430 – 354 BC Athens
Attic Greek (Classical Period/Hellenistic Period)
[1.1] Σιμωνίδης ὁ ποιητὴς ἀφίκετό ποτε πρὸς Ἱέρωνα τὸν τύραννον.
[Simonides the poet, at some point in time, visited the tyrant ruler Hieron]
σχολῆς δὲ γενομένης ἀμφοῖν εἶπεν ὁ Σιμωνίδης·
[And Simonides, in a time of leisure, said between the two of them:]
Ἆρ᾽ ἄν μοι ἐθελήσαις, ὦ Ἱέρων, διηγήσασθαι ἃ εἰκὸς εἰδέναι σε βέλτιον ἐμοῦ;
["So now, Hieron, will you wish for me to reveal the things that I think you should best know?"]
Καὶ ποῖα ταῦτ᾽ ἐστίν,
ἔφη ὁ Ἱέρων, ὁποῖα δὴ ἐγὼ βέλτιον ἂν εἰδείην σοῦ οὕτως ὄντος σοφοῦ ἀνδρός;
[And Hiero responded, "And what kinds of things are these, such that I, for my part, should best know them, if indeed I understand you to be a wise man?]
[1.2] Οἶδά σε, ἔφη, ἐγὼ καὶ ἰδιώτην γεγενημένον καὶ νῦν τύραννον ὄντα·
[The other said, "I know that you were once born a humble citizen, and that you are now a tyrant ruler."
εἰκὸς οὖν ἀμφοτέρων πεπειραμένον καὶ εἰδέναι σε μᾶλλον ἐμοῦ πῆι διαφέρει ὁ τυραννικός τε καὶ ὁ ἰδιωτικὸς βίος εἰς εὐφροσύνας τε καὶ λύπας ἀνθρώποις.
[And so it best to know that you, since you have experience in both of these areas, should rather learn from me, how both the life of a tyrant and a humble citizen differs in respects to the good fortunes, and grievances, they bring to people.]
[1.3] Τί οὖν, ἔφη ὁ Ἱέρων, οὐχὶ καὶ σύ, ἐπεὶ νῦν γε ἔτι ἰδιώτης εἶ,
[Hiero responded, "So now, why don't you too, since at this point, you are still yet a private citizen, for you part,]
ὑπέμνησάς με τὰ ἐν τῶι ἰδιωτικῶι βίωι;
[recall to me the affairs that occur in a humble citizen's life?]
οὕτως γὰρ ἄν σοι οἶμαι μάλιστα ἐγὼ δύνασθαι δηλοῦν τὰ διαφέροντα ἐν ἑκατέρωι.
[You see, in such a fashion do I really, most of all, know how to understand the differences between these two things.]
[1.4] οὕτω δὴ ὁ Σιμωνίδης εἶπεν·
[And so, indeed, Simonides said:]
Τοὺς μὲν δὴ ἰδιώτας ἔγωγε, ὦ Ἱέρων, δοκῶ μοι καταμεμαθηκέναι διὰ μὲν τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν ὁράμασιν ἡδομένους τε καὶ ἀχθομένους,
[Well, on the one hand, I in fact, in my opinion, Hiero, think humble citizens to be esteemed, through the witnessing of our eyes, as both enjoying comforts, and suffering toils,]
διὰ δὲ τῶν ὤτων ἀκούσμασι,
[and as it falls to the accounts we hear through our ears,]
διὰ δὲ τῶν ῥινῶν ὀσμαῖς,
[and the smells we perceive in our noses,]
διὰ δὲ τοῦ στόματος σίτοις τε καὶ ποτοῖς,
[and the thirst and hungers we feel in our mouths,]
τὰ δ᾽ ἀφροδίσια δι᾽ ὧν δὴ πάντες ἐπιστάμεθα·
[and the sexual urges that we all, in fact, experience.]
[1.5] τὰ δὲ ψύχη καὶ θάλπη καὶ σκληρὰ καὶ μαλακὰ καὶ κοῦφα καὶ βαρέα ὅλωι τῶι σιωματί μοι δοκοῦμεν, ἔφη, κρίνοντες ἥδεσθαί τε καὶ λυπεῖσθαι ἐπ᾽ αὐτοῖς·
[Furthermore," he said, "the chills, the hot spells, roughness and softness, lightness and heaviness, these things do I perceive to occur in everyone's body, so that men can judge whether they are in a state of pleasure, or in pain, for themselves.]
ἀγαθοῖς δὲ καὶ κακοῖς ἔστι μὲν ὅτε δι᾽ αὐτῆς τῆς ψυχῆς μοι δοκοῦμεν ἥδεσθαι,
[And I think it right for good men and bad, for their mind to seek pleasure at times,]
ὁτὲ δ᾽ αὖ λυπεῖσθαι,
[and likewise for them to feel discomfort,]
ἔστι δ᾽ ὅτε κοινῆι [καὶ] διά τε τῆς ψυχῆς καὶ διὰ τοῦ σώματος.
[and there is a common bond between both the mind and the body.]