Wednesday, March 23, 2011

Sallust, Jugurthine War

Gaius Sallustius Crispus [Sallust]
86-35 BC
Trans RMBullard
Latin (Republican Era/Golden Age of Latin Literature)


[1] Falso queritur de natura sua genus humanum, quod inbecilla atque aevi brevis forte potius quam virtute regatur.
[The human race, governed more by light-headedness and young age than by the strength of their virtue, is falsely inquired upon regarding its nature.]

Nam contra reputando neque maius aliud neque praestabilius invenias magisque naturae industriam hominum quam vim aut tempus deesse.
[You see, you will find nothing greater or more excellent an argument against a thinking person than the importance of men's characters over violence, or that you lack the time.]

Sed dux atque imperator vitae mortalium animus est.
[But a leader and military commander for life is the heart and spirit of human beings.]

Qui ubi ad gloriam virtutis via grassatur, abunde pollens potensque et clarus est neque fortuna eget, quippe quae probitatem, industriam aliasque artis bonas neque dare neque eripere cuiquam potest.
[Whenever a person achieves glory by means of his good qualities, and promises a great deal of things, is powerful and distinguished, and lacks no resource, even still, he can neither grant or take away goodness, hard work, or other useful skills to anyone else.]

Sin captus pravis cupidinibus ad inertiam et voluptates corporis pessum datus est, perniciosa libidine paulisper usus, ubi per socordiam vires tempus ingenium diffluxere, naturae infirmitas accusatur:
[If however, he falls to inactivity out of some perverted whims or depends on his body pleasures, becoming more and more addicted to his harmful lust, and when his strength of time drains his mind through his own carelessness, the infirmity of his age is blamed:]

suam quisque culpam auctores ad negotia transferunt.
[Each and every actor assigns his own blame for his affairs.]

Quod si hominibus bonarum rerum tanta cura esset, quanto studio aliena ac nihil profutura multaque etiam periculosa ac perniciosa petunt, neque regerentur magis quam regerent casus et eo magnitudinis procederent, ubi pro mortalibus gloria aeterni fierent.
[But if care for wealth were so great among men, than by the same zeal, they pursue strange, and unrewarding things, on top of many harmful and dangerous ones, nor should they be directed any more than their luck might determine, and go on to greatness, where they might gain eternal glory for all human beings.]

[2] Nam uti genus hominum compositum ex corpore et anima est, ita res cuncta studiaque omnia nostra corporis alia, alia animi naturam secuntur.
[You see, just as the human race is composed from the body and spirit, so too are all our actions and passions divided between a corporeal and spiritual character.]

Igitur praeclara facies, magnae divitiae, ad hoc vis corporis et alia omnia huiusce modi brevi dilabuntur; 
[Therefore, a distinguished appearance, great wealth, the bodily strength that matters and all things of these sort disappear in only a short time.]

at ingeni egregia facinora sicuti anima immortalia sunt. 
[But the renowned deeds of the mind are immortal, like the spirit.]

Postremo corporis et fortunae bonorum ut initium sic finis est, omniaque orta occidunt et aucta senescunt:
[And finally, just as there is an origin for the body's fortunes, there is an end, and all things perish, and over time, grow old.]

animus incorruptus, aeternus, rector humani generis agit atque habet cuncta neque ipse habetur.
[The untainted mind is eternal, the guide of the human race, and it understands everything, yet is not understood itself.]

Quo magis pravitas eorum admiranda est, qui, dediti corporis gaudiis, per luxum et ignaviam aetatem agunt, ceterum ingenium, quo neque melius neque amplius aliud in natura mortalium est,
 [Whereby, the more amazing the depravity of these men who, once addicted to their carnal pleasures, live their life only for luxury and ignorance, and on the other side, their mind, whereby there is nothing else better or fuller in nature for human beings,]

incultu atque socordia torpescere sinunt, 
[and they allow themselves to grow numb from lack of cultivation and laziness,]

cum praesertim tam multae variaeque sint artes animi, quibus summa claritudo paratur.
[since most of all are the skills of the mind so varied and numerous, the ones through which the greatest distinction can be achieved.]

[3] Verum ex iis magistratus et imperia, postremo omnis cura rerum publicarum minime mihi hac tempestate cupienda videntur,
 [But out of these things, there are positions of leadership and powers, in this final point, the steward of the state seems to me to be least desirable at this point in time,]

quoniam neque virtuti honor datur neque illi, quibus per fraudem iis fuit uti, tuti aut eo magis honesti sunt.
[since neither does honor accompany one's virtue, nor these things safe or any more honest for men who have gained them through deceit.]

Nam vi quidem regere patriam aut parentis, quamquam et possis et delicta corrigas,
[You see, in fact, you govern your nation or your relatives by force, although you can fully rectify wrongdoings,]

tamen importunum est, cum praesertim omnes rerum mutationes caedem, fugam aliaque hostilia portendant.
[In any event, it is unfortunate, especially since all the changes in our present state of affairs portend slaughter, exile and more conflicts.]

Frustra autem niti neque aliud se fatigando nisi odium quaerere extremae dementiae est; 
[However, it is a foolish endeavor to fight it, nor is there anything to wear oneself out about except to seek a hatred for the worst type of insanity.]

nisi forte quem inhonesta et perniciosa libido tenet potentiae paucorum decus atque libertatem suam gratificari.
[except for the honor held by few, which dishonest and deadly lust for power takes hold of, and the ability to enhance one's own freedom.]

Ceterum ex aliis negotiis, quae ingenio exercentur, in primis magno usui est memoria rerum gestarum. 
[In any event, from other matters that have been put into action by one's mind, we must first make use of previous ones through the memory of acts already performed.]

Cuius de virtute quia multi dixere, praetereundum puto, simul ne per insolentiam quis existimet memet studium meum laudando extollere.
[Since many man have spoken about the virtue of this kind, I think it should be skipped over, so that, likewise, no one may think that I myself am trying to extol my own passion with praise, as a matter of arrogance.]

Atque ego credo fore qui, quia decrevi procul a re publica aetatem agere, tanto tamque utili labori meo nomen inertiae imponant, certe quibus maxima industria videtur salutare plebem et conviviis gratiam quaerere. 
[I, for my part, too think that there will be people who will judge my name unkindly for such a great and useful effort of inactivity, since I relegated myself to live far away from the republic, surely it will seemly to these very men the greatest form of industriousness to greet the common folk and to curry their favor by means of banquets.]

Qui si reputauerint, et quibus ego temporibus magistratus adeptus sum [et] quales viri idem assequi nequiverint et postea quae genera hominum in senatum pervenerint,  
[If there are any people who should look back both upon the times when I myself obtained political office, and likewise the types of leaders, and after that, the types of men who reached a position in the Senate,]

profecto existimabunt me magis merito quam ignavia iudicium animi mei mutavisse
[They will think completely that I have changed the character of my mind more through merit than through carelessness] 

maiusque commodum ex otio meo quam ex aliorum negotiis rei publicae venturum. 
[and that greater use will come to the commonwealth from my time in leisure than from the official doings of other fellows.]

Nam saepe ego audivi Q. Maximum, P. Scipionem, praeterea civitatis nostrae praeclaros viros solitos ita dicere,  
[You see, for my part, I often heard Quintus Maximus and Publius Scipio, the distinguished men of our city, so accustomed, to speak,]

cum maiorum imagines intuerentur, vehementissime sibi animum ad virtutem accendi.
[when they used to watched over the statues of our forefathers, my mind used to be inspired to virtue with the greatest possible passion.]

Scilicet non ceram illam neque figuram tantam vim in sese habere, sed memoria rerum gestarum eam flammam egregiis viris in pectore crescere neque prius sedari, quam virtus eorum famam atque gloriam adaequauerit. 
[It will be shown that the well-known wax and so great a statue will do no violence to itself, but instead, by the memory of actions performed, this flame will grow in the hearts of renowned men, and not fall silent any time before: the virtue of these men will equal their fame and glory.]

At contra quis est omnium his moribus, quin divitiis et sumptibus, non probitate neque industria cum maioribus suis contendat?
[But who among all men can contend against these traditions, that is, with no riches and resources, with no sense of goodness and hard work with their ancestors at their side?]

 Etiam homines novi, qui antea per virtutem soliti erant nobilitatem antevenire, furtim et per latrocinia potius quam bonis artibus ad imperia et honores nituntur; 
[Even newly successful men, who were beforehand accustomed to follow the noble class by means of his virtue, accomplish positions of power and honors secretly and through dirty tricks than through useful skills;]

proinde quasi praetura et consulatus atque alia omnia huiusce modi per se ipsa clara et magnifica sint ac non perinde habeantur,
[consequently, let all the offices of praetor, consul and other positions of the sort be distinguished and magnificent by their own virtue, whether or not they are held by anyone.]

Verum ego liberius altiusque processi, dum me civitatis morum piget taedetque.
[But I have digressed generously and deeply, as I am simply bemoaning and ranting about the traditions of our city.]

 Nunc ad inceptum redeo. 
[I will now return to the beginning of my endeavor.]

Bellum scripturus sum, quod populus Romanus cum Iugurtha rege Numidarum gessit, primum quia magnum et atrox variaque victoria fuit,
[I was about to write about the war, which the Roman people waged against Jugurtha, king of Numidia, firstly, because it was a great and bloody one, and the victory was in question,]

dein quia tunc primum superbiae nobilitatis obviam itum est; 
[and secondly, because, at that time, it was impeded by the haughtiness of our noble class;]

quae contentio divina et humana cuncta permiscuit eoque vecordiae processit, ut studiis civilibus bellum atque vastitas Italiae finem faceret. 
[this contest combined all elements, divine and human, and processed onward with such vehemence that it caused war and devastation for civilians all the way to Italy's border.]

Sed prius quam huiusce modi rei initium expedio, pauca supra repetam, quo ad cognoscendum omnia illustria magis magisque in aperto sint. 
[But before I set out the beginning of this matter, let me turn back to a few themes from above, whereby all the things that are illustrious to know will become increasing apparent.]

Bello Punico secundo, quo dux Carthaginiensium Hannibal post magnitudinem nominis Romani Italiae opes maxime attriuerat, Masinissa rex Numidarum in amicitiam receptus a P. Scipione, cui postea Africano cognomen ex virtute fuit, multa et praeclara rei militaris facinora fecerat. 
[After our second war with Carthage, in which the Punic general Hannibal had worn down the wealth of Italy so greatly, against the amplitude of Rome's reputation, Masinissa, the king of Numidia, welcomed into alliance by Publius Scipio, who later took the honorific title, the conqueror of Africa, on account of his accomplishment--this king had performed many famous achievements in battle.]

Ob quae victis Carthaginiensibus et capto Syphace, cuius in Africa magnum atque late imperium valuit, populus Romanus, quascumque urbis et agros manu ceperat, regi dono dedit.
[Wherefore, when Carthage lost, and Syphace, whose great power in African once prevailed far and wide, was taken prisoner, the Roman people gave to this king, as a token of appreciation, all the cities and territory it had taken into its possession.]

Igitur amicitia Masinissae bona atque honesta nobis permansit.
[Therefore, Masinissa's alliance remained completely intact and on the level, to our own benefit.]

 Sed imperi vitaeque eius finis idem fuit.
[But his reign finished with the end of his life.]

Dein Micipsa filius regnum solus obtinuit Mastanabale et Gulussa fratribus morbo absumptis.
[Shortly after, his son Micipsa obtained the sole right to rule, after his other sons Mastanabalis and Gulussa died from disease.] 

 [6] Qui ubi primum adolevit, pollens viribus, decora facie,
[He was a man who, when he first reached the bloom of his manhood, possessed promising qualities, and was exceptional in his looks]

 sed multo maxime ingenio validus,
[but most of all was he strengthened by enormous intelligence]

non se luxu neque inertiae corrumpendum dedit,
[he did not fall into a luxurious lifestyle or let himself be corrupted by inactivity]

sed, uti mos gentis illius est, equitare, iaculari;
[instead, as was the tradition of his nation, he used to ride horses, and hunt]

 cursu cum aequalibus certare
[and he would compete in footraces with his fellow companions]

et, cum omnis gloria anteiret, omnibus tamen carus esse;
[and, even though he garnered all the glory, he was still loved by all]

ad hoc pleraque tempora in venando agere,
[on the topic, he spent a great deal of time hunting]

leonem atque alias feras primus aut in primis ferire:
[and he was either first or among first when it came to hunting lions and other wild beasts]

 plurimum facere,
[he did a great deal]

[et] minimum ipse de se loqui.
[and for his part, he spoke the least about himself.]