Publius Cornelius Tacitus [Tacitus]
Latin (Imperial Era)
P. CORNELI TACITI ANNALIVM LIBER PRIMVS
 Urbem Romam a principio reges habuere; libertatem et consulatum L. Brutus instituit.
[In the beginning, kings ruled the city of Rome; Lucius Brutus was the founder of its liberty and government by the consul.]
dictaturae ad tempus sumebantur;
[Often times, a government ruled by a dictator was formed;]
neque decemviralis potestas ultra biennium, neque tribunorum militum consulare ius diu valuit.
[Neither did the power of the Decemviri last beyond 2 years, nor did the consul-upheld law of the military tribunes.]
non Cinnae, non Sullae longa dominatio;
[Neither Cinna nor Sulla's hegemony lasted long;]
et Pompei Crassique potentia cito in Caesarem, Lepidi atque Antonii arma in Augustum cessere, qui cuncta discordiis civilibus fessa nomine principis sub imperium accepit.
[and quickly did the power of Pompey and Crassus pass to Caesar, and the forces of Lepidus and Antony pass to Augustus, who received them all under his administration, by name of the emperor, because they were tired out from civil war.]
sed veteris populi Romani prospera vel adversa claris scriptoribus memorata sunt;
[but the prosperity of the older Roman generation, or their challenges, have been recorded by distinguished writers;]
temporibusque Augusti dicendis non defuere decora ingenia, donec gliscente adulatione deterrerentur.
[Celebrated minds were not missing from the period called the "Augustan", not untill they were scared out of their mind with fawning adulation.]
Tiberii Gaique et Claudii ac Neronis res florentibus ipsis ob metum falsae,
[The state of Tiberius, Gaius, Claudius and Nero were fake ones to those who began to succeed, because of fear,]
postquam occiderant, recentibus odiis compositae sunt.
[Afterward, they committed massacres, and these affairs have been settled by fresh causes of hatred.]
inde consilium mihi pauca de Augusto et extrema tradere,
[whenceforth I must explain the set-up as it regards Augustus, and the last parts of his government,]
mox Tiberii principatum et cetera,
[and soon after Tiberius' reign as emperor, and his other activities,]]
sine ira et studio, quorum causas procul habeo.
[without anger or bias, the causes of which I hold from afar.]
 Postquam Bruto et Cassio caesis nulla iam publica arma,
[After Brutus and Cassius were killed in battle, there were no longer any military belonging to the people]
Pompeius apud Siciliam oppressus exutoque Lepido,
[and <Sextus> Pompey was being pressed in the land of Sicily, and Lepidus had been taken out of the picture,]
[and when Antony was killed off]
ne Iulianis quidem partibus nisi Caesar dux reliquus,
[and there was nobody even left from the Julii party except their general, Caesar,]
posito triumviri nomine consulem se ferens
[promoting himself as a consul, after setting aside the title of triumvir]
et ad tuendam plebem tribunicio iure contentum,
[and positioning himself to look after the common folk through the legal power of the tribune]
ubi militem donis, populum annona, cunctos dulcedine otii pellexit,
[after which he won over the military with rewards, the people with a supply of food, and all the rest through the sweetness of peaceful times]
insurgere paulatim, munia senatus magistratuum legum in se trahere,
[little by litle, he began to rise in power, and take upon himself offices bestowed by the Senate, and the administration over the laws]
[with no one opposing]
cum ferocissimi per acies aut proscriptione cecidissent,
[since his most staunchest opponents had already died in battle, or through his hitlist]
ceteri nobilium, quanto quis servitio promptior, opibus et honoribus extollerentur
[and the rest of the noble class--as much as a person could be any more ready for his own submission--were promoted in rank in accompaniment with gifts and positions of power]
ac novis ex rebus aucti
[and having grown in status from these new arrangements]
tuta et praesentia quam vetera et periculosa mallent.
[now they began to prefer the safety of the present state over the dangers of the past one.]
neque provinciae illum rerum statum abnuebant,
[And the provinces did not refuse to accept this state of affairs,]
suspecto senatus populique imperio ob certamina potentium et avaritiam magistratuum,
[and people began to grow weary of the Senate and People's role over the government, on account of the rivalries between its powerbrokers, and the sheer greed of its administrators]
invalido legum auxilio
[and from the weak aid that the laws provided]
quae vi ambitu postremo pecunia turbabantur.
[laws which finally became useless by the force bribe money had over it.]
 Ceterum Augustus subsidia dominationi Claudium Marcellum sororis filium admodum adulescentem pontificatu et curuli aedilitate, M. Agrippam ignobilem loco, bonum militia et victoriae socium, geminatis consulatibus extulit,
[Furthermore did Augustus, with the aid of his hegemony over the state, promote Claudius Marcellus, his sister's son and still quite a young man, to the chair of the priesthood and administration of the curule aedile, and Marcus Agrippa, who was low-born in his station, but a valuable man in arms and the partner of his victory--he gave them both the office of consul]
mox defuncto Marcello generum sumpsit;
[and he soon took the latter under his wing as a son-in-law when Marcellus died;]
Tiberium Neronem et Claudium Drusum privignos imperatoriis nominibus auxit,
[And it gained Tiberius Nero, and Claudius Drusus, humble citizens, the titles of emperor,]
integra etiam tum domo sua.
[even at that time was were their affairs secure for their house.]
nam genitos Agrippa Gaium ac Lucium in familiam Caesarum induxerat,
[You see, Agrippa had introduced his sons Gaius and Lucius into the family of Caesar,]
necdum posita puerili praetexta principes iuventutis appellari,
destinari consules specie recusantis flagrantissime cupiverat.
[and he had desired they should be official granted the title of "leaders of the future generations", despite wearing their pueril garb, and most passionately of all, that they should be appointed consuls in the making.]
ut Agrippa vita concessit,
[Something which Agrippa conceded during his lifetime,]
Lucium Caesarem euntem ad Hispaniensis exercitus, Gaium remeantem Armenia et vulnere invalidum mors fato propera vel novercae Liviae dolus abstulit,
[but death, hurried by fate, or otherwise the scheming of their stepmother Livia ripped away Lucius Caesar, as he was going to join the armies in Spain, and Gaius, as he was returning from Armenia and fell ill from an injury.]
Drusoque pridem extincto Nero solus e privignis erat,
[Nero, on the day before, was left alone, with their name Drusus whiddled down from these bereavements,]
illuc cuncta vergere:
[so everything verged there:]
filius, collega imperii, consors tribuniciae potestatis adsumitur
[he a son, a colleague sharing control of the state, and a partner who assumed the tribunician power,]
omnisque per exercitus ostentatur,
[and he was given the opportunity to be showcased among all the armies,]
non obscuris, ut antea, matris artibus, sed palam hortatu.
[no thanks to the secret plans of his mother, as was the case before, but by her encouragement, now out in the open.]
nam senem Augustum devinxerat adeo,
[You see, he had beforehand won over Augustus, now an old man, so much]
uti nepotem unicum Agrippam Postumum, in insulam Planasiam proiecerit,
[that he cast his only grandson Agrippa Postumus in exile to the island Planasia,]
rudem sane bonarum artium et robore corporis stolide ferocem, nullius tamen flagitii conpertum.
[who was quite raw with good talents, and fierce-looking, from the solid physical strength of his body, and yet guilty of no ill deed.]
at hercule Germanicum Druso ortum octo apud Rhenum legionibus inposuit
[But, thank God he groomed and assigned Germanicus over eight legions in the Rhine]
adscirique per adoptionem a Tiberio iussit,
[and he ordered him to be given official recognition through his adoption by Tiberius,]
quamquam esset in domo Tiberii filius iuvenis,
[even though Tiberius had a young son living in his house,]
sed quo pluribus munimentis insisteret.
[but for whom he reserved a great deal of favors.]
bellum ea tempestate nullum nisi adversus Germanos supererat,
[In that period of time, no war got the best of him, except the one against the Germans,]
abolendae magis infamiae ob amissum cum Quintilio Varo exercitum
[more from the fact that he needed to extinguish the infamy that was caused by the army that was destroyed, along with Quintilius Varus]
quam cupidine proferendi imperii aut dignum ob praemium.
[from any desire to expand our empire, or to gain any worthy plunder in war.]
domi res tranquillae, eadem magistratuum vocabula;
[On the home front, things were peaceful, and the case was the same for the turnover of public officials;]