces, Quintus Pedius and Quintus Fabius Maximus, about my arrival,]

utque sibi equitatus qui ex provincia fuisset praesidio esset.
[so that they could prepare a garrison for the cavalry forces that had previously been stationed in the province.] 

 Ad quos celerius quam ipsi opinati sunt appropinquavit
[He approaches those men more quickly than they themselves anticipated,]

 neque, ut ipse voluit, equitatum sibi praesidio habuit.
[nor did he gain the cavalry forces from his garrison that he wanted.]

[3] Erat idem temporis Sex. Pompeius frater qui cum praesidio Cordubam tenebat,
[At the same time, there was his brother Sextus Pompey was holding Cordoba with a garrison of troops,]

 quod eius provinciae caput esse existimabatur;
[which was thought to be the capital city of this province,]

 ipse autem Cn. Pompeius adulescens Uliam oppidum oppugnabat
[and on the other side, Gnaeus Pompey the Younger was beginning to beseige the city of Ulia]

et fere iam aliquot mensibus ibi detinebatur.
[and for nearly several months he was detained in that place.]

 Quo ex oppido cognito Caesaris adventu legati clam praesidia Cn. Pompei Caesarem cum adissent,
[Thereupon, when the officers gained sight of the city, upon my arrival, and had approached the garrisons of Gnaeus Pompey,]

 petere coeperunt
[they began to endeavor]

uti sibi primo quoque tempore subsidium mitteret.
[for him to send them help, even in that beginning stage of time.]

Caesar – eam civitatem omni tempore optime de populo Romano meritam esse – celeriter sex cohortis secunda vigilia iubet proficisci,
 pari equites numero.
[I ordered watchmen to advance forth, and an equal number of cavalry--knowing that this particular city most definitely deserved the aid of the Roman people, on any occasion,] 

Quibus praefecit hominem eius provinciae notum et non parum scientem, L. Vibiurn Paciaecum.
[Over which he put the reputed man of this province, and a very intelligent one too, Lucius Viburnius Paeciaecus.]

 Qui cum ad Cn. P praesidia venisset,
[This man, when he had reached the garrisons of Gnaeus Pompey,]

incidit idem temporis
[likewise fell to bad weather]

 ut tempestate adversa vehementique vento adflictaretur;
[such that he was beaten upon by an opposing storm system and violent headwinds;]